Media and Culture with 2015 Update: An Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 9

Media and Culture with 2015 Update: An Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 9

by Richard Campbell, Christopher R. Martin, Bettina Fabos

The media are in a constant state of change, accelerated by the recent turn in digital technology. The new 2015 update of Media and Culture keeps up with the newest changes unfolding over YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and other feeds—because the speed of today's media stories requires an understanding of the complex connections between media and our

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The media are in a constant state of change, accelerated by the recent turn in digital technology. The new 2015 update of Media and Culture keeps up with the newest changes unfolding over YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and other feeds—because the speed of today's media stories requires an understanding of the complex connections between media and our culture. The 2015 update includes the latest media developments and coverage of the political, economic, and cultural issues affecting our mass media and culture. But the authors go beyond the addition of current events and trends to focus on what these changes mean, extending the bridge between media history and the media right now.

Product Details

Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date:
Edition description:
Ninth Edition
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

About the Authors 

Brief Contents  


Chapter 1: Mass Communication: A Critical Approach 

Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication 

      Oral and Written Eras in Communication 

      The Print Revolution 

      The Electronic Era 

      The Digital Era 

      The Linear Model of Mass Communication 

      A Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communication 

The Development of Media and Their Role in Our Society 

      The Evolution of Media: From Emergence to Convergence 

      Media Convergence

      Stories: The Foundation of Media 

      The Power of Media Stories in Everyday Life

      VIDEO Agenda Setting and Gatekeeping 

Surveying the Cultural Landscape 

      EXAMINING ETHICS Covering War 

      Culture as a Skyscraper 

      CASE STUDY The Sleeper Curve 

      Culture as a Map 

      Cultural Values of the Modern Period 

      Shifting Values in Postmodern Culture 

Critiquing Media and Culture  

      Media Literacy and the Critical Process 


      Benefits of a Critical Perspective 

      GLOBAL VILLAGE Bedouins, Camels, Transistors, and Coke 


Additional Videos 


Chapter 2: The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence 

The Development of the Internet and the Web 

      The Birth of the Internet 

      The Net Widens 

      The Commercialization of the Internet 

The Web Goes Social 

      What is Social Media? 

      Types of Social Media

      VIDEO: The Rise of Social Media 

      Social Media and Democracy  

      EXAMINING ETHICS The “Anonymous” Hackers of the Internet 

Convergence and Mobile Media 

      Media Converges on Our PCs and TVs 

      Mobile Devices Propel Convergence  

      The Impact of Media Convergence and Mobile Media 

      The Next Era: The Semantic Web 

The Economics and Issues of the Internet 

      Ownership: Controlling the Internet 

      GLOBAL VILLAGE Designed in California, Assembled in China 

      Targeted Advertising and Data Mining 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Search Engines and   the Critical Process  

      Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private 

      Appropriateness: What Should Be Online? 

      Access: The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide 

      Net Neutrality: Maintaining an Open Internet 

      Alternative Voices

      VIDEO: Net Neutrality 

The Internet and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Chapter 3: Digital Gaming and the Media Playground 

The Development of Digital Gaming  

      Mechanical Gaming 

      The First Video Games 

      Arcades and Classic Games 

      Consoles and Advancing Graphics 

      Gaming on Home Computers  

The Internet Transforms Gaming 

      MMORPGs, Virtual Worlds, and Social Gaming 

      Convergence: From Consoles to Mobile Gaming 

The Media Playground 

      CASE STUDY Thoughts on Video Game Narrative 

      Video Game Genres 

      Communities of Play: Inside the Game 

      Communities of Play: Outside the Game 

Trends and Issues in Digital Gaming  

      Electronic Gaming and Media Culture 

      Benefits of a Critical Perspective 

      Electronic Gaming and Advertising 

      Addiction and Other Concerns 

      GLOBAL VILLAGE South Korea’s Gaming Obsession 


      Regulating Gaming 

      The Future of Gaming and Interactive Environments

      VIDEO: Tablets, Technology, and the Classroom 

The Business of Digital Gaming 

      The Ownership and Organization of Digital Gaming  

      The Structure of Digital Game Publishing 

      Selling Digital Games 

      Alternative Voices 

Digital Gaming, Free Speech, and Democracy 


Additional Videos


Chapter 4: Sound Recording and Popular Music 

The Development of Sound Recording  

      From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium 

      From Phonographs to CDs: Analog Goes Digital 

      Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age 

      The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio 

      VIDEO Recording Music Today

U.S. Popular Music and the Formation of Rock

      The Rise of Pop Music 

      Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay  

      Rock Muddies the Waters  

      Battles in Rock and Roll 

A Changing Industry: Reformations in Popular Music

      The British Are Coming! 

      Motor City Music: Detroit Gives America Soul 

      Folk and Psychedelic Music Reflect the Times 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Music Preferences across Generations 

      Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock 

      Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines 

      The Reemergence of Pop 

The Business of Sound Recording 

      Music Labels Influence the Industry

      TRACKING TECHNOLOGY The Song Machine: The Hitmakers behind Rihanna 

      Making, Selling, and Profiting from Music

      VIDEO: Alternative Strategies for Music Marketing

      CASE STUDY In the Jungle, the Unjust Jungle, a Small Victory 

      Alternative Voices 

Sound Recording, Free Expression, and Democracy  


Additional Videos 

Chapter 5: Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting

Early Technology and The Development of Radio

      Maxwell and Hertz Discover Radio Waves 

      Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy 

      Wireless Telephony: De Forest and Fessenden 

      Regulating a New Medium 

The Evolution of Radio

      The RCA Partnership Unravels 

      Sarnoff and NBC: Building the “Blue” and “Red” Networks 

      Government Scrutiny Ends RCA-NBC Monopoly 

      CBS and Paley: Challenging NBC 

      Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927 

      The Golden Age of Radio 

Radio Reinvents Itself 

      Transistors Make Radio Portable 

      The FM Revolution and Edwin Armstrong 

      The Rise of Format and Top 40 Radio 

      CASE STUDY Host: The Origins of Talk Radio  

      Resisting the Top 40 

The Sounds of Commercial Radio

      Format Specialization  

      Nonprofit Radio and NPR 

      Global Village: Radio Mogadishu 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Comparing Commercial and Noncommercial Radio 

      New Radio Technologies Offer More Stations 

      Radio and Convergence 

      VIDEO Going Visual: Video, Radio, and the Web

      GLOBAL VILLAGE: Radio Mogadishu

      VIDEO Radio: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

The Economics of Broadcast Radio

      Local and National Advertising 

      Manipulating Playlists with Payola 

      Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation  

      Alternative Voices 

Radio and the Democracy of the Airways 


Additional Videos

Chapter 6: Television & Cable: The Power of Visual Culture 

The Origins and Development of Television  

      Early Innovations in TV Technology

      Electronic Technology: Zworykin and Farnsworth  

      Controlling Content—TV Grows Up

The Development of Cable

      CATV—Community Antenna Television 

      The Wires and Satellites behind Cable Television 

      Cable Threatens Broadcasting 

      Cable Services  

      CASE STUDY ESPN: Sports and Stories 

      DBS: Cable without Wires 

Technology and Third Screens Change Viewing Habits

      Home Video 

      VIDEO Television Networks Evolve

      The Third Screen: TV Converges with the Internet 

      Fourth Screens: Smartphones and Mobile Video 

Major Programming Trends 

      TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture 

      TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture 

      TV Information: Our Daily News Culture 

      Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS TV and the State of Storytelling 

      Public Television Struggles to Find its Place 

      VIDEO What Makes Public Television Public? 

Regulatory Challenges to Television and Cable 

      Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control 

      Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcasters’ Interests 

      Franchising Frenzy 

      The Telecommunications Act of 1996 

The Economies and Ownership of Television and Cable



      Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going . . .  

      Measuring Television Viewing 

      The Major Programming Corporations 

      TRACKING TECHNOLOGY Don't Touch That Remote: TV Pilots Turn to Net, Not Networks 

      Alternative Voices 

Television, Cable, and Democracy


Additional Videos   

Chapter 7: Movies and the Impact of Images  

Early Technology and The Evolution of Movies

      The Development of Film 

      The Introduction of Narrative  

      The Arrival of Nickelodeons 

The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System




The Studio System’s Golden Age

      Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era 

      The Introduction of Sound 

      The Development of the Hollywood Style 

      CASE STUDY Breaking through Hollywood’s Race Barrier 

      Outside the Hollywood System  

      GLOBAL VILLAGE Beyond Hollywood: Asian Cinema 

The Transition of the Studio System

      The Hollywood Ten 

      The Paramount Decision 

      Moving to the Suburbs 

      Television Changes Hollywood 

      Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment 

The Economics of the Movie Business

      Production, Distribution, and Exhibition Today 


      The Major Studio Players 

      Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Internet Age 

      Alternative Voices 

Popular Movies and Democracy

      VIDEO More Than a Movie: Social Issues and Film


Additional Videos


Chapter 8: Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism 

The Evolution of American Newspapers 

      Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press 

      The Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media 

      The Age of Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism and Investigation 

Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism

      “Objectivity” in Modern Journalism 

      Interpretive Journalism 

      Literary Forms of Journalism 

      Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age 

      VIDEO Newspapers and the Internet: Convergence 

The Business and Ownership of Newspapers 

      Consensus vs. Conflict: Newspapers Play Different Roles 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Covering Business and Economic News 

      Newspapers Target Specific Readers 

      Newspaper Operations 

      CASE STUDY Alternative Journalism: Dorothy Day and I.F. Stone 

      Newspaper Ownership: Chains Lose Their Grip 

      Joint Operating Agreements Combat Declining Competition 

Challenges Facing Newspapers Today

      Readership Declines in the United States 

      Going Local: How Small and Campus Papers Retain Readers  

      Blogs Challenge Newspapers’ Authority Online 

      GLOBAL VILLAGE For U.S. Newspaper Industry, an Example in Germany? 

      Convergence: Newspapers Struggle in the Move to Digital 

      VIDEO Community Voices: Weekly Newspapers

      New Models for Journalism

      Alternative Voices 

Newspaper and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Chapter 9: Magazines in the Age of Specialization 

The Early History of Magazines

      The First Magazines 

      Magazines in Colonial America 

      U.S. Magazines in the Nineteenth Century 

      National, Women’s and Illustrated Magazines 

The Development of Modern American Magazines 

      Social Reform and Muckrakers  

      The Rise of General-Interest Magazines 

      CASE STUDY The Evolution of Photojournalism 

      The Fall of General-Interest Magazines 

      Convergence: Magazines Confront the Digital Age 

The Domination of Specialization 

      TRACKING TECHNOLOGY The New “Touch” of Magazines 

      Men’s and Women’s Magazines 

      Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure Magazines

      VIDEO Magazine Specialization Today  

      Magazines for the Ages  

      Elite Magazines  

      MEDIA LITERACY BOX Uncovering American Beauty 

      Minority-Targeted Magazines 

      Supermarket Tabloids 

      VIDEO Narrowcasting in Magazines

The Organization and Economics of Magazines 

      Magazine Departments and Duties 

      Major Magazine Chains 

      Alternative Voices 

Magazines in a Democratic Society 


Additional Videos 

Chapter 10: Books and the Power of Print 

The History of Books from Papyrus to Paperbacks 

      The Development of Manuscript Culture 

      The Innovations of Block-Printing and Movable Type  

      The Gutenberg Revolution: The Invention of the Printing Press 

      The Birth of Publishing in the United States 

Modern Publishing and the Book Industry 

      The Formation of Publishing Houses 

      Types of Books  

      CASE STUDY Comic Books: Alternative Themes, but Superheroes Prevail Trends and Issues in Book Publishing 

      Influences of Television and Film 

      VIDEO Based On: Making Books into Movies

      Audio Books 

      Convergence: Books in the Digital Age 

     VIDEO Books in the New Millennium

      Preserving and Digitizing Books 

      TRACKING TECHNOLOGY Free Textbooks? Easier Said Than Done 

      Censorship and Banned Books  

      MEDIA LITERCY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Banned Books and “Family Values” 

The Organization and Ownership of the Book Industry 

     Ownership Patterns 

      The Structure of Book Publishing 

      Selling Books, Stores, Clubs, and Mail Order 

      Alternative Voices 

Books and the Future of Democracy 


Additional Videos 


Chapter 11: Advertising and Commercial Culture 

Early Developments in American Advertising 

      The First Advertising Agencies  

      Advertising in the 1800s 

      Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values 

      Early Ad Regulation 

The Shape of U.S. Advertising Today 

      The Influence of Visual Design  

      Types of Advertising Agencies  

      The Structure of Ad Agencies 

      Trends in Online Advertising 

      VIDEO Advertising in the Digital Age

Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising 

      Conventional Persuasive Strategies 

      The Association Principle 

      CASE STUDY Idiots and Objects: Stereotyping in Advertising 

      Advertising as Myth 

      Product Placement 

      EXAMINING ETHICS Brand Integration, Everywhere 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS The Branded You Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising 

      Critical Issues in Advertising 

      VIDEO Advertising and Effects on Children

      GLOBAL VILLAGE Smoking Up the Global Market 

      Watching Over Advertising 

      Alternative Voices 

Advertising, Politics, and Democracy 

      Advertising’s Role in Politics 

      The Future of Advertising 


Additional Videos

Chapter 12: Public Relations and Framing Message 

Early Developments in Public Relations 

      P.T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill 

      Big Business and Press Agents  

      The Birth of Modern Public Relations 

The Practice of Public Relations 

      Approaches to Organized Public Relations 

      Performing Public Relations 

      CASE STUDY Social Media Transform the Press Release 

      EXAMINING ETHICS What Does It Mean to be Green? 

      Public Relations Adapts to the Internet Age 

      Public Relations during a Crisis 

Tensions between Public Relations and the Press 

      Elements of Professional Friction 

      VIDEO Give and Take: Public Relations and Journalism

      Shaping the Image of Public Relations  

      Alternative Voices 

Public Relations and Democracy 



Chapter 13: Media Economics and the Global Marketplace 

Analyzing the Media Economy 

      The Structure of the Media Industry 

      The Performance of Media Organizations 

The Transition to an Information Economy  

      Deregulation Trumps Regulation 

      Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers 

      Business Tendencies in Media Industries 

      Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling 

Specialization and Global Markets 

      The Rise of Specialization and Synergy 

      CASE STUDY Minority and Female Media Ownership: Why Does it Matter? 

      Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate 

      Global Audiences Expand Media Markets 

      The Internet and Convergence Change the Game 

Social Issues in Media Economics 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Cultural Imperialism and Movies 

      CASE STUDY From fifty to a Few: The Most Dominant Media Corporations 

      The Limits of Antitrust Laws 

      The Fallout from a Free Market 

      VIDEO The Impact of Media Ownership

      Cultural Imperialism 

The Media Marketplace and Democracy 

      The Effects of Media Consolidation on Democracy 

      The Media Reform Movement 



Chapter 14: The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy 

Modern Journalism in the Information Age 

      What Is News? 

      Values in American Journalism 

Ethics and the News Media 

      CASE STUDY Bias in the News 

      Ethical Predicaments 

      Resolving Ethical Problems 

Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalism 

      Focusing on the Present  

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Telling Stories and Covering Disaster

      Relying on Experts 

      Balancing Story Conflict 

      Acting as Adversaries 

Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internet 

      Differences between Print and TV News 

      Pundits, “Talking Heads,” and Politics  

      Convergence Enhances and Changes Journalism 

      The Power of Visual Language 

      VIDEO The Contemporary Journalist: Pundit or Reporter? 

Alternative Models: Public Journalism and “Fake” News 

      VIDEO Fake News/Real News: A Fine Line

      The Public Journalism Movement 

      GLOBAL VILLAGE Al Jazeera Buys a U.S. Cable Channel

      “Fake” News and Satiric Journalism 

Democracy and Reimagining Journalism’s Role 

      Social Responsibility 

      Deliberative Democracy 

      EXAMINING ETHICS Wikileaks, Secret Documents, and Good Journalism? 


Additional Videos

Chapter 15: Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research 

Early Media Research Methods 

      Propaganda Analysis 

      Public Opinion Research 

      Social Psychology Studies 

      Marketing Research 

      CASE STUDY The Effects of TV in a Post-TV World 

Research on Media Effects 

      Early Theories of Media Effects 

      VIDEO Media Effects Research

      Conducting Media Effects Research 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Wedding Media and the Meaning of the Perfect Wedding Day

      Contemporary Media Effects Theories 

      Evaluating Research on Media Effects  

Cultural Approaches to Media Research 

      Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research 

      Conducting Cultural Studies Research 

      CASE STUDY Labor Gets Framed 

      Cultural Studies’ Theoretical Perspectives 

      Evaluating Cultural Studies Research 

Media Research and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Chapter 16: Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression 

The Origins of Free Expression and a Free Press 

      Models of Expression 

      The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution  

      Censorship as Prior Restraint 

     Unprotected Forms of Expression 

      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Who Knows the First Amendment? 

      CASE STUDY Is “Sexting” Pornography? 

      The First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment 

Film and the First Amendment 

      Social and Political Pressures on the Movies 

      Self-Regulation in the Movie Industry  

      The MPAA Ratings System 

Expression in the Media: Print, Broadcast, and Online 

      The FCC Regulates Broadcasting 

      Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines 

      Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity 

      The Demise of the Fairness Doctrine 

      VIDEO Bloggers and Legal Rights

      Communication Policy and the Internet 

      EXAMINING ETHICS A Generation of Copyright Criminals? 

The First Amendment and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Extended Case Study: Patriot or Traitor? Unveiling Government Surveillance of Us   

      Step 1: Description 

      Step 2: Analysis 

      Step 3: Interpretation 

      Step 4: Evaluation 

      Step 5: Engagement 




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