Mechanical Microsensors / Edition 1

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This book provides a comprehensive description of microsensors for mechanical quantities (flow, pressure, force, inertia) fabricated by silicon micromachining. Since the design of such sensors requires interdisciplinary teamwork, the presentation is made accessible to engineers trained in electrical and mechanical engineering, physics and chemistry. The reader is guided through the micromachining fabrication process. A chapter on microsensor packaging completes the discussion of technological problems. The description of the basic physics required for sensor design includes the mechanics of deformation and the piezoresistive transduction to electrical signals. There is also a comprehensive discussion of resonant sensors, the hydrodynamics and heat transfer relevant for flow sensors, and, finally, electronic interfacing and readout circuitry. Numerous up-to-date case studies are presented, together with the working, fabrication and design of the sensors.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Mechanical Microsensors provides a comprehensive description of the various design techniques required for silicon micromachining of sensors. This is a very well written book which has a pleasant balance of mathematical, physics and engineering principles, that make this book suitable for physicists, chemistry, electrical and mechanical engineers."


"Of particular value is the fact that the authors go further than the description of the silicon sensor elements and also present solutions on how to interface these sensors to the surrounding world - electronically in the chapter on 'Electronic Interfacing' as well as physically in the chapter on 'Packaging'. To summarize, this textbook gives a comprehensive overview of mechanical microsensors which is especially well suited for students in courses on mechanical microsensors, but is also valuable for people in research and industry with an interest in this exciting and growing field."


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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642087066
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/7/2010
  • Series: Microtechnology and MEMS Series
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2001
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 295
  • Product dimensions: 0.65 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 6.14 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 2. MEMS.- 2.1 Miniaturisation and Systems.- 2.2 Examples for MEMS.- 2.2.1 Bubble Jet.- 2.2.2 Actuators.- 2.2.3 Micropumps.- 2.3 Small and Large: Scaling.- 2.3.1 Electromagnetic Forces.- 2.3.2 Coulomb Friction.- 2.3.3 Mechanical Strength.- 2.3.4 Dynamic Properties.- 2.4 Available Fabrication Technology.- 2.4.1 Technologies Based on Lithography.- Silicon Micromachining.- LIGA.- 2.4.2 Miniaturisation of Conventional Technologies.- 3. Introduction into Silicon Micromachining.- 3.1 Photolithography.- 3.2 Thin Film Deposition and Doping.- 3.2.1 Silicon Dioxide.- 3.2.2 Chemical Vapour Deposition.- 3.2.3 Evaporation.- 3.2.4 Sputterdeposition.- 3.2.5 Doping.- 3.3 Wet Chemical Etching.- 3.3.1 Isotropic Etching.- 3.3.2 Anisotropic Etching.- 3.3.3 Etch Stop.- 3.4 Waferbonding.- 3.4.1 Anodic Bonding.- 3.4.2 Silicon Fusion Bonding.- 3.5 Plasma Etching.- 3.5.1 Plasma.- 3.5.2 Anisotropic Plasma Etching Modes.- 3.5.3 Configurations.- 3.5.4 Black Silicon Method.- 3.6 Surface Micromachining.- 3.6.1 Thin Film Stress.- 3.6.2 Sticking.- 4. Mechanics of Membranes and Beams.- 4.1 Dynamics of the Mass Spring System.- 4.2 Strings.- 4.3 Beams.- 4.3.1 Stress and Strain.- 4.3.2 Bending Energy.- 4.3.3 Radius of Curvature.- 4.3.4 Lagrange Function of a Flexible Beam.- 4.3.5 Differential Equation for Beams.- 4.3.6 Boundary Conditions for Beams.- 4.3.7 Examples.- 4.3.8 Mechanical Stability.- 4.3.9 Transversal Vibration of Beams.- 4.4 Diaphragms and Membranes.- 4.4.1 Circular Diaphragms.- 4.4.2 Square Membranes.- Appendix 4.1: Buckling of Bridges.- 5. Principles of Measuring Mechanical Quantities: Transduction of Deformation.- 5.1 Metal Strain Gauges.- 5.2 Semiconductor Strain Gauges.- 5.2.1 Piezoresistive Effect in Single Crystalline Silicon.- 5.2.2 Piezoresistive Effect in Polysilicon Thin Films.- 5.2.3 Transduction from Deformation to Resistance.- 5.3 Capacitive Transducers.- 5.3.1 Electromechanics.- 5.3.2 Diaphragm Pressure Sensors.- 6. Force and Pressure Sensors.- 6.1 Force Sensors.- 6.1.1 Load Cells.- 6.2 Pressure Sensors.- 6.2.1 Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors.- 6.2.2 Capacitive Pressure Sensors.- 6.2.3 Force Compensation Pressure Sensors.- 6.2.4 Resonant Pressure Sensors.- 6.2.5 Miniature Microphones.- 6.2.6 Tactile Imaging Arrays.- 7. Acceleration and Angular Rate Sensors.- 7.1 Acceleration Sensors.- 7.1.1 Introduction.- 7.1.2 Bulk Micromachined Accelerometers.- 7.1.3 Surface Micromachined Accelerometers.- 7.1.4 Force Feedback.- 7.2 Angular Rate Sensors.- 8. Flow sensors.- 8.1 The Laminar Boundary Layer.- 8.1.1 The Navier-Stokes Equations.- 8.1.2 Heat Transport.- 8.1.3 Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer.- 8.1.4 Thermal Boundary Layer.- 8.1.5 Skin Friction and Heat Transfer.- 8.2 Heat Transport in the Limit of Very Small Reynolds Numbers.- 8.3 Thermal Flow Sensors.- 8.3.1 Anemometer Type Flow Sensors.- 8.3.2 Two-Wire Anemometers.- 8.3.3 Calorimetric Type Flow Sensors.- 8.3.4 Sound Intensity Sensors — The Microflown.- 8.3.5 Time of Flight Sensors.- 8.4 Skin Friction Sensors.- 8.5 “Dry Fluid Flow” Sensors.- 8.6 “Wet Fluid Flow” Sensors.- 9. Resonant Sensors.- 9.1 Basic Principles and Physics.- 9.1.1 Introduction.- 9.1.2 The Differential Equation of a Prismatic Microbridge.- 9.1.3 Solving the Homogeneous, Undamped Problem using Laplace Transforms.- 9.1.4 Solving the Inhomogeneous Problem by Modal Analysis.- 9.1.5 Response to Axial Loads.- 9.1.6 Quality Factor.- 9.1.7 Nonlinear Large-Amplitude Effects.- 9.2 Excitation and Detection Mechanisms.- 9.2.1 Electrostatic Excitation and Capacitive Detection.- 9.2.2 Magnetic Excitation and Detection.- 9.2.3 Piezoelectric Excitation and Detection.- 9.2.4 Electrothermal Excitation and Piezoresistive Detection.- 9.2.5 Optothermal Excitation and Optical Detection.- 9.2.6 Dielectric Excitation and Detection.- 9.3 Examples and Applications.- 10. Electronic Interfacing.- 10.1 Piezoresistive Sensors.- 10.1.1 Wheatstone Bridge Configurations.- 10.1.2 Amplification of the Bridge Output Voltage.- 10.1.3 Noise and Offset.- 10.1.4 Feedback Control Loops.- 10.1.5 Interfacing with Digital Systems.- Analog-to-Digital Conversion.- Voltage to Frequency Converters.- 10.2 Capacitive Sensors.- 10.2.1 Impedance Bridges.- 10.2.2 Capacitance Controlled Oscillators.- 10.3 Resonant Sensors.- 10.3.1 Frequency Dependent Behavior of Resonant Sensors.- 10.3.2 Realizing an Oscillator.- 10.3.3 One-Port Versus Two-Port Resonators.- 10.3.4 Oscillator Based on One-Port Electrostatically Driven Beam Resonator.- 10.3.5 Oscillator Based on Two-Port Electrodynamically Driven H-shaped Resonator.- 11. Packaging.- 11.1 Packaging Techniques.- 11.1.1 Standard Packages.- 11.1.2 Chip Mounting Methods.- 11.1.2 Wafer Level Packaging.- 11.1.3 Interconnection Techniques.- 11.1.4 Multichip Modules.- 11.1.5 Encapsulation Processes.- 11.2 Stress Reduction.- 11.3 Pressure Sensors.- 11.4 Inertial Sensors.- 11.5 Thermal Flow Sensors.- References.

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This book on mechanical microsensors is based on a course organized by the Swiss Foundation for Research in Microtechnology (FSRM) in Neuchatel, Switzerland, and developed and taught by the authors. Support by FSRM is herewith gratefully acknowledged.

This book attempts to serve two purposes. First it gives an overview on mechanical microsensors (sensors for pressure, force, acceleration, angular rate and fluid flow, realized by silicon micromachining). Second, it serves as a textbook for engineers to give them a comprehensive introduction on the basic design issues of these sensors. Engineers active in sensor design are usually educated either in electrical engineering or mechanical engineering. These classical educational programs do not prepare the engineer for the challenging task of sensor design since sensors are instruments typically bridging the disciplines: one needs a rather deep understanding of both mechanics and electronics. Accordingly, the book contains discussion of the basic engineering sciences relevant to mechanical sensors, hopefully in a way that it is accessible for all colours of engineers. Engineering students in their 3`d or 4`" year should have enough knowledge to be able to follow the arguments presented in this book. In this sense, this book should be useful as textbook for students in courses on mechanical microsensors (as is currently being done at the University of Twente).

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