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Media & Culture: Mass Communication in a Digital Age / Edition 9

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Overview

Mass media have taken the digital turn: they have made the transition from the analog past into our digital future. Today's communication students need a book that keeps pace with those changes—and with their own experiences as media consumers. While students may be familiar with the latest technology, Media & Culture can help enhance their understanding of how we arrived at this point, and where we're headed. The new edition explores the effects of the digital turn with new and informative part openers that dig into our media consumption habits, a brand-new chapter on digital gaming that goes deeper and further than other media books, and an integrated VideoCentral program throughout the book that converges the print text with the Web. Using its signature critical process and cultural perspective, Media & Culture shows how digital media really work—and how students can become informed media consumers and critics.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781457628313
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 3/28/2013
  • Edition description: Ninth Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

RICHARD CAMPBELL, director of the journalism program at Miami University, is the author of 60 Minutes and the News: A Mythology for Middle America (1991) and coauthor of Cracked Coverage: Television News, the Anti-Cocaine Crusade and the Reagan Legacy (1994). Campbell has written for numerous publications including Columbia Journalism Review, Journal of Communication, and Media Studies Journal and he is on the editorial board of Critical Studies in Mass Communication and Television Quarterly. As a writer and media critic, he is a frequent speaker on public radio and television.
 
CHRISTOPHER R. MARTIN is professor of journalism at University of Northern Iowa and author of Framed! Labor and the Corporate Media (2003). He has written articles and reviews on journalism, televised sports, the Internet, and labor for several publications including Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Communication Inquiry, Labor Studies Journal, and Culture, Sport, and Society.
 
BETTINA FABOS, an award-winning video maker and former print reporter, is an associate professor of Visual Communication and interactive media studies at University of Northern Iowa. She is the author of Wrong Turn on the Information Superhighway: Education and the Commercialized Internet (2003). Her areas of expertise include critical media literacy, Internet commercialization, the role of the internet in education, and media representations of popular culture.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors

Brief Contents

Preface

Chapter 1: Mass Communication: A Critical Approach

Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication

     Oral and Written Eras in Communication

     The Print Revolution

     The Electronic Era

     The Digital Era

     The Linear Model of Mass Communication

     A Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communication

The Development of Media and Their Role in Our Society

     The Evolution of Media: From Emergence to Convergence

     Media Convergence

     Stories: The Foundation of Media

     The Power of Media Stories in Everyday Life

Surveying the Cultural Landscape

     EXAMINING ETHICS Covering War

     Culture as a Skyscraper

     CASE STUDY The Sleeper Curve

     Culture as a Map

     Cultural Values of the Modern Period

     Shifting Values in Postmodern Culture

Critiquing Media and Culture

     Media Literacy and the Critical Process

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS

     Benefits of a Critical Perspective

     GLOBAL VILLAGE Bedouins, Camels, Transistors, and Coke

CHAPTER REVIEW

PART 1: DIGITAL MEDIA AND CONVERGENCE

Chapter 2: The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence

The Development of the Internet and the Web

     The Birth of the Internet

     The Net Widens

     The Commercialization of the Internet

The Web Goes Social

     What is Social Media?

     Types of Social Media

     Social Media and Democracy

     EXAMINING ETHICS The "Anonymous" Hackers of the Internet

Convergence and Mobile Media

     Media Converges on Our PCs and TVs

     Mobile Devices Propel Convergence

     The Impact of Media Convergence and Mobile Media

     The Next Era: The Semantic Web

The Economics and Issues of the Internet

     Ownership: Controlling the Internet

     GLOBAL VILLAGE Designed in California, Assembled in China

     Targeted Advertising and Data Mining

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Search Engines and the Critical Process

     Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private

     Appropriateness: What Should Be Online?

     Access: The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide

     Net Neutrality: Maintaining an Open Internet

     Alternative Voices

The Internet and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 3: Digital Gaming and the Media Playground

The Development of Digital Gaming

     Mechanical Gaming

     The First Video Games

     Arcades and Classic Games

     Consoles and Advancing Graphics

     Gaming on Home Computers

The Internet Transforms Gaming

     MMORPGs, Virtual Worlds, and Social Gaming

     Convergence: From Consoles to Mobile Gaming

The Media Playground

     CASE STUDY Thoughts of Video Game Narrative

     Video Game Genres

     Communities of Play: Inside the Game

     Communities of Play: Outside the Game

Trends and Issues in Digital Gaming

     Electronic Gaming and Media Culture

     Benefits of a Critical Perspective

     Electronic Gaming and Advertising

     Addiction and Other Concerns

     GLOBAL VILLAGE BOX South Korea’s Gaming Obsession

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS First-Person-Shooter Games

     Regulating Gaming

     The Future of Gaming and Interactive Environments

The Business of Digital Gaming

     The Ownership and Organization of Digital Gaming

     The Structure of Digital Game Publishing

     Selling Digital Games

     Alternative Voices

Digital Gaming, Free Speech, and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

PART 2: SOUNDS AND IMAGES

Chapter 4: Sound Recording and Popular Music

The Development of Sound Recording

     From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium

     From Phonographs to CDs: Analog Goes Digital

     Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age

     The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio

U.S. Popular Music and the Formation of Rock

     The Rise of Pop Music

     Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay

     Rock Muddies the Waters

     Battles in Rock and Roll

A Changing Industry: Reformations in Popular Music

     The British Are Coming!

     Motor City Music: Detroit Gives America Soul

     Folk and Psychedelic Music Reflect the Times

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Music Preferences across Generations

     Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock

     Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines

     The Reemergence of Pop

The Business of Sound Recording

     TRACKING TECHNOLOGY The Song Machine: The Hitmakers behind Rihanna

     CASE STUDY In the Jungle, the Unjust Jungle, a Small Victory

     Alternative Voices

Sound Recording, Free Expression, and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 5: Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting

Early Technology and The Development of Radio

     Maxwell and Hertz Discover Radio Waves

     Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy

     Wireless Telephony: De Forest and Fessenden

     Regulating a New Medium

The Evolution of Radio

     The RCA Partnership Unravels

     Sarnoff and NBC: Building the "Blue" and "Red" Networks

     Government Scrutiny Ends RCA-NBC Monopoly

     CBS and Paley: Challenging NBC

     Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927

     The Golden Age of Radio

Radio Reinvents Itself

     Transistors Make Radio Portable

     The FM Revolution and Edwin Armstrong

     The Rise of Format and Top 40 Radio

     CASE STUDY Host: The Origins of Talk Radio

     Resisting the Top 40

The Sounds of Commercial Radio

     Format Specialization

     Nonprofit Radio and NPR

     Global Village: Radio Mogadishu

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Comparing Commercial and Noncommercial Radio

     New Radio Technologies Offer More Stations

     Radio and Convergence

The Economics of Broadcast Radio

     Local and National Advertising

     Manipulating Playlists with Payola

     Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation

     Alternative Voices

Radio and The Democracy of The Airways

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 6: Television & Cable: The Power of Visual Culture

The Origins and Development of Television

     Early Innovations in TV Technology

     Controlling Content TV—Grows Up 

The Development of Cable

     CATV—Community Antenna Television

     The Wires and Satellites behind Cable Television

     Cable Threatens Broadcasting

     Cable Services

     CASE STUDY ESPN: Sports and Stories

     DBS: Cable without Wires

Technology and Third Screens Change Viewing Habits      Home Video      The Third Screen: TV Converges with the Internet      Fourth Screens: Smartphones and Mobile Video Major Programming Trends

     TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture      TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture

     TV Information: Our Daily News Culture      Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends      MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS TV and the State of Storytelling      Public Television Struggles to Find its Place Regulatory Challenges to Television and Cable

     Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control      Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcasters’ Interests

     Franchising Frenzy

     The Telecommunications Act of 1996

The Economies and Ownership of Television and Cable      Production      Distribution      Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going . . .      Measuring Television Viewing      The Major Programming Corporations

     TRACKING TECHNOLOGY Streaming Dreams: YouTube Turns Pro

     Alternative Voices

Television, Cable, and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 7: Movies and the Impact of Images

Early Technology and The Evolution of Movies

     The Development of Film

     The Introduction of Narrative

     The Arrival of Nickelodeons

The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System

     Production

     Distribution

     Exhibition

The Studio System’s Golden Age

     Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era

     The Introduction of Sound

     The Development of the Hollywood Style

     CASE STUDY Breaking through Hollywood’s Race Barrier

     Outside the Hollywood System

     GLOBAL VILLAGE Beyond Hollywood: Asian Cinema

The Transition of the Studio System

     The Hollywood Ten

     The Paramount Decision

     Moving to the Suburbs

     Television Changes Hollywood

     Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment

The Economics of the Movie Business

     Production, Distribution, and Exhibition Today

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Blockbuster Mentality

     The Major Studio Players

     Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Internet Age

     Alternative Voices

Popular Movies and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

PART 3: WORDS AND PICTURES

Chapter 8: Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism

The Evolution of American Newspapers

     Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press

     The Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media

     The Age of Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism and Investigation

Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism

     "Objectivity" in Modern Journalism

     Interpretive Journalism

     Literary Forms of Journalism

     Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age

The Business and Ownership of Newspapers

     Consensus vs. Conflict: Newspapers Play Different Roles

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Covering Business and Economic News

     Newspapers Target Specific Readers

     Newspaper Operations

     CASE STUDY Alternative Journalism: Dorothy Day and I.F. Stone

     Newspaper Ownership: Chains Lose Their Grip

     Joint Operating Agreements Combat Declining Competition

Challenges Facing Newspapers Today

     Readership Declines in the United States

     Going Local: How Small and Campus Papers Retain Readers

     Blogs Challenge Newspapers’ Authority Online

     GLOBAL VILLAGE For U.S. Newspaper Industry, an Example in Germany?

     Convergence: Newspapers Struggle in the Move to Digital

     New Models for Journalism

     Alternative Voices

Newspaper and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 9: Magazines in the Age of Specialization

The Early History of Magazines

     The First Magazines

     Magazines in Colonial America

     U.S. Magazines in the Nineteenth Century

     National, Women’s and Illustrated Magazines

The Development of Modern American Magazines

     Social Reform and Muckrakers

     The Rise of General-Interest Magazines

     CASE STUDY The Evolution of Photojournalism

     The Fall of General-Interest Magazines

     Convergence: Magazines Confront the Digital Age

The Domination of Specialization

     TRACKING TECHNOLOGY The New "Touch" of Magazines

     Men’s and Women’s Magazines

     Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure Magazines

     Magazines for the Ages

     Elite Magazines

     MEDIA LITERACY BOX Uncovering American Beauty

     Minority-Targeted Magazines

     Supermarket Tabloids

The Organization and Economics of Magazines

     Magazine Departments and Duties

     Major Magazine Chains

     Alternative Voices

Magazines in a Democratic Society

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 10: Books and the Power of Print

The History of Books from Papyrus to Paperbacks

     The Development of Manuscript Culture

     The Innovations of Block-Printing and Movable Type

     The Gutenberg Revolution: The Invention of the Printing Press

     The Birth of Publishing in the United States

Modern Publishing and the Book Industry

     The Formation of Publishing Houses

     Types of Books

     CASE STUDY Comic Books: Alternative Themes, but Superheroes Prevail

Trends and Issues in Book Publishing

     Influences of Television and Film

     Audio Books

     Convergence: Books in the Digital Age

     Preserving and Digitizing Books

TRACKING TECH Did Publishers and Apple Collude Against Amazon?

     Censorship and Banned Books

     MEDIA LITERCY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Banned Books and "Family Values"

The Organization and Ownership of the Book Industry

     Ownership Patterns

     The Structure of Book Publishing

     Selling Books, Stores, Clubs, and Mail Order

     Alternative Voices

Books and the Future of Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

PART 4: THE BUSINESS OF MASS MEDIA

Chapter 11: Advertising and Commercial Culture

Early Developments in American Advertising

     The First Advertising Agencies

     Advertising in the 1800s

     Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values

     Early Ad Regulation

The Shape of U.S. Advertising Today

     The Influence of Visual Design

     Types of Advertising Agencies

     The Structure of Ad Agencies

     Trends in Online Advertising

Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising

     Conventional Persuasive Strategies

     The Association Principle

CASE STUDY Idiots and Objects: Stereotyping in Advertising

     Advertising as Myth

     Product Placement

     EXAMINING ETHICS Brand Integration, Everywhere

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS The Branded You

Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising

     Critical Issues in Advertising

     GLOBAL VILLAGE Smoking Up the Global Market

     Watching Over Advertising

     Alternative Voices

Advertising, Politics, and Democracy

     Advertising’s Role in Politics

     The Future of Advertising

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 12: Public Relations and Framing Message

Early Developments in Public Relations

     P.T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill

     Big Business and Press Agents

     The Birth of Modern Public Relations

The Practice of Public Relations

     Approaches to Organized Public Relations

     Performing Public Relations

     CASE STUDY Social Media Transform the Press Release

     EXAMINING ETHICS What Does It Mean to be Green?

     Public Relations Adapts to the Internet Age

     Public Relations during a Crisis

Tensions between Public Relations and the Press

     Elements of Professional Friction

     Shaping the Image of Public Relations

     Alternative Voices

Public Relations and Democracy

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS The Invisible Hand of PR

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 13: Media Economics and the Global Marketplace

Analyzing the Media Economy

     The Structure of the Media Industry

     The Performance of Media Organizations

The Transition to an Information Economy

     Deregulation Trumps Regulation

     Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers

     Business Tendencies in Media Industries

     Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling

Specialization and Global Markets

     The Rise of Specialization and Synergy

     CASE STUDY Minority and Female Media Ownership: Why Does it Matter?

     Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate

     Global Audiences Expand Media Markets

     The Internet and Convergence Change the Game

Social Issues in Media Economics

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Cultural Imperialism and Movies

     CASE STUDY From fifty to a Few: The Most Dominant Media Corporations

     The Limits of Antitrust Laws

     The Fallout from a Free Market

     Cultural Imperialism

The Media Marketplace and Democracy

     The Effects of Media Consolidation on Democracy

     The Media Reform Movement

CHAPTER REVIEW

PART 5: DEMOCRATIC EXPRESSION AND THE MASS MEDIA

Chapter 14: The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy

Modern Journalism in the Information Age

     What Is News?

     Values in American Journalism

Ethics and the News Media

     CASE STUDY Bias in the News

     Ethical Predicaments

     Resolving Ethical Problems

Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalism

     Focusing on the Present

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Telling Stories and Covering Disaster

     Relying on Experts

     Balancing Story Conflict

     Acting as Adversaries xx

Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internet

     Differences between Print and TV News

     Pundits, "Talking Heads," and Politics

     Convergence Enhances and Changes Journalism

     The Power of Visual Language

Alternative Models: Public Journalism and "Fake" News

     The Public Journalism Movement

GLOBAL VILLAGE Why Isn’t Al Jazeera English on More U.S. TV Systems?

     "Fake" News and Satiric Journalism

Democracy and Reimagining Journalism’s Role

     Social Responsibility

     Deliberative Democracy

     EXAMINING ETHICS Wikileaks, Secret Documents, and Good Journalism?

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 15: Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research

Early Media Research Methods

     Propaganda Analysis

     Public Opinion Research

     Social Psychology Studies

     Marketing Research

     CASE STUDY The Effects of TV in a Post-TV World

Research on Media Effects

     Early Theories of Media Effects

     Conducting Media Effects Research

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS First-Person Shooter Games: Misogyny as Entertainment?

     Contemporary Media Effects Theories

     Evaluating Research on Media Effects

Cultural Approaches to Media Research

     Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research

     Conducting Cultural Studies Research

     CASE STUDY Labor Gets Framed

     Cultural Studies’ Theoretical Perspectives

     Evaluating Cultural Studies Research

Media Research and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

Chapter 16: Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression

The Origins of Free Expression and a Free Press

     Models of Expression

     The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution

     Censorship as Prior Restraint

     Unprotected Forms of Expression

     MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Who Knows the First Amendment?

     CASE STUDY Is "Sexting" Pornography?

     The First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment

Film and the First Amendment

     Social and Political Pressures on the Movies

     Self-Regulation in the Movie Industry

     The MPAA Ratings System

Expression in the Media: Print, Broadcast, and Online

     The FCC Regulates Broadcasting

     Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines

     Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity

     The Demise of the Fairness Doctrine

     Communication Policy and the Internet

     EXAMINING ETHICS A Generation of Copyright Criminals?

The First Amendment and Democracy

CHAPTER REVIEW

Extended Case Study: Our Digital World and The Self-Invasion of Privacy

     Step 1: Description

     Step 2: Analysis

     Step 3: Interpretation

     Step 4: Evaluation

     Step 5: Engagement

Notes

Glossary

Index

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