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The media are in a constant state of change, accelerated by the recent turn in digital technology. The new 2015 update of Media and Culture keeps up with the newest changes unfolding over YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and other feeds—because the speed of today's media stories requires an understanding of the complex connections between media and our culture. The 2015 update includes the latest media developments and coverage of the political, economic, and cultural issues affecting our mass media and culture. But the authors go beyond the addition of current events and trends to focus on what these changes mean, extending the bridge between media history and the media right now.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781457642425
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 2/26/2014
  • Edition description: Ninth Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 688
  • Sales rank: 83,379
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Richard Campbell, director of the journalism program at Miami University, is the author of "60 Minutes" and the News: A Mythology for Middle America (1991) and coauthor of Cracked Coverage: Television News, the Anti-Cocaine Crusade, and the Reagan Legacy (1994). He has written for numerous publications, including Columbia Journalism Review, Journal of Communication, and Media Studies Journal, and he is on the editorial boards of Critical Studies in Mass Communication and Television Quarterly. He holds a Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Christopher R. Martin is a professor of journalism at University of Northern Iowa and author of Framed! Labor and the Corporate Media (2003). He has written articles and reviews on journalism, televised sports, the Internet, and labor for several publications, including Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Communication Inquiry, Perspectives on Politics, Labor Studies Journal, and Culture, Sport, and Society. He is also on the editorial board of the Journal of Communication Inquiry.

Bettina Fabos, an award-winning video maker and former print reporter, is an associate professor of visual communication and interactive media studies at the University of Northern Iowa. She is the author of Wrong Turn on the Information Superhighway: Education and the Commercialized Internet (2004). Her areas of expertise include critical media literacy, Internet commercialization, the role of the Internet in education, and media representations of popular culture. Her work has been published in Library Trends, Review of Educational Research, and Harvard Educational Review. Fabos has also taught at Miami University and has a Ph.D. from the University of Iowa.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors 

Brief Contents 


Chapter 1: Mass Communication: A Critical Approach 

Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication 

   Oral and Written Eras in Communication 

    The Print Revolution 

   The Electronic Era 

    The Digital Era 

    The Linear Model of Mass Communication 

    A Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communication 

The Development of Media and Their Role in Our Society 

   The Evolution of Media: From Emergence to Convergence 

   Media Convergence

   Stories: The Foundation of Media 

   The Power of Media Stories in Everyday Life

   VIDEO Agenda Setting and Gatekeeping 

Surveying the Cultural Landscape 


   Culture as a Skyscraper 

   CASE STUDY The Sleeper Curve 

   Culture as a Map 

   Cultural Values of the Modern Period 

   Shifting Values in Postmodern Culture 

Critiquing Media and Culture 

   Media Literacy and the Critical Process 


   Benefits of a Critical Perspective 

   GLOBAL VILLAGE Bedouins, Camels, Transistors, and Coke 


Additional Videos 


Chapter 2: The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence 

The Development of the Internet and the Web 

   The Birth of the Internet 

   The Net Widens 

   The Commercialization of the Internet 

The Web Goes Social 

   What is Social Media? 

   Types of Social Media

   VIDEO: The Rise of Social Media 

   Social Media and Democracy 

   EXAMINING ETHICS The “Anonymous” Hackers of the Internet 

Convergence and Mobile Media 

   Media Converges on Our PCs and TVs 

   Mobile Devices Propel Convergence 

   The Impact of Media Convergence and Mobile Media 

   The Next Era: The Semantic Web 

The Economics and Issues of the Internet 

   Ownership: Controlling the Internet 

   GLOBAL VILLAGE Designed in California, Assembled in China 

   Targeted Advertising and Data Mining 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Search Engines and  the Critical Process 

   Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private 

   Appropriateness: What Should Be Online? 

   Access: The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide 

   Net Neutrality: Maintaining an Open Internet 

   Alternative Voices

   VIDEO: Net Neutrality 

The Internet and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Chapter 3: Digital Gaming and the Media Playground 

The Development of Digital Gaming 

   Mechanical Gaming 

   The First Video Games 

   Arcades and Classic Games 

   Consoles and Advancing Graphics 

   Gaming on Home Computers 

The Internet Transforms Gaming 

   MMORPGs, Virtual Worlds, and Social Gaming 

   Convergence: From Consoles to Mobile Gaming 

The Media Playground 

   CASE STUDY Thoughts on Video Game Narrative 

   Video Game Genres 

   Communities of Play: Inside the Game 

   Communities of Play: Outside the Game 

Trends and Issues in Digital Gaming 

   Electronic Gaming and Media Culture 

   Benefits of a Critical Perspective 

   Electronic Gaming and Advertising 

   Addiction and Other Concerns 

   GLOBAL VILLAGE South Korea’s Gaming Obsession 


   Regulating Gaming 

   The Future of Gaming and Interactive Environments

   VIDEO: Tablets, Technology, and the Classroom 

The Business of Digital Gaming 

   The Ownership and Organization of Digital Gaming 

   The Structure of Digital Game Publishing 

   Selling Digital Games 

   Alternative Voices 

Digital Gaming, Free Speech, and Democracy 


Additional Videos


Chapter 4: Sound Recording and Popular Music 

The Development of Sound Recording 

   From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium 

   From Phonographs to CDs: Analog Goes Digital 

   Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age 

   The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio 

   VIDEO Recording Music Today

U.S. Popular Music and the Formation of Rock

   The Rise of Pop Music 

   Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay 

   Rock Muddies the Waters 

   Battles in Rock and Roll 

A Changing Industry: Reformations in Popular Music

   The British Are Coming! 

   Motor City Music: Detroit Gives America Soul 

   Folk and Psychedelic Music Reflect the Times 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Music Preferences across Generations 

   Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock 

   Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines 

   The Reemergence of Pop 

The Business of Sound Recording 

   Music Labels Influence the Industry

   TRACKING TECHNOLOGY The Song Machine: The Hitmakers behind Rihanna 

   Making, Selling, and Profiting from Music

   VIDEO: Alternative Strategies for Music Marketing

   CASE STUDY In the Jungle, the Unjust Jungle, a Small Victory 

   Alternative Voices 

Sound Recording, Free Expression, and Democracy 


Additional Videos 

Chapter 5: Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting

Early Technology and The Development of Radio

   Maxwell and Hertz Discover Radio Waves 

   Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy 

   Wireless Telephony: De Forest and Fessenden 

   Regulating a New Medium 

The Evolution of Radio

   The RCA Partnership Unravels 

   Sarnoff and NBC: Building the “Blue” and “Red” Networks 

   Government Scrutiny Ends RCA-NBC Monopoly 

   CBS and Paley: Challenging NBC 

   Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927 

   The Golden Age of Radio 

Radio Reinvents Itself 

   Transistors Make Radio Portable 

   The FM Revolution and Edwin Armstrong 

   The Rise of Format and Top 40 Radio 

   CASE STUDY Host: The Origins of Talk Radio 

   Resisting the Top 40 

The Sounds of Commercial Radio

   Format Specialization 

   Nonprofit Radio and NPR 

   Global Village: Radio Mogadishu 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Comparing Commercial and Noncommercial Radio 

   New Radio Technologies Offer More Stations 

   Radio and Convergence 

   VIDEO Going Visual: Video, Radio, and the Web

   GLOBAL VILLAGE: Radio Mogadishu

   VIDEO Radio: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

The Economics of Broadcast Radio

   Local and National Advertising 

   Manipulating Playlists with Payola 

   Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation 

   Alternative Voices 

Radio and the Democracy of the Airways 


Additional Videos

Chapter 6: Television & Cable: The Power of Visual Culture 

The Origins and Development of Television 

   Early Innovations in TV Technology

   Electronic Technology: Zworykin and Farnsworth 

   Controlling Content—TV Grows Up

The Development of Cable

   CATV—Community Antenna Television 

   The Wires and Satellites behind Cable Television 

   Cable Threatens Broadcasting 

   Cable Services 

   CASE STUDY ESPN: Sports and Stories 

   DBS: Cable without Wires 

Technology and Third Screens Change Viewing Habits

   Home Video 

   VIDEO Television Networks Evolve

   The Third Screen: TV Converges with the Internet 

   Fourth Screens: Smartphones and Mobile Video 

Major Programming Trends 

   TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture 

   TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture 

   TV Information: Our Daily News Culture 

   Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS TV and the State of Storytelling 

   Public Television Struggles to Find its Place 

   VIDEO What Makes Public Television Public? 

Regulatory Challenges to Television and Cable 

   Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control 

   Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcasters’ Interests 

   Franchising Frenzy 

   The Telecommunications Act of 1996 

The Economies and Ownership of Television and Cable



   Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going . . . 

   Measuring Television Viewing 

   The Major Programming Corporations 

   TRACKING TECHNOLOGY Don't Touch That Remote: TV Pilots Turn to Net, Not Networks 

   Alternative Voices 

Television, Cable, and Democracy


Additional Videos 

Chapter 7: Movies and the Impact of Images 

Early Technology and The Evolution of Movies

   The Development of Film 

   The Introduction of Narrative 

   The Arrival of Nickelodeons 

The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System




The Studio System’s Golden Age

   Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era 

   The Introduction of Sound 

   The Development of the Hollywood Style 

   CASE STUDY Breaking through Hollywood’s Race Barrier 

   Outside the Hollywood System 

   GLOBAL VILLAGE Beyond Hollywood: Asian Cinema 

The Transition of the Studio System

   The Hollywood Ten 

   The Paramount Decision 

   Moving to the Suburbs 

   Television Changes Hollywood 

   Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment 

The Economics of the Movie Business

   Production, Distribution, and Exhibition Today 


   The Major Studio Players 

   Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Internet Age 

   Alternative Voices 

Popular Movies and Democracy

   VIDEO More Than a Movie: Social Issues and Film


Additional Videos


Chapter 8: Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism 

The Evolution of American Newspapers 

   Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press 

   The Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media 

   The Age of Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism and Investigation 

Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism

   “Objectivity” in Modern Journalism 

   Interpretive Journalism 

   Literary Forms of Journalism 

   Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age 

   VIDEO Newspapers and the Internet: Convergence 

The Business and Ownership of Newspapers 

   Consensus vs. Conflict: Newspapers Play Different Roles 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Covering Business and Economic News 

   Newspapers Target Specific Readers 

   Newspaper Operations 

   CASE STUDY Alternative Journalism: Dorothy Day and I.F. Stone 

   Newspaper Ownership: Chains Lose Their Grip 

   Joint Operating Agreements Combat Declining Competition 

Challenges Facing Newspapers Today

   Readership Declines in the United States 

   Going Local: How Small and Campus Papers Retain Readers 

   Blogs Challenge Newspapers’ Authority Online 

   GLOBAL VILLAGE For U.S. Newspaper Industry, an Example in Germany? 

   Convergence: Newspapers Struggle in the Move to Digital 

   VIDEO Community Voices: Weekly Newspapers

   New Models for Journalism

   Alternative Voices 

Newspaper and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Chapter 9: Magazines in the Age of Specialization 

The Early History of Magazines

   The First Magazines 

   Magazines in Colonial America 

   U.S. Magazines in the Nineteenth Century 

   National, Women’s and Illustrated Magazines 

The Development of Modern American Magazines 

   Social Reform and Muckrakers 

   The Rise of General-Interest Magazines 

   CASE STUDY The Evolution of Photojournalism 

   The Fall of General-Interest Magazines 

   Convergence: Magazines Confront the Digital Age 

The Domination of Specialization 

   TRACKING TECHNOLOGY The New “Touch” of Magazines 

    Men’s and Women’s Magazines 

   Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure Magazines

   VIDEO Magazine Specialization Today 

   Magazines for the Ages 

   Elite Magazines 

   MEDIA LITERACY BOX Uncovering American Beauty 

   Minority-Targeted Magazines 

   Supermarket Tabloids 

   VIDEO Narrowcasting in Magazines

The Organization and Economics of Magazines 

   Magazine Departments and Duties 

   Major Magazine Chains 

   Alternative Voices 

Magazines in a Democratic Society 


Additional Videos 

Chapter 10: Books and the Power of Print 

The History of Books from Papyrus to Paperbacks 

   The Development of Manuscript Culture 

   The Innovations of Block-Printing and Movable Type 

   The Gutenberg Revolution: The Invention of the Printing Press 

   The Birth of Publishing in the United States 

Modern Publishing and the Book Industry 

   The Formation of Publishing Houses 

   Types of Books 

   CASE STUDY Comic Books: Alternative Themes, but Superheroes Prevail Trends and Issues in Book Publishing 

   Influences of Television and Film 

   VIDEO Based On: Making Books into Movies

   Audio Books 

   Convergence: Books in the Digital Age 

  VIDEO Books in the New Millennium

   Preserving and Digitizing Books 

   TRACKING TECHNOLOGY Free Textbooks? Easier Said Than Done 

   Censorship and Banned Books 

   MEDIA LITERCY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Banned Books and “Family Values” 

The Organization and Ownership of the Book Industry 

  Ownership Patterns 

   The Structure of Book Publishing 

   Selling Books, Stores, Clubs, and Mail Order 

   Alternative Voices 

Books and the Future of Democracy 


Additional Videos 


Chapter 11: Advertising and Commercial Culture 

Early Developments in American Advertising 

   The First Advertising Agencies 

   Advertising in the 1800s 

   Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values 

   Early Ad Regulation 

The Shape of U.S. Advertising Today 

   The Influence of Visual Design 

   Types of Advertising Agencies 

   The Structure of Ad Agencies 

   Trends in Online Advertising 

   VIDEO Advertising in the Digital Age

Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising 

   Conventional Persuasive Strategies 

   The Association Principle 

   CASE STUDY Idiots and Objects: Stereotyping in Advertising 

   Advertising as Myth 

   Product Placement 

   EXAMINING ETHICS Brand Integration, Everywhere 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS The Branded You Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising 

   Critical Issues in Advertising 

   VIDEO Advertising and Effects on Children

   GLOBAL VILLAGE Smoking Up the Global Market 

   Watching Over Advertising 

   Alternative Voices 

Advertising, Politics, and Democracy 

   Advertising’s Role in Politics 

   The Future of Advertising 


Additional Videos

Chapter 12: Public Relations and Framing Message 

Early Developments in Public Relations 

   P.T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill 

   Big Business and Press Agents 

   The Birth of Modern Public Relations 

The Practice of Public Relations 

   Approaches to Organized Public Relations 

   Performing Public Relations 

   CASE STUDY Social Media Transform the Press Release 

   EXAMINING ETHICS What Does It Mean to be Green? 

   Public Relations Adapts to the Internet Age 

   Public Relations during a Crisis 

Tensions between Public Relations and the Press 

   Elements of Professional Friction 

   VIDEO Give and Take: Public Relations and Journalism

   Shaping the Image of Public Relations 

   Alternative Voices 

Public Relations and Democracy 



Chapter 13: Media Economics and the Global Marketplace 

Analyzing the Media Economy 

   The Structure of the Media Industry 

   The Performance of Media Organizations 

The Transition to an Information Economy 

   Deregulation Trumps Regulation 

   Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers 

   Business Tendencies in Media Industries 

   Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling 

Specialization and Global Markets 

   The Rise of Specialization and Synergy 

   CASE STUDY Minority and Female Media Ownership: Why Does it Matter? 

   Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate 

   Global Audiences Expand Media Markets 

   The Internet and Convergence Change the Game 

Social Issues in Media Economics 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Cultural Imperialism and Movies 

   CASE STUDY From fifty to a Few: The Most Dominant Media Corporations 

   The Limits of Antitrust Laws 

   The Fallout from a Free Market 

   VIDEO The Impact of Media Ownership

   Cultural Imperialism 

The Media Marketplace and Democracy 

   The Effects of Media Consolidation on Democracy 

   The Media Reform Movement 



Chapter 14: The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy 

Modern Journalism in the Information Age 

   What Is News? 

   Values in American Journalism 

Ethics and the News Media 

   CASE STUDY Bias in the News 

   Ethical Predicaments 

   Resolving Ethical Problems 

Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalism 

   Focusing on the Present 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Telling Stories and Covering Disaster

   Relying on Experts 

   Balancing Story Conflict 

   Acting as Adversaries 

Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internet 

   Differences between Print and TV News 

   Pundits, “Talking Heads,” and Politics 

   Convergence Enhances and Changes Journalism 

   The Power of Visual Language 

   VIDEO The Contemporary Journalist: Pundit or Reporter? 

Alternative Models: Public Journalism and “Fake” News 

   VIDEO Fake News/Real News: A Fine Line

   The Public Journalism Movement 

   GLOBAL VILLAGE Al Jazeera Buys a U.S. Cable Channel

   “Fake” News and Satiric Journalism 

Democracy and Reimagining Journalism’s Role 

   Social Responsibility 

   Deliberative Democracy 

   EXAMINING ETHICS Wikileaks, Secret Documents, and Good Journalism? 


Additional Videos

Chapter 15: Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research 

Early Media Research Methods 

   Propaganda Analysis 

   Public Opinion Research 

   Social Psychology Studies 

   Marketing Research 

   CASE STUDY The Effects of TV in a Post-TV World 

Research on Media Effects 

   Early Theories of Media Effects 

   VIDEO Media Effects Research

   Conducting Media Effects Research 

   MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Wedding Media and the Meaning of the Perfect Wedding Day

   Contemporary Media Effects Theories 

   Evaluating Research on Media Effects 

Cultural Approaches to Media Research 

   Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research 

   Conducting Cultural Studies Research 

   CASE STUDY Labor Gets Framed 

   Cultural Studies’ Theoretical Perspectives 

   Evaluating Cultural Studies Research 

Media Research and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Chapter 16: Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression 

The Origins of Free Expression and a Free Press 

   Models of Expression 

   The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution 

   Censorship as Prior Restraint 

  Unprotected Forms of Expression 


   CASE STUDY Is “Sexting” Pornography? 

   The First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment 

Film and the First Amendment 

   Social and Political Pressures on the Movies 

   Self-Regulation in the Movie Industry 

   The MPAA Ratings System 

Expression in the Media: Print, Broadcast, and Online 

   The FCC Regulates Broadcasting 

   Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines 

   Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity 

   The Demise of the Fairness Doctrine 

   VIDEO Bloggers and Legal Rights

   Communication Policy and the Internet 

   EXAMINING ETHICS A Generation of Copyright Criminals? 

The First Amendment and Democracy 


Additional Videos

Extended Case Study: Patriot or Traitor? Unveiling Government Surveillance of Us 

   Step 1: Description 

   Step 2: Analysis 

   Step 3: Interpretation 

   Step 4: Evaluation 

   Step 5: Engagement 




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