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This text, designed for use in one- and two-term medieval history courses, is based on a political framework that includes social and cultural history. It emphasizes both high and popular culture, exploring what life was like in the court, the city, the countryside, and academia. The text primarily focuses on Europe, but also gives extensive attention to the areas that affected Europe, such as Byzantium and the Islamic world.
Introduction: The Birth of Europe and the Mentality of Medieval People "Middle Ages" Time History Space The Body Summary I. The Transformation of the Roman World, A.D. 100-751 1. The Roman Foundations of Medieval Europe, 100-500 Early Rome: From Republic to Empire The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine The Fourth and Fifth Centuries Continuities and Crises in the West 2. Early Christianity: From Sect to State Religion, 30-500 The Beginnings of Christianity The Christians Conquer Rome Rome Conquers the Christians The Fathers of the Church 3. Barbarians Enter the Empire, 275-640 Migrating Peoples: Political Disruption Two Kingdoms in the West: Ostrogoths and Franks Barbarian Culture in a Late Antique World 4. Two Eastern Mediterranean Empires: Byzantines and Arabs, 300-800 Byzantium: A New Rome Muhammad and the Religion of Islam An Empire Rises from Arabia II. The Early Middle Ages, A.D. 751-910 5. The Early Medieval Church in the West, 500-800 Popes, Priests, Monks, and Nuns: A Spiritual Hierarchy Emerges The Growth and Expansion of the Church The Cultural Consequences of Christianization 6. An Early Medieval Empire in the West: The Carolingians, 600-900 The Rise of the Carolingians The Royal Administration The Carolingian Cultural Revival The Later Carolingians, 814-911 Carolingian Life 7. The British Isles: Celts, Anglo-Saxons, and Vikings, 407-980 The Early Anglo-Saxons, 407-597 The Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, 597-730 The Struggle for Political Control, 730-974 Anglo-Saxon Society 8. New Influences: Vikings, Arabs, and Peoples of the Steppe and Eastern Europe, 800-1000 Slavs, Bulgars, Khazars, and Magyars: Turmoil in the East The Vikings: Raiders and Traders from the North Arab Conquests in the Western Mediterranean III. The Quickening of Europe, 900-1050 9. Land and People Popular Conceptions of the Middle Ages Rural Society: Life at the Local Level Economic Revival: Technology, Towns, and Trade 10. Rulers and Religion Political Formation on the Christian Frontiers Anglo-Saxon England After Alfred Italian Politics, the Papacy, and Rome From East Francia to the German Empire Late Carolingian and Capetian France Religion and Society IV. Reformation and Renewal, 1050-1200 11. Religious Revival and Reform, 1050-1200 A Rebirth of Christian Fervor Papal Reform and Monastic Renewal Heretical Movements and the Persecution of Minorities 12. The Crusades Origins of the Crusades The First Crusade, 1095-1099 Life in the Holy Land Subsequent Crusades and Reactions Against Crusading The Larger Impact of the Crusades 13. The Development of Royal Government, 1050-1200 Authority and Constraint: Emperors, Kings, Communal Values, and Laws Anglo-Normans, Civil War, and the Angevin Empire The German Empire, 1106-1190 The Capetians, 1060-1179 Monarchies on the Frontiers of Europe 14. The New Learning, 1050-1200 The Rise of Schooling Changing Mentalities Books and Literacy V. The Height of Medieval Culture, 1100-1300 15. Medieval Society, 1100-1300 Peasant Society The Rise of a Knightly Culture The Emergence of an Urban Society The Clergy Non-Christians and Non-Latins 16. Church and State in the Thirteenth Century Pope and Emperor Emerging Nation-States: France, England, and Spain Pressures on the Periphery of Eastern Europe Wealth, the Appeal of Poverty, and Responses to Heresy 17. High Culture and Popular Culture in the Thirteenth Century Encounters with "The Other" Intellectual Trends The Culture of Lay Society Religious Culture VI. The Later Middle Ages, 1300-1492 18. Economic and Political Crisis, 1300-1450 Europe in Crisis, 1300-1348 The Black Death Urban and Rural Economies and the Politics of Revolt Family Life and Courtly Culture The Hundred Years' War Nation-States and Parliaments Stability and Instability on the Frontiers of Europe 19. Institutional and Intellectual Developments, 1300-1450 The Papacy, 1300-1378 Schism and Conciliarism Nominalism, Mysticism, and the Devotio Moderna Late Medieval Heresy and the Beginnings of Witchcraft Trials Dante and Chaucer: Literary Endings and Beginnings Epilogue: The Italian Renaissance, 1300-1492 Literature Art and Architecture Philosophy Geography Politics Religion Appendices: Lists of Popes and Rulers of the Middle Ages