Rapid technical advances in medical imaging, including its growing application to drug/gene therapy and invasive/interventional procedures, have attracted significant interest in close integration of research in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences and engineering. This is motivated by the clinical and basic science research requi- ment of obtaining more detailed physiological and pathological information about the body for establishing localized genesis and progression of diseases. Current research is also motivated by the fact that medical imaging is increasingly moving from a primarily diagnostic modality towards a therapeutic and interventional aid, driven by recent advances in minimal-access and robotic-assisted surgery. It was our great pleasure to welcome the attendees to MIAR 2004, the 2nd Int- national Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, held at the Xia- shan (Fragrant Hills) Hotel, Beijing, during August 19–20, 2004. The goal of MIAR 2004 was to bring together researchers in computer vision, graphics, robotics, and medical imaging to present the state-of-the-art developments in this ever-growing research area. The meeting consisted of a single track of oral/poster presentations, with each session led by an invited lecture from our distinguished international f- ulty members. For MIAR 2004, we received 93 full submissions, which were sub- quently reviewed by up to 5 reviewers, resulting in the acceptance of the 41 full - pers included in this volume.
Invited Contributions.- New Advances in MRI.- Segmentation of Focal Brain Lesions.- Imaging Support of Minimally Invasive Procedures.- Hands-On Robotic Surgery: Is This the Future?.- Image Processing, Reconstruction and Coding.- An Adaptive Enhancement Method for Ultrasound Images.- State Space Strategies for Estimation of Activity Map in PET Imaging.- Applying ICA Mixture Analysis for Segmenting Liver from Multi-phase Abdominal CT Images.- Extracting Pathologic Patterns from NIR Breast Images with Digital Image Processing Techniques.- Comparison of Phase-Encoded and Sensitivity-Encoded Spectroscopic Imaging.- Detection and Restoration of a Tampered Medical Image.- Efficient Lossy to Lossless Medical Image Compression Using Integer Wavelet Transform and Multiple Subband Decomposition.- Statistical and Shape Based Segmentation.- Geodesic Active Regions Using Non-parametric Statistical Regional Description and Their Application to Aneurysm Segmentation from CTA.- An Efficient Method for Deformable Segmentation of 3D US Prostate Images.- White Matter Lesion Segmentation from Volumetric MR Images.- Active Shape Model Segmentation Using Local Edge Structures and AdaBoost.- Segmental Active Contour Model Integrating Region Information for Medical Image Segmentation.- A Level Set Algorithm for Contour Tracking in Medical Images.- Robust Object Segmentation with Constrained Curve Embedding Potential Field.- Tracking Lumbar Vertebrae in Digital Videofluoroscopic Video Automatically.- Brain Image Analysis.- A New Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Gibbs Random Fields for Image Segmentation.- Improved Fiber Tracking for Diffusion Tensor MRI.- Rapid and Automatic Extraction of the Modified Talairach Cortical Landmarks from MR Neuroimages.- Brain MR Image Segmentation Using Fuzzy Clustering with Spatial Constraints Based on Markov Random Field Theory.- Anatomy Dependent Multi-context Fuzzy Clustering for Separation of Brain Tissues in MR Images.- Visual Search in Alzheimer’s Disease — fMRI Study.- Spatio-temporal Identification of Hemodynamics in fMRI: A Data-Driven Approach.- Cardiac Modeling and Segmentation.- Left Ventricular Motion Estimation Under Stochastic Uncertainties.- Combined CFD/MRI Analysis of Left Ventricular Flow.- Dynamic Heart Modeling Based on a Hybrid 3D Segmentation Approach.- Tag Stripes Tracking from Cardiac MRI by Bayesian Theory.- Image Registration.- Determination of the Intracranial Volume: A Registration Approach.- Shape and Pixel-Property Based Automatic Affine Registration Between Ultrasound Images of Different Fetal Head.- Multimodal Brain Image Registration Based on Wavelet Transform Using SAD and MI.- Reducing Activation-Related Bias in FMRI Registration.- A Robust Algorithm for Nerve Slice Contours Correspondence.- Assessing Spline-Based Multi-resolution 2D-3D Image Registration for Practical Use in Surgical Guidance.- Surgical Navigation and Augmented Reality.- An Augmented Reality & Virtuality Interface for a Puncture Guidance System: Design and Validation on an Abdominal Phantom.- Gaze Contingent Depth Recovery and Motion Stabilisation for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery.- Freehand Cocalibration of Optical and Electromagnetic Trackers for Navigated Bronchoscopy.- 3D Automatic Fiducial Marker Localization Approach for Frameless Stereotactic Neuro-surgery Navigation.- Contact Modelling Based on Displacement Field Redistribution for Surgical Simulation.- Real-Time Photo-Realistic Rendering for Surgical Simulations with Graphics Hardware.- Computer-Assisted Evaluation of Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction.- Integral Videography Overlay Navigation System Using Mutual Information-Based Registration.- Clinical Experience and Perception in Stereo Augmented Reality Surgical Navigation.