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Designed to serve as either a source book or core text for medieval European history courses, this volume offers an overview of early European history from 100 to 1500. A useful prologue offers students guidance in analyzing both written and visual primary sources.
I. The Collapse of Roman Unity and the Emergence of Three Successor Civilizations: A.D. 100-1000 1. Caesar and Christ The Pax Romana. The Blessings of Roman Order. 1. Aelius Aristides, "The Roman Oration." Imperial Reorganization. 2. Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors. Late Roman Society. 3. The Theodosian Code. Early Christianity and the Roman World. The Constitution of the Early Church. 4. St. Clement, "Letter to Corinth." Trajan's Policy Toward Christians. 5. Pliny the Younger, "Letter to Trajan," and Trajan, "Letter to Pliny." Persecution and Deliverance. 6. Eusebius, Eccelesiastical History, Books 5,8, and 10. The Peace of the World. 7. St. Augustine, The City of God, Book XIX. Christianity and the Imperial Culture. 8. Christ Triumphant Mosaic at Ravenna 2. Rome and its Fringe Peoples The Germans. The Early Germans. 9. Tacitus, Germania. Frankish Law and Society. 10. The Salic Law Invaders and Settlers. Goths, Huns, and Romans. 11. Jordanes, On the Origin and Exploits of the Getae. Civilitas in Theodoric the Ostrogoth's Kingdom. 12. Cassiodorus, Variae. Clovis the Frank, Agent of God. 13. Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks. Two Images of Christ in Majesty. 14. The Barberini Ivory and the Altar of King Ratchis 3. Byzantium and Islam Byzantium: From Justinian to Basil II. Justinian the Great: God's Deputy or the Devil? 15. Procopius, On the Buildings and The Secret History. Economic Regulation. 16. The Book of the Prefect. Emperor Basil II and the Apogee of Byzantine Power. 17. Michael Psellus, The Chronographia Dar al-Islam: From the Prophet to the Abbasids. The Children of the House of Imran. 18. The Qur'an, Surah 3, The House of Imran. The Dhimma: A Contract with the People of the Book. 19. The Pact of Umar. Relations with Constantinople in the Age of Harun al-Rashid. 20. Abu'l-Faraj al-Isfahani, Kitab al-Aghani (The Book of Songs) 4. Monks, Popes, Bishops and Saints Monks. Establishing a Monastic Community. 21. The Rule of St. Benedict. A Celtic Monk Confronts Demons. 22. The Life of Saint Gall. Popes. The Issue of Christian Authority. 23. Pope Gelasius I, "Letter to Emperor Anastasius I" and On the Bonds of Anathema. The Father of the Medieval Papacy. 24. Gregory I, Letters. The Present Age: to the clergy of Milan; The Emperor and The Church of Constantinople: to Emperor Maurice; Petrine Primacy: to Eulogius, bishop of Alexandria; Missionary Policies: to Augustine, bishop of the Angles, and to Mellitus, abbot traveling through Gaul. The Conflict Over Icons. 25. Pope Gregory II, "Letter to Emperor Leo III" Bishops and Saints. The Trials and Triumphs of England's Missionary Bishops. 26. Bede the Venerable, History of the English Church and People. Sanctity in Ninth-Century Saxony. 27. The Life of the Virgin Liutbirg. 5. The Carolingian Age Charlemagne. Charles the Great: A Carolingian Portrait. 28. Einhard, Life of Charles the Great. Carolingian Authority. 29. Charles the Great, Letters. Charlemagne's Government. 30. Charles the Great, Capitularies. Pope Leo and King Charles: A Papal Portrait. 31. Leo III's Lateran Mosaic The Later Carolingians. Civil War Among the Grandsons of Charlemagne. 32. Nithard, Histories. New Invasions and Other Disasters. 33. The Annals of Xanten. The End of the Empire. 34. The Chronicle of Abbot Regino of PrÂm. 6. Restructuring and Reordering Europe: 850-1050 Early France: A World of Local Lordship. An Ideal Tenth-Century Count? 35. Saint Odo of Cluny, The Life of Saint Gerald of Aurillac. The Ideal Eleventh-Century Vassal? 36. Fulbert of Chartres, Letter to Duke William V of Aquitaine. The Search for Peace. 37. Guy of Anjou, bishop of Puy, 990 Proclamation of the Peace of God, and Reginbald, archbishop of Arles, 1035-1041 Proclamation of the Truce of God. England, the Ottonian Empire, and Eastern Europe: New Monarchic Order. King Alfred's Educational Program. 38. Alfred the Great, "Letter to Bishop Werfrith." Otto I and the Papacy. 39. Liudprand of Cremona, The Deeds of Otto. The Apostolic King of Hungary. 40. Pope Sylvester II, Letter to St. Stephen of Hungary Visions of the World. Four Women of Courage. 41. Roswitha of Gandersheim, Sapientia. Popular Religious Attitudes in Early Eleventh-Century France. 42. Ralph Glaber, Five Books of History. II. The High Middle Ages: European Efflorescence and Expansion, 1050-1300 7. New Religious Trends The Different Faces of Piety. The Monastic Cult of Mary. 43. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Homily on the Virgin Mary. The Popular Cult of Mary. 44. Jacques de Vitry, Sermons for the People. Twelfth-Century Popular Heresy: The Waldensians. 45. Stephen of Bourbon, A Treatise on Various Subjects for Sermons. The Franciscan Spirit. 46. Saint Francis of Assisi, Testament. The Drive to Create an Orthodox and Ordered Christian Society. Reforming Western Christendom. 47. Decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council. The Inquisitorial Process. 48. David of Augsburg, On the Inquisition of Heretics 8. The Orders of Secular Society. Eleventh-Century Law in the Rhineland. 49. Burchard of Worms, The Laws and Statutes of the Family of St. Peter of Worms. Peasant Colonists Beyond the Elbe. 50. Frederick of Hamburg, Charter of Privileges. Leasing Land in Italy. 51. Two Paduan Contracts Those Who Fight. The Ideal Feudal Warrior? 52. The Song of Roland. The Second Stage of Chivalry. 53. Walter Map, Courtier's Trifles. Feudal Law. 54. "Glanville," Concerning the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England Urban Dwellers. The Merchants of Southampton. 55. Ordinances of the Gild Merchant of Southampton. Italian Communal Government. 56. John of Viterbo, Book on the Government of Cities. The Jews of Speyer. 57. Rudegar Huozman, Charter to the Jews of Speyer. A Frontier Town in Spain. 58. The Fuero of Cuenca. Women, Children, and Property Rights in Thirteenth-Century Magdeburg. 59. The Charter of Magdeburg 9. New Intellectual and Artistic Expressions Reasons and Revelation in the Schools of Paris. Understanding through Questioning. 60. Peter Abelard, Sic et Non. Thirteenth-Century Rational Geology. 61. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles. Insuring Theological Correctness. 62. A Statute of 1272 for the Arts Faculty of Paris Romanesque and Gothic Art. A Romanesque Temptress. 63. Giselbertus, Eve, and Anonymous, A Gallo-Roman Relief. Romanesque and Gothic Sculpture. 64. Notre Dame la Brune, Ecclesia, and Synagoga. Two Thirteenth-Century Representations of the Virgin. 65. The Dormition of the Cathedral of Strasbourg and The Dormition of the Church of Saint Mary. Peribleptos Literature. Secular and Religious Poetry. 66. The Archpoet, "The Confession of Golias"; Francis of Assisi, "The Canticle of the Creatures";. Thomas of Celano?, "Dies Irae." Courtly Romance: The Third Stage of Chivalry. 67. Chretien de Troyes, Erec and Enide. The Voice of Parody. 68. The Gospel According to the Marks of Silver 10. Political Theory and Reality The Power of Monarchs. Emperor Henry II as Judge. 69. The Monte Cassino Gospel Book. The King's Justice. 70. The Assize of Clarendon. The Ideal King? 71. Jean de Joinville, The Book of the Holy Words and Good Deeds of Our King, Saint Louis Monarchs and Popes in Conflict. A Half Century that Shook the West. 72. Four Documents from the Investiture Controversy: Dictatus Papae; Henry IV and Gregory VII exchange of "Letters of 1076"; The Concordat of Worms. A Papal Rejoinder to the Byzantine Emperor. 73. Innocent III, Solitae. Echoes of Innocent III. 74. Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctum. A Middle Ground. 75. John of Paris, A Treatise on Royal and Papal Power Limitations on Royal Government. Representative Government in Leon. 76. Alfonso IX, Decrees of 1188. Limitations on Royal Power in England. 77. Magna Carta. Limitations on Imperial Power in Germany. 78. Frederick II, Constitution in Favor of the Princes. "What Affects All Should Be Approved By All." 79. Edward I, Summons to Parliament, 1295 11. The Crusades: Expanding Europe's Horizons The Crusade Ideal. Two Versions of Urban II's Summons to a Crusade. 80. Robert the Monk, A Jerusalem History, and Fulcher of Chartres, A Jerusalem History. Illuminating the Crusade. 81. A Manuscript Illumination in the Estoire d'Eracles The Reality of the Crusade. Jews and Crusaders. 82. Solomon Bar Simson, Chronicle. Muslims and Crusaders. 83. Usamah ibn Munqidh, The Book of Reflections. Greeks and Crusaders. 84. Gunther of Pairis, Hystoria Constantinopolitana. The Mongol Challenge. Saint Louis, Prester John, and the Tartars. 85. Jean de Joinville, The Book of the Holy Words and Good Deeds of Our King, Saint Louis. A Franciscan Missionary in Northern China. 86. John of Monte Corvino, "Letter to His Brethren in the West." III. Crisis, Retrenchment, Recovery, and a New World: 1300-1500 12. The Fourteenth Century: Crises and Creativity Natural Disasters and Their Consequences. Explaining and Responding to Catastrophe. 87. Jean de Venette, Chronicle. The Effects of the Plague in England. 88. Henry Knighton, Chronicle. Schism, Rebellion, and War. The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism. 89. St. Catherine of Siena, Letters: to Pope Gregory XI of March 1376; to Queen Joanna I of Naples of August 1379. A New Challenger to the Church's Authority. 90. John Wycliff, Concerning the Pope. The Hundred Years' War and the English Peasant Rebellion. 91. Jean de Froissart, Chronicles.... Social Commentary. Disorder in the Court. 92. Franco Sacchetti, Three Hundred Novellas. Fourteenth-Century English Society. 93. Geoffrey Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, "General Prologue" The Study of Nature. "People Can Encircle the Entire World." 94. John Mandeville, Travels. Does the Earth Revolve on Its Axis? 95. Nicholas Oresme, On Aristotle's Book of the Heavens and the World 13. The Fifteenth Century: An Era of Rebirth? The Late Medieval Church and Christian Society. Conciliarism in Victory and Defeat. 96. The Council of Constance, Haec Sancta and Frequens; Pius II, Execrabilis. Beating the Drum of Unrest. 97. Georg Widman, Chronicle Joan of Arc: Saint or Witch? Joan of Arc, Blessed Heroine of France. 98. Christine de Pisan, Ditie de Jehanne d'Arc. Joan of Arc and Other Female Rebels. 99. Johann Nider, Formicarius. New Secular Leaders. Louis XI: A Character Sketch. 100. Philippe de Commynes, Memoirs. Lorenzo de' Medici: A Character Sketch. 101. Francesco Guicciardini, The History of Florence The Arts. What Studies Befit a Lady Humanist? 102. Leonardo Bruni, On the Study of Literature. Visions of Death and Life. 103. Vanity: Allegory on the Transitoriness of Life and Martin Schongauer, The Adoration of the Shepherds New Geographic Horizons. The Motives of Prince Henry the Navigator. 104. Gomes Eannes de Azurara, Chronicle of Guinea. The Marvels of Nature. 105. Johann Bamler, Wondrous Fountains and Peoples. "Great and Marvelous Results." 106. Christopher Columbus, "A Letter Concerning Recently Discovered Islands."