Mechanical Design in Organisms / Edition 1

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Overview

This book deals with an interface between mechanical engineering and biology. Available for the first time in paperback, it reviews biological structural materials and systems and their mechanically important features and demonstrates that function at any particular level of biological integration is permitted and controlled by structure at lower levels of integration.

Five chapters discuss the properties of materials in general and those of biomaterials in particular. The authors examine the design of skeletal elements and discuss animal and plant systems in terms of mechanical design. In a concluding chapter they investigate organisms in their environments and the insights gained from study of the mechanical aspects of their lives.

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Editorial Reviews

The Quarterly Review of Biology
One of the most useful and important books I have reviewed. The designer of a bridge needs to know the strength of his steel or concrete and he needs to know how forces are transmitted through structures.... A biologist studying an animal or plant structure cannot understand it fully without the same sort of knowledge.
From the Publisher
"One of the most useful and important books I have reviewed. The designer of a bridge needs to know the strength of his steel or concrete and he needs to know how forces are transmitted through structures. . . . A biologist studying an animal or plant structure cannot understand it fully without the same sort of knowledge."—Quarterly Review of Biology
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780691083087
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 7/1/1982
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 423
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface v
Acknowledgement vi
List of symbols xii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Part I Materials 5
Chapter 2A Principles of the strength of materials: Phenomenological description 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Stress and Strain 7
2.3 Linear Elasticity 8
2.4 The Elastic Moduli 9
2.5 Poisson's Ratio 11
2.6 Elastic Resilience--Stored Energy 12
2.7 Elastic Stress Concentrations 15
2.8 Fracture of Linearly Elastic Solids 18
2.9 Summary of Properties of Linearly Elastic Solids 22
2.10 Viscosity and Relaxation 23
2.11 Linear Viscoelasticity 25
2.12 Creep and Stress Relaxation 27
2.13 Effect of Temperature 29
2.14 The Glass Transition 30
2.15 Dynamic Behaviour 31
2.16 Viscoelastic Models 33
2.17 Retardation and Relaxation Spectra 36
2.18 Fracture of Viscoelastic Materials 39
2.19 Generalization of the Griffith Theory of Fracture 41
2.20 Summary of Properties of Viscoelastic Materials 43
Chapter 2B Principles of the strength of materials: Molecular interpretation 45
2.21 Introduction 45
2.22 Thermodynamics of Mechanical Deformation 45
2.23 Linear Elasticity 47
2.24 The Structure of Polymers 50
2.25 Statistics of a Polymer Chain 51
2.26 Rubber Elasticity 54
2.27 Molecular Interpretations of Rubbery Polymers 57
2.28 Molecular Structure and the Master Curve 60
Chapter 3 Tensile materials 64
3.1 Introduction to Crystalline Polymers 64
3.1.1 Factors Affecting Crystallinity in Polymers 64
3.1.2 The Structure of Polymer Crystals 67
3.1.3 Mechanical Properties of Crystalline Polymers 71
3.2 Silk 73
3.2.1 The Structure of Parallel-[beta] Silks 73
3.2.2 The Mechanical Properties of Silks 77
3.2.3 Other Types of Silk 80
3.3 Collagen 81
3.3.1 The Structure of Collagen 82
3.3.2 Mechanical Properties of Collagen Fibres 88
3.4 Cellulose 94
3.4.1 The Structure of Cellulose 95
3.4.2 Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Fibres 99
3.5 Chitin 104
3.5.1 The Structure of Chitin 105
3.5.2 Mechanical Properties of Chitin Fibres 107
Chapter 4 Pliant materials 110
4.1 Introduction 110
4.2 The Protein Rubbers 110
4.2.1 Resilin 111
4.2.2 Abductin 114
4.2.3 Elastin 116
4.3 The Mucopolysaccharides 119
4.4 Pliant Composites 123
4.4.1 Fibre Patterns in Pliant Composites 124
4.4.2 The Role of the Amorphous Phase 126
4.5 Mesoglea 127
4.6 Uterine Cervix 130
4.7 Skin 132
4.8 Arterial Wall 134
4.9 Cartilage 138
4.10 Mechanical Properties of Cartilage 141
Chapter 5 Rigid materials 144
5.1 Introduction 144
5.2 Limiting Behaviour of Composite Materials 144
5.3 Elastic Fibres in a Matrix 147
5.4 Discontinuous Fibres 149
5.5 Effect of Fibre Orientation 150
5.6 Compression of Composite Materials 153
5.7 Fracture of Composite Materials 154
5.8 Voids 157
5.9 Structure of Arthropod Cuticle 159
5.10 Mechanical Properties of Arthropod Cuticle 164
5.11 Structure of Bone 169
5.12 Mechanical Properties of Bone 174
5.12.1 Main Features of Behaviour in Relation to Structure 175
5.12.2 Anisotropic Behaviour of Bone 180
5.12.3 Stress Concentrations in Bone 181
5.12.4 The Effect of Mineralization on Bone 183
5.12.5 Fatigue in Bone 184
5.12.6 Adaptive Growth and Reconstruction in Bone 185
5.13 Keratin 187
5.14 Gorgonin and Antipathin 191
5.15 Structure of the Plant Cell Wall 194
5.15.1 Cell Wall Structure in Nitella 196
5.15.2 The Tracheid 196
5.16 Mechanical Properties of Cell Walls 198
5.17 Structure of Wood 202
5.18 Mechanical Properties of Wood 203
5.19 Stony Materials 207
5.19.1 Porifera 207
5.19.2 Cnidaria 210
5.19.3 Mollusca 211
5.19.4 Brachiopoda 214
5.19.5 Arthropoda 216
5.19.6 Echinodermata 216
5.19.7 Birds' Eggshells 218
5.19.8 Spicules: Mechanical Considerations 219
5.19.9 Teeth 221
5.20 Mechanical Properties of Stony Materials 224
5.20.1 Grain Size 225
5.20.2 Porosity 227
5.20.3 The Function of the Organic Matrix 229
5.20.4 Stony Skeletons with Many Holes 233
5.21 Rigid Skeletal Materials: some Final Remarks 234
Part II Structural Elements and Systems 241
Chapter 6 Elements of structural systems 243
6.1 Introduction 243
6.2 Bending 244
6.3 Compression and Buckling 249
6.4 Torsion 253
6.5 Cross-Sectional Shape 254
6.6 Shells 261
6.7 Materials for Minimum Weight 264
6.8 Principles of Structural Optimization 268
6.9 The Failure of Elements (and Shells) 269
6.10 Joints 275
6.10.1 Degrees of Freedom 275
6.10.2 Forces and Directions 277
6.10.3 Flexible Joints 278
6.10.4 Sliding Joints 279
6.11 Adaptation of Shape 280
6.12 Adaptation of Material 283
Chapter 7 Support in organisms 287
7.1 Introduction to Rigid and Flexible Systems 287
7.1.1 The Optimization of Space Frames 289
7.1.2 Fibre-wound Cylinders as Reinforced Membrane Sytems 293
7.2 Design Principles for Biological Structural Systems 297
7.3 Real Organisms: An Overview 299
7.3.1 Symmetry 299
7.3.2 Reaction to Force 299
7.4 Fluid Support Systems in Plants and Animals 302
7.4.1 High-Pressure Worms 302
7.4.2 Low-Pressure Worms 304
7.5 Open, Extensible Cylinders: Sea Anemones 306
7.5.1 Hydra and Other Polyps 308
7.5.2 Medusae 310
7.5.3 Tube Feet 313
7.5.4 Metamerism 316
7.6 On Being Surrounded by Air 318
7.6.1 Wilting Plants 318
7.6.2 Woody Plants 320
7.6.3 Reaction Wood 321
7.6.4 Fibre-reinforced Palm Trees 324
7.7 The Hydrostatic Onychophora 325
7.8 Jointed Frameworks of Solid Materials 327
7.8.1 Running and Burrowing Myriapods 327
7.8.2 Insects 332
7.9 Complex Support Systems: Molluscs and Echinoderms 333
7.10 Squid Locomotion 334
7.11 Backbones 337
7.12 Stressed Tissues 339
7.13 Safety Factors 340
Part III Ecomechanics 345
Chapter 8 Ecological mechanics 347
8.1 Introduction 347
8.2 The Stressful Environment 348
8.2.1 Adaptations to Gravity (Mass) 348
8.2.2 Adaptations to Velocity of Flow (Strength and Rigidity) 349
8.2.3 Rigid Stony Corals 349
8.2.4 Compliant and Tensile Grasses, Seaweeds and Spider Webs 349
8.2.5 Drag Control in Air: Trees 355
8.2.6 Drag Control in Water: Passive Suspension Feeders 355
8.2.7 Adaptations to Direction of Flow (Anisotropy) 358
8.2.8 Adaptations to Duration and Frequency of Flow (Stress Rate and Fatigue) 364
8.2.9 Meiofauna and the Stormy Interstices 364
8.3 Active Suspension Feeders 365
8.4 The Informative Environment 365
8.4.1 Chemical Information 365
8.4.2 Thermal Information 365
8.4.3 Rheological Information 367
8.5 The Next Few Years 367
References--Author Index 369
Subject Index 395
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