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Mechanical Behavior of Materials: Engineering Methods for Deformation, Fracture, and Fatigue
     

Mechanical Behavior of Materials: Engineering Methods for Deformation, Fracture, and Fatigue

by Norman E. Dowling
 

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ISBN-10: 0132256096

ISBN-13: 9780132256094

Pub. Date: 05/28/2009

Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall

This respected handbook introduces the entire spectrum of mechanical behavior of materials, emphasizing practical engineering methods for testing structural materials to obtain their properties, and predicting their strength and life when used for machines, vehicles, and structures. Features expanded discussions ofsafety factors, stress and strain,

Overview

This respected handbook introduces the entire spectrum of mechanical behavior of materials, emphasizing practical engineering methods for testing structural materials to obtain their properties, and predicting their strength and life when used for machines, vehicles, and structures. Features expanded discussions ofsafety factors, stress and strain, bending and torsion tests, unknown fiber fraction, 3-D stresses, and modified-Mohr and Coulomb-Mohr criteria. Also addresses maximum shear and octahedral shear criteria, load factor design, fatigue limits, notch sensitivity, R-ratio effects, mean stress relaxation, cyclic bending, mean stresses, and time-temperature parameters. Coverage of fracture mechanics allows readers to analyze the effect of cracks on strength and life without requiring advanced mathematics. Employs actual laboratory data in illustrations, examples, and problems, giving readers realistic impressions as to the actual values and behavior for the material involved. A useful reference for practicing engineers.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780132256094
Publisher:
Pearson Prentice Hall
Publication date:
05/28/2009

Table of Contents

Preface, xi

Acknowledgements, xvii

1 Introduction, 1

1.1 Introduction, 1

1.2 Types of Material Failure, 2

1.3 Design and Materials Selection, 11

1.4 Technological Challenge, 16

1.5 Economy Importance of Fracture, 16

1.6 Summary, 19

References, 20

Problems and Questions, 21

2 Structure and Deformation in Materials, 23

2.1 Introduction, 23

2.2 Bonding in Solids, 25

2.3 Structure in Crystalline Materials, 29

2.4 Elastic Deformation and Theoretical Strength, 33

2.5 Inelastic Deformation, 38

2.6 Summary, 44

References, 45

Problems and Questions, 46

3 A Survey of Engineering Materials, 48

3.1 Introduction, 48

3.2 Alloying and Processing of Metals, 49

3.3 Irons and Steels, 55

3.4 Nonferrous Metals, 63

3.5 Polymers, 67

3.6 Ceramics and Glasses, 77

3.7 Composite Materials, 84

3.8 Materials Selection for Engineering Components, 89

3.9 Summary, 94

References, 97

Problems and Questions, 98

4 Mechanical Testing: Tension Test and Other Basic Tests, 102

4.1 Introduction, 102

4.2 Introduction to Tension Test, 108

4.3 Engineering Stress-Strain Properties, 109

4.4 Trends in Tensile Behavior, 119

4.5 True Stress-Strain Interpretation of Tension Test, 125

4.6 Compression Test, 135

4.7 Hardness Tests, 139

4.8 Notch-Impact Tests, 148

4.9 Bending and Torsion Tests, 152

4.10 Summary, 155

References, 157

Problems and Questions, 158

5 Stress-Strain Relationships and Behavior, 166

5.1 Introduction, 166

5.2 Models for Deformation Behavior, 167

5.3 Elastic Deformation, 177

5.4 Anisotropic Materials, 188

5.5 Summary, 196

References, 199

Problems and Questions, 199

6 Review of Complex and PrincipalStates and Strain, 205

6.1 Introduction, 205

6.2 Plane Stress, 206

6.3 Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stress, 222

6.4 Three-Dimensional States of Stress, 214

6.5 Stresses on the Octahedral Planes, 228

6.6 Complex States of Strain, 229

6.7 Summary, 233

References, 235

Problems and Questions, 235

7 Yielding and Fracture under Combined Stresses, 239

7.1 Introduction, 239

7.2 General Form of Failure Criteria, 241

7.3 Maximum Normal Stress Fracture Criterion, 243

7.4 Maximum Shear Stress Yield Criterion, 245

7.5 Octahedral Shear Stress Yield Criterion, 251

7.6 Discussion of the Basic Failure criteria, 256

7.7 Coulomb-Mohr Fracture Criterion, 262

7.8 Modified Mohr Fracture Criterion, 268

7.9 Additional Comments on Failure Criteria, 273

7.10 Summary, 278

References, 280

Problems and Questions, 281

8 Fracture of Cracked Members, 286

8.1 Introduction, 286

8.2 Preliminary Discussion, 288

8.3 Mathematical Concepts, 295

8.4 Application of K to Design and Analysis, 300

8.5 Additional Topics on Application of K, 307

8.6 Fracture Toughness Values and Trends, 317

8.7 Plastic Zone Size, and Plasticity Limitations on LEFM, 327

8.8 Discussion of Fracture Toughness Testing, 335

8.9 Extensions of Fracture Mechanics Beyond Linear Elasticity, 337

8.10 Summary, 344

References, 347

Problems and Questions, 349

9 Fatigue of Materials: Introduction and Stress-Based Approach, 357

9.1 Introduction, 357

9.2 Definitions and Concepts, 358

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading, 368

9.4 Fatigue Testing, 371

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage, 375

9.6 Trends in S-N Curves, 380

9.7 Mean Stresses, 388

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses, 396

9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading, 401

9.10 Summary, 410

References, 412

Problems and Questions, 413

10 Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue: Notched Members, 420

10.1 Introduction, 420

10.2 Notch Effects, 421

10.3 Notch Sensitivity and Empirical Estimates of kf, 426

10.4 Estimating Long-Life Fatigue Strengths (Fatigue Limits), 441

10.5 Notch Effects at Intermediate and Short Lives, 431

10.6 Combined Effects of Notches and Mean Stress, 434

10.7 Estimating S-N Curves, 444

10.8 Use of Component S-N Data, 451

10.9 Designing to Avoid Fatigue Failure, 461

10.10 Discussion, 472

10.11 Summary, 474

References, 476

Problems and Questions, 477

11 Fatigue Crack Growth, 488

11.1 Introduction, 488

11.2 Preliminary Discussion, 489

11.3 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Testing, 497

11.4 Effects of R = Smin /Smax on Fatigue Crack Growth, 501

11.5 Trends in Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior, 512

11.6 Life Estimates for Constant Amplitude Loading, 516

11.7 Life Estimates for Variable Amplitude Loading, 527

11.8 Design Considerations, 533

11.9 Plasticity Aspects and Limitations of LEFM for Fatigue Crack Growth, 535

11.10 Environmental Crack Growth, 542

11.11 Summary, 547

References, 549

Problems and Questions, 550

12 Plastic Deformation Behavior and Models for Materials, 559

12.1 Introduction, 559

12.2 Stress-Strain Curves, 562

12.3 Three-Dimensional Stress-Strain Relationships, 570

12.4 Unloading and Cyclic Loading Behavior from Rheological Models, 578

12.5 Cyclic Loading Behavior of Real Materials, 585

12.6 Summary, 595

References, 598

Problems and Questions, 598

13 Stress-Strain Analysis of Plastically Deforming Members, 603

13.1 Introduction, 603

13.2 Plasticity in Bending, 604

13.3 Residual Stresses and Strains for Bending, 613

13.4 Plasticity of Circular Shafts in Torsion, 618

13.5 Notched Members, 622

13.6 Cyclic Loading, 633

13.7 Summary, 641

References, 643

Problems and Questions, 644

14 Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue, 649

14.1 Introduction, 649

14.2 Strain-Versus-Life Curves, 651

14.3 Mean Stress Effects, 662

14.4 Multiaxial Stress Effects, 669

14.5 Life Estimates for Structural Components, 673

14.6 Discussion, 686

14.7 Summary, 693

References, 695

Problems and Questions, 697

15 Time-Dependent Behavior: Creep and Damping, 706

15.1 Introduction, 706

15.2 Creep Testing, 708

15.3 Physical Mechanisms of Creep, 714

15.4 Time-Temperature Parameters and Life Estimates, 724

15.5 Creep Failure under Varying Stress, 734

15.6 Stress-Strain-Time Relationships, 735

15.7 Creep Deformation under Varying Stress, 742

15.8 Creep under Multiaxial Stress, 749

15.9 Component Stress-Strain Analysis, 752

15.10 Energy Dissipation (Damping) in Materials, 757

15.11 Summary, 766

References, 769

Problems and Questions, 770

App. A Review of Selected Topics from Mechanics of Materials, 779

A.1 Introduction, 779

A.2 Basic Formulas for Stresses and Deflections, 779

A.3 Properties of Areas, 780

A.4 Shears, Moments, and Deflections in Beams, 783

A.5 Stresses in Pressure Vessels, Tubes, and Discs, 785

A.6 Elastic Stress Concentration Factors for Notches, 787

A.7 Fully Yielding Loads, 787

References, 797

App. B Statistical Variation in Materials Properties, 798

B.1 Introduction, 798

B.2 Mean and Standard Deviation, 799

B.3 Normal or Gaussian Distribution, 800

B.4 Typical Variation in Materials Properties, 803

B.5 One-Sided Tolerance Limits, 804

B.6 Discussion, 806

References, 806

Bibliography, 807

Index, 819

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