Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 8

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Overview

It's no secret today's media landscape is evolving at a fast and furious pace — and students are experiencing these developments firsthand. While students are familiar with and may be using the latest products and newest formats, they may not understand how the media has evolved to this point or what all these changes mean. This is where Media and Culture steps in. The eighth edition pulls back the curtain and shows students how the media really works, giving students the deeper insight and context they need to become informed media critics.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312644659
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 2/23/2011
  • Edition description: Eighth Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 616
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

RICHARD CAMPBELL, director of the journalism program at Miami University, is the author of 60 Minutes and the News: A Mythology for Middle America (1991) and coauthor of Cracked Coverage: Television News, the Anti-Cocaine Crusade and the Reagan Legacy (1994). Campbell has written for numerous publications including Columbia Journalism Review, Journal of Communication, and Media Studies Journal and he is on the editorial board of Critical Studies in Mass Communication and Television Quarterly. As a writer and media critic, he is a frequent speaker on public radio and television.
 
CHRISTOPHER R. MARTIN is professor of journalism at University of Northern Iowa and author of Framed! Labor and the Corporate Media (2003). He has written articles and reviews on journalism, televised sports, the Internet, and labor for several publications including Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Communication Inquiry, Labor Studies Journal, and Culture, Sport, and Society.
 
BETTINA FABOS, an award-winning video maker and former print reporter, is an associate professor of Visual Communication and interactive media studies at University of Northern Iowa. She is the author of Wrong Turn on the Information Superhighway: Education and the Commercialized Internet (2003). Her areas of expertise include critical media literacy, Internet commercialization, the role of the internet in education, and media representations of popular culture.

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Table of Contents

PART 1: MASS MEDIA AND THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
 
1. Mass Communication: A Critical Approach
Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication
Oral and Written Eras in Communication
The Print Revolution
The Electronic and Digital Eras
     The Electronic Age
     The Digital Age
Media Convergence in the Digital Era
     The Dual Roles of Media Convergence
     Media Businesses in a Converged World
Mass Media and the Process Of Communication
The Evolution of a New Mass Medium
The Linear Model of Mass Communication
A Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communication
Stories: The Foundation of Media
The Power of Media in Everyday Life
Surveying the Cultural Landscape
Culture as a Skyscraper
     An Inability to Appreciate Fine Art
     Exploiting High Culture
     A Throw-Away Ethic
     A Diminished Audience for High Culture
     Corrupting Political Discourse and Blocking Social Change
Culture as a Matrix
     The Comfort of Familiar Stories
     Innovation and the Attraction of “What's New”
     A Wide Range of Messages
     Challenging the Nostalgia for a Better Past
Cultural Values of the Modern Period
     Working Efficiently
     Celebrating the Individual
     Believing in a Rational Order
     Rejecting Tradition/Embracing Progress
Shifting Values in Postmodern Culture
    Celebrating Populism
     Recycling Culture
     Questioning Science and Revering Nostalgia
     Acknowledging Paradox

Critiquing Media and Culture
Media Literacy and the Critical Process
Benefits of a Critical Perspective
 
 2. The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence
The Evolution Of The Internet
The Birth of the Internet
The Net Widens
Web 1.0: The World Begins to Browse
The Commercial Structure of the Web
     Internet Service Providers
     Web Browsing
     E-mail
     Directories and Search Engines

Web 2.0
     Instant Messaging
     Blogs
     Wiki Web Sites
     Social Media Sites
The Internet Today: From Media Convergence to Web 3.0
Media Convergence
     Media Converges on our PCs
     Smartphones and Touchscreen Technology
Web 3.0
The Next Era: Faster and Wider Access
Video Games and Interactive Environments
Online Gaming
     MMORPGs and Virtual Worlds
     Consoles, Handheld Devices and Convergence
The Economics and Effects of Gaming
The Future of Gaming Technology
The Economics and Issues of the Internet
Ownership: Dividing up the Web
     Google
     Microsoft
     Yahoo!
     Facebook
Targeted Advertising and Data Mining
Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private
     Government Surveillance
     Online Fraud

Appropriateness: What Should Be Online?
Access: The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide
Alternative Voices
     Open-Source Software
     Digital Archiving

The Internet and Democracy
 
PART 2: SOUNDS AND IMAGES

3. Sound Recording and Popular Music
The Development of Sound Recording
From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium
Sound Recording and Popular Music
From Phonographs to CDs: Analog Goes Digital
Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age
     MP3s and File Sharing
     The Future: Music in the Stream, Music in the Cloud
The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio
U.S. Popular Music and the Formation of Rock
The Rise of Pop Music
Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay
     Blues and R&B: The Foundation of Rock and Roll
     Youth Culture Cements Rock and Roll's Place
     Racial Integration Expands Rock and Roll
Rock Muddies the Waters
     High and Low Culture
     Masculinity and Femininity
     The Country and the City
     The North and the South
     The Sacred and the Secular
Battles in Rock and Roll
     White Cover Music Undermines Black Artists
     Payola Scandals Tarnish Rock and Roll
     Fears of Corruption Lead to Censorship
A Changing Industry: Reformations in Popular Music
The British Are Coming!
Motor City Music: Detroit Gives America Soul
Folk and Psychedelic Music Reflect the Times
     Folk Inspires Protest
     Rock Turns Psychedelic
Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock
     Punk Revives Rock's Rebelliousness
     Grunge and Alternative Reinterpret Rock
Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines
The Reemergence of Pop
The Business of Sound Recording
Music Labels Influence the Industry
     Fewer Major Labels Control More Music
     The Indies Spot the Trends
Making, Selling, and Profiting from Music
     Making the Music
     Selling the Music
     Dividing the Profits
Alternative Voices
     Independent Record Labels
     The Internet and Promoting Music
Sound Recording, Free Expression, and Democracy

4. Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting
Early Technology and The Development Of Radio
Maxwell and Hertz Discover Radio Waves
Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy
Wireless Telephony: De Forest and Fessenden
Regulating a New Medium
     Radio Waves as a Natural Resource
     The Impact of World War I
     The Formation of RCA
The Evolution of Radio
The RCA Partnership Unravels
Sarnoff and NBC: Building the “Blue” and “Red” Networks
Government Scrutiny Ends RCA-NBC Monopoly
CBS and Paley: Challenging NBC
Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927
The Golden Age of Radio
     Early Radio Programming
     Radio Programming as a Cultural Mirror
     The Authority of Radio
Radio Reinvents Itself
Transistors Make Radio Portable
The FM Revolution and Edwin Armstrong
The Rise of Format and Top 40 Radio
Resisting the Top 40
The Sounds of Commercial Radio
Format Specialization
     News, Information and Talk Radio
     Music Formats
Nonprofit Radio and NPR
     The Early Years of Nonprofit Radio
     Creation of the First Noncommercial Networks
New Radio Technologies Offer More Stations
     Satellite Radio
     HD Radio
Radio and Convergence
     Internet Radio
     Podcasting and Portable Listening
The Economics of Broadcast Radio
Local and National Advertising
Manipulating Playlists with Payola
Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation
Alternative Voices
Radio and the Democracy of the Airwaves
 
5. Television & Cable: The Power of Visual Culture
The Origins and Development of Television
Early Innovations in TV Technology
     Electronic Technology: Zworykin and Farnsworth
     Setting Technical Standards
     Assigning Frequencies and Freezing TV Licenses
     The Introduction of Color Television
Controlling Content-TV Grows Up
     Program Format Changes Inhibit Sponsorship
     The Rise and Fall of Quiz-Shows
     The Quiz-Show Scandal Hurts the Promise of TV
The Development of Cable
CATV-Community Antenna Television
The Wires and Satellites behind Cable Television
able Threatens Broadcasting
Cable Services
     Basic Cable Services
     Premium Cable Services
DBS: Cable without Wires
Major Programming Trends
TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture
     Sketch Comedy
     Situation Comedy
     Domestic Comedy
TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture
     Anthology Drama
     Episodic Series
TV Information: Our Daily News Culture
     NBC News
     CBS News
     ABC News
     Cable News Changes the Game

Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends 
Public Television Struggles to Find its Place
Regulatory Challenges to Television And Cable
Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control
Balancing Cable's Growth against Broadcasters' Interests
     Must-Carry Rules
     Access-Channel Mandates
     Cable's Role: Electronic Publisher or Common Carrier?
Franchising Frenzy
The Telecommunications Act of 1996
Technology and Third Screens Change Viewing Habits
Home Video
Convergence: TV and the Internet-the Third Screen
Fourth Screens? Smart Phones and Mobile Video
The Economics and Ownership of Television and Cable
Production
Distribution
Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going . . .
     Types of Syndication
     Barter vs. Cash Deals
Measuring Television Viewing
     Calculating Ratings and Shares
      Impact of Ratings and Shares on Programming
      Assessing Today's Markets

The Major Programming Corporations
     The Major Broadcast Networks
     Major Cable and DBS Companies
     The Effects of Consolidation

Alternative Voices
Television, Cable, and Democracy
 
6. Movies and the Impact of Images
Early Technology and the Evolution Of Movies
The Development of Film
     Muybridge and Goodwin Make Pictures Move
     Edison and the Lumières Create Motion Pictures
The Introduction of Narrative
The Arrival of Nickelodeons
The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System
Production
Distribution
Exhibition
The Studio System's Golden Age
Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era
The Introduction of Sound
The Development of the Hollywood Style
     Hollywood Narratives
     Hollywood Genres
     Hollywood “Authors”
Outside the Hollywood System
     Global Cinema
     The Documentary Tradition
     The Rise of Independent Films

The Transformation of the Studio System
The Hollywood Ten
The Paramount Decision
Moving to the Suburbs
Television Changes Hollywood
Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment
The Economics of the Movie Business
Production, Distribution, and Exhibition Today
     Making Money on Movies Today
     Theater Chains Consolidate Exhibition
The Major Studio Players
Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Internet Age
Alternative Voices
Popular Movies and Democracy
 
PART 3: WORDS AND PICTURES
 
7. Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism
The Evolution of American Newspapers
Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press
The Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media
     Day and the New York Sun
     Bennett and the New York Morning Herald
     Changing Economics and the Founding of the Associated Press
The Age of Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism and Investigation
     Pulitzer and the New York World
     Hearst and the New York Journal
Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism
“Objectivity” in Modern Journalism
     Ochs and the New York Times
     “Just the Facts, Please”
Interpretive Journalism
     The Promise of Interpretive Journalism
     Broadcast News Embraces Interpretive Journalism
Literary Forms of Journalism
     Journalism as an Art Form
     The Attack on Journalistic Objectivity
Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age
     USA Today Colors the Print Landscape
     Online Journalism Redefines News
The Business and Ownership Of Newspapers
Consensus vs. Conflict: Newspapers Play Different Roles
Newspapers Target Specific Readers
     African American Newspapers
     Spanish-Language Newspapers
     Asian American Newspapers
     Native American Newspapers
     The Underground Press
Newspaper Operations
     News and Editorial Responsibilities
     Wire Services and Feature Syndication
Newspaper Ownership: Chains Lose Their Grip
Joint Operating Agreements Combat Declining Competition
Challenges Facing Newspapers Today
Readership Declines in the United States
Going Local: How Small and Campus Papers Retain Readers
Convergence: Newspapers Struggle in the Move to Digital
Blogs Challenge Newspapers' Authority Online
New Models for Journalism
Alternative Voices
Newspapers and Democracy

8. Magazines in the Age of Specialization
The Early History of Magazines
The First Magazines
Magazines in Colonial America
U.S. Magazines in the Nineteenth Century
National, Women's, and Illustrated Magazines
The Development of Modern American Magazines
Social Reform and the Muckrackers
The Rise of General-Interest Magazines
     Saturday Evening Post
     Reader's Digest
     Time
     Life
The Fall of General-Interest Magazines
     TV Guide is Born
     Saturday Evening Post, Life, and Look Expire
     People Puts Life Back Into Magazines
Convergence: Magazines Confront the Digital Age
Magazines Move Online
Paperless: Magazines Embrace Digital Content
The Domination Of Specialization
Men's and Women's Magazines
Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure Magazines
Magazines for the Ages
Elite Magazines
Minority-Targeted Magazines
Supermarket Tabloids
The Organization and Economics of Magazines
Magazine Departments and Duties
     Editorial and Production
     Advertising and Sales
     Circulation and Distribution
Major Magazine Chains
Alternative Voices
Magazines In A Democratic Society
 
9. Books and the Power of Print
The History of Books from Papyrus to Paperback
The Development of Manuscript Culture
The Innovations of Block Printing and Movable Type
The Gutenberg Revolution: The Invention of the Printing Press
The Birth of Publishing in the United States
Modern Publishing and the Book Industry
The Formation of Publishing Houses
Types of Books
     Trade Books
     Professional Books
     Textbooks
     Mass Market Paperbacks
     Religious Books
     Reference Books
     University Press Books
Trends and Issues in Book Publishing
Influences of Television and Film
Audio Books
Convergence: Books in the Digital Age
     Print Books Move Online
     The Future of E-books
Preserving and Digitizing Books
Censorship and Banned Books
The Organization and Ownership of the Book Industry
Ownership Patterns
The Structure of Book Publishing
Selling Books: Stores, Clubs, and Mail Order
     Bookstores
     Online Bookstores
     Book Clubs and Mail Order
Alternative Voices
Books and the Future of Democracy
 
PART 4: THE BUSINESS OF MASS MEDIA
 
10. Advertising and Commercial Culture
Early Developments in American Advertising
The First Advertising Agencies
Advertising in the 1800s
     Trademarks and Packaging
     Patent Medicines and Department Stores
     Advertising's Impact on Newspapers
Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values
     Appealing to Female Consumers
     Dealing with Criticism

Early Ad Regulation
The Shape of U.S. Advertising Today
The Influence of Visual Design
Types of Advertising Agencies
     Mega-Agencies
     Boutique Agencies
The Structure of Ad Agencies
     Account Planning, Market Research, and VALS
     Creative Development
     Media Coordination: Planning and Placing Advertising
     Account and Client Management

Trends in Online Advertising
     Online Advertising Challenges Traditional Media
     Advertising Online
     Advertising Invades Social Media

Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising
Conventional Persuasive Strategies
The Association Principle
     Disassociation as an Advertising Strategy
Advertising as Myth
Product Placement
Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising
Critical Issues in Advertising
     Children and Advertising
     Advertising in Schools
     Health and Advertising

Watching Over Advertising
     Excessive Commercialism
     The FTC Takes on Puffery and Deception

Alternative Voices
Advertising, Politics, and Democracy
Advertising's Role in Politics
The Future of Advertising
 
11. Public Relations and Framing the Message
Early Developments in Public Relations
P.T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill
Big Business and Press Agents
The Birth of Modern Public Relations
     Ivy Ledbetter Lee
     Edward Bernays
The Practice of Public Relations
Approaches to Organized Public Relations
Performing Public Relations
     Research: Formulating the Message
     Conveying the Message
     Media Relations
     Special Events and Pseudo-Events
     Community and Consumer Relations
     Government Regulations and Lobbying
Public Relations during a Crisis
Tensions between Public Relations and the Press
Elements of Professional Friction
     Undermining Facts and Blocking Access
     Promoting Publicity and Business as News
Shaping the Image of Public Relations
Alternative Voices
Public Relations and Democracy
 
12. Media Economics and the Global Marketplace
Analyzing the Media Economy
The Structure of the Media Industry
The Performance of Media Organizations
     Collecting Revenue
     Commercial Strategies and Social Expectations

The Internet Changes the Game
The Transition to an Information Economy
Deregulation Trumps Regulation
     The Escalation of Deregulation
     Deregulation Continues Today

Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers
Business Tendencies in Media Industries
     Flexible Markets and the Decline of Labor Unions
     Downsizing and the Wage Gap
Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling
Specialization and Global Markets
The Rise of Specialization and Synergy
Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate
     The Early Years
     The Company Diversifies
     Global Expansion
     Corporate Shake-Ups and Disney Today
Global Audiences Expand Media Markets
Social Issues in Media Economics
The Limits of Antitrust Laws
     Diversification
     Local Monopolies
The Fallout from a Free Market
     Equating Free Markets with Democracy
     Consumer Choice versus Consumer Control
Cultural Imperialism
The Media Marketplace and Democracy
The Effects of Media Consolidation on Democracy
The Media Reform Movement
 
PART 5: DEMOCRATIC EXPRESSION AND THE MASS MEDIA
 
13. The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy
Modern Journalism In The Information Age
What is News?
     Characteristics of News
Values in American Journalism
     Neutrality Boosts Credibility…and Sales
     Other Cultural Values in Journalism
     Facts, Values, and Bias
Ethics and the News Media
Ethical Predicaments
     Deploying Deception
     Invading Privacy
     Conflict of Interest
Resolving Ethical Problems
Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalism
Focusing on the Present
     Getting a Good Story
     Aristotle, Kant, Bentham, and Mill
     Developing Ethical Policy
     Getting a Story First
Relying on Experts
Balancing Story Conflict
Acting as Adversaries
Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internet
Differences between Print and TV News
     Sound Bitten
     Pretty-Face and Happy-Talk Culture

Pundits, “Talking Heads” and Politics
Convergence Enhances and Challenges Journalism
The Power of Visual Language
Alternative Models: Public Journalism and “Fake” News
The Public Journalism Movement
     An Early Public Journalism Project
     Criticizing Public Journalism

“Fake” News and Satiric Journalism
Democracy and Reimagining Journalism's Role
Social Responsibility
Deliberative Democracy
 
14. Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research
Early Media Research Methods
Propaganda Analysis
Public Opinion Research
Social Psychology Studies
Marketing Research
Research on Media Effects
Early Theories of Media Effects
     The Hypodermic Needle Model
     The Minimal-Effects Model
     The Uses and Gratifications Model
Conducting Media Effects Research
     Experiments
     Survey Research
     Content Analysis

Contemporary Media Effects Theories
     Social Learning Theory
     Agenda-Setting
     The Cultivation Effect
     Spiral of Silence

Evaluating Research on Media Effects
Cultural Approaches to Media Research
Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research
Conducting Cultural Studies Research
     Textual Analysis
     Audience Studies
     Political Economy Studies

Cultural Studies Theoretical Perspectives
     The Public Sphere
     Communication as Culture
Evaluating Cultural Studies Research
Media Research and Democracy
 
15. Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression
The Origins of Free Expression and a Free Press
Models of Expression
The First Amendment of the US Constitution
Censorship as Prior Restraint
     The Pentagon Papers Case
     The Progressive Magazine Case
Unexpected Forms of Expression
     Seditious Expression
     Copyright Infringement
     Libel
     Defenses against Libel Charges
     Obscenity
     The Right to Privacy
First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment
     Gag Orders and Shield Laws
     Cameras in the Courtroom
Film and the First Amendment
Social and Political Pressures on the Movies
Self-Regulation in the Movie Industry
     The Motion Picture Production Code
     The Miracle Case
The MPAA Ratings System
Expressions In The Media: Print, Broadcast, And Online
The FCC Regulates Broadcasting
Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines
Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity
The Demise of the Fairness Doctrine
Communication Policy and the Internet
The First Amendment and Democracy
 
Extended Case Study: Analyzing the BP Oil Spill Coverage
     Step 1: Description
     Step 2: Analysis
     Step 3: Interpretation
     Step 4: Evaluation
     Step 5: Engagement
 

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