Membrane Processing: Dairy and Beverage Applications

Overview

This book extensively reviews the dairy, beverage and distilled spirits applications of membrane processing techniques. The four main techniques of membrane filtration are covered: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.

The book is divided into four informal sections. The first part provides an overview of membrane technology, including the main scientific principles; the major membrane types and their construction; cleaning and disinfection; and ...

See more details below
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (8) from $163.88   
  • New (7) from $163.88   
  • Used (1) from $180.27   

Overview

This book extensively reviews the dairy, beverage and distilled spirits applications of membrane processing techniques. The four main techniques of membrane filtration are covered: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.

The book is divided into four informal sections. The first part provides an overview of membrane technology, including the main scientific principles; the major membrane types and their construction; cleaning and disinfection; and historical development. The second part focuses on dairy applications including liquid and fermented milks; cheese; whey; and milk concentrates. The third part of the book addresses beverage applications including mineral waters, fruit juices and sports drinks, and the final part looks at membrane filtration in the production of beers, wines and spirits.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“In summary, a very worthwhile addition to the series that provides an excellent source for those working with this technology.” (International Journal of Dairy Technology, 3 August 2013)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781444333374
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/18/2013
  • Series: Society of Dairy Technology Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 370
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

A.Y. Tamime is a Consultant in Dairy Science and Technology, Ayr, UK. He is the Series Editor of the SDT’s Technical Book Series.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Click to read or download

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface to the Technical Series xiii

Preface xv

Contributors xvii

1 Development of Membrane Processes 1
K. Smith

1.1 Historical background 1

1.2 Basic principles of membrane separations 3

1.2.1 Depth versus screen filters 3

1.2.2 Isotropic versus anisotropic membranes 4

1.2.3 Cross-flow filtration 5

1.2.4 Requirements of membrane processes 7

1.3 Types of membrane separations 8

1.3.1 Reverse osmosis 8

1.3.2 Nanofiltration 8

1.3.3 Ultrafiltration 9

1.3.4 Microfiltration 9

1.4 Theory of membrane transport 9

1.4.1 Transport models 9

1.4.2 Reverse osmosis/nanofiltration membranes 10

1.4.3 Ultrafiltration/microfiltration membranes 11

1.5 Factors affecting membrane separations 11

1.5.1 Factors affecting reverse osmosis/nanofiltration separations 11

1.5.2 Factors affecting ultrafiltration/microfiltration separations 12

1.5.3 System parameters 13

1.6 General characteristics of membrane processes 13

1.6.1 Retention and rejection 13

1.6.2 Pore size 14

1.6.3 Molecular weight cut-off 14

1.6.4 Flux 14

1.6.5 Concentration factor 15

1.6.6 Membrane life 15

1.7 Conclusion and future development 15

Suggested literature 15

2 Principles of Membrane Filtration 17
A. Hausmann, M.C. Duke and T. Demmer

2.1 Introduction and definitions 17

2.1.1 Membrane processes 17

2.1.2 Definitions of membrane processes 18

2.2 Membrane properties based on materials 24

2.2.1 Membrane structure 24

2.2.2 Material properties 26

2.3 Flux behaviour in pressure-driven membrane operations 29

2.3.1 Modelling flux behaviour 30

2.3.2 Influence of chemical potential on the reverse osmosis process 35

2.4 Effects of feed characteristics and operating parameter on separation efficiency 37

2.4.1 Effects of feed components 37

2.4.2 Effects of operating parameters 40

2.5 Cross-flow systems 43

2.5.1 Background 43

2.5.2 Single-pass versus feed-and-bleed operation 43

2.6 Recent membrane processes following different operating principles 44

2.6.1 Forward osmosis 44

2.6.2 Osmotic distillation 45

2.6.3 Membrane distillation 46

2.7 Conclusions 47

References 47

3 Commercial Membrane Technology 52
K. Smith

3.1 Introduction: polymers used in membrane manufacture 52

3.1.1 Cellulose acetate 52

3.1.2 Polysulphone/polyethersulphone 53

3.1.3 Polyamide 54

3.1.4 Polyvinylidene fluoride 55

3.1.5 Thin-film composites 55

3.2 Other materials used for membranes 56

3.2.1 Ceramic membranes 56

3.2.2 Metallic membranes 57

3.3 Membrane configuration 58

3.3.1 Spiral-wound 59

3.3.2 Tubular 61

3.3.3 Hollow fibre 63

3.3.4 Plate and frame 64

3.4 Modes of operation 65

3.4.1 Diafiltration 66

3.4.2 Batch design 67

3.4.3 Continuous design 69

3.5 Conclusion and future developments 71

Suggested literature 71

4 Membrane Fouling, Cleaning and Disinfection 73
L.L.A. Koh, M. Ashokkumar and S.E. Kentish

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Flux reduction 73

4.2.1 Membrane resistance 74

4.2.2 Concentration polarisation 74

4.2.3 Fouling 80

4.2.4 Fouling in the beverage industry 83

4.2.5 Fouling in the dairy industry 83

4.3 Membrane cleaning and disinfection 84

4.3.1 Cleaning methods 84

4.3.2 Chemical cleaning factors 87

4.3.3 Disinfection 95

4.3.4 Cleaning procedures 95

4.3.5 Chemical cleaning agents recovery and reuse 97

4.4 Recent developments 98

4.5 Conclusions 99

4.6 Nomenclature 100

References 102

5 General Application for the Treatment of Effluent and Reuse of Wastewater 107
N.A. Milne and S.R. Gray

5.1 General wastewater quality issues 107

5.2 General wastewater treatment 108

5.2.1 Primary treatment: solids, fats, oils and grease removal 110

5.2.2 Secondary treatment: biological treatment and the membrane bioreactor 110

5.2.3 Tertiary treatment: disinfection 115

5.2.4 Desalination: nanofiltration and reverse osmosis 116

5.3 Water reuse 117

5.4 Conclusions and future applications 123

References 124

6 Liquid Milk Processing 128
G. Gesan-Guiziou

6.1 Introduction 128

6.2 On-farm concentration of milk 128

6.3 Protein standardisation by ultrafiltration 130

6.3.1 Advantages of protein standardisation 131

6.3.2 Regulatory aspects 132

6.3.3 Process involved 133

6.4 Removal of bacteria by microfiltration 134

6.4.1 Microfiltration process: operating conditions and performances 134

6.4.2 Industrial applications 137

6.5 Fractionation of fat 138

6.6 Removal of somatic cells by microfiltration 139

6.7 Conclusions and future trends 140

References 140

7 Membrane Processing of Fermented Milks 143
B. Ozer and A.Y. Tamime

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Microflora of the starter cultures 144

7.3 Patterns of production and consumption 145

7.4 Manufacturing practice of gel-type (set and stirred) products 145

7.4.1 Mesophilic–lactic fermentations 145

7.4.2 Thermophilic–lactic fermentations 148

7.4.3 Yeast–lactic fermentations 151

7.4.4 Mould–lactic fermentations 152

7.5 Manufacturing practice of concentrated products 152

7.5.1 Background 152

7.5.2 Concentrated yoghurt 153

7.5.3 Shrikhand and chakka 156

7.5.4 Ymer 156

7.5.5 Skyr 158

7.6 Quality control 158

7.6.1 Compositional quality 158

7.6.2 Microbiological quality 167

7.6.3 Organoleptic properties 168

7.7 Conclusion 169

References 170

8 Cheese 176
V.V. Mistry

8.1 Background 176

8.2 Properties of membrane processed concentrates 177

8.2.1 Buffering capacity 177

8.2.2 Rheology of concentrated milks 178

8.2.3 Rennet coagulation 178

8.3 Applications of ultrafiltration in cheesemaking 178

8.3.1 Protein standardisation 178

8.3.2 Medium or intermediate concentrated retentates 179

8.3.3 Liquid pre-cheeses concept 180

8.3.4 Application of ultrafiltration for fresh and soft cheeses 184

8.4 Cheese quality 185

8.5 Applications of microfiltration in cheesemaking 186

8.5.1 Removal of bacteria 186

8.5.2 Casein standardisation 187

8.5.3 αs-/β-casein ratio adjustment by microfiltration 187

8.5.4 Recovery of fat and brine 188

8.6 Nanofiltration 188

8.7 Milk protein concentrates 189

8.8 Future potential 189

References 190

9 Whey Processing 193
L. Ramchandran and T. Vasiljevic

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Whey: components, their functionality and uses 193

9.3 Problems of traditional whey processing 195

9.4 Membranes in whey processing 196

9.4.1 Microfiltration 197

9.4.2 Ultrafiltration 198

9.4.3 Diafiltration 199

9.4.4 Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis 200

9.4.5 Electrodialysis and other related processes 200

9.4.6 Integrated processes 204

9.5 Conclusions 204

References 205

10 Concentrated Milk and Powders 208
G. Gesan-Guiziou

10.1 Introduction 208

10.2 Concentrated milks and powders 208

10.2.1 Background 208

10.2.2 Production of concentrated whole milk and powder 209

10.2.3 Production of concentrated skimmed milk and powder 211

10.2.4 Applications of reverse osmosis concentrated milks 215

10.2.5 Dulce de Leche 217

10.3 Milk protein concentrates 218

10.3.1 Manufacture of milk protein concentrates 218

10.3.2 Applications of milk protein concentrates 219

10.4 Conclusion and future trends 222

References 222

11 Further Applications of Membrane Filtration in Dairy Processing 225
J.A. O’Mahony and J.J. Tuohy

11.1 Introduction 225

11.2 Fractionation of milk proteins using membranes 226

11.2.1 Separation of casein and whey proteins in milk 226

11.2.2 Fractionation of individual casein proteins 229

11.2.3 Fractionation of individual whey proteins 232

11.2.4 Fractionation of milk protein hydrolysates 233

11.2.5 Enrichment of osteopontin from milk/whey 238

11.2.6 Production of microparticulated whey protein 239

11.2.7 Isolation and enrichment of growth factors from milk/whey 240

11.3 Fractionation of milk fat using membranes 240

11.3.1 Isolation and enrichment of native milk fat globules 240

11.3.2 Isolation and enrichment of milk fat globule membrane 242

11.3.3 Removal of phospholipids from liquid whey 243

11.3.4 Filter sterilisation of polyunsaturated fatty acids 244

11.4 Fractionation of milk carbohydrates using membranes 245

11.4.1 Isolation and purification of bovine milk oligosaccharides 245

11.4.2 Filter sterilisation of lactase 247

11.4.3 Lactic acid removal and purification 247

11.5 Fractionation of milk salts using membranes 248

11.5.1 Demineralisation using membranes 248

11.5.2 Demineralisation using electrodialysis 249

11.6 Conclusions and future trends 251

References 253

12 Fruit Juices 262
A. Cassano

12.1 Introduction 262

12.1.1 General Background 262

12.1.2 Background to manufacturing practice 262

12.2 Fruit juice clarification by microfiltration and ultrafiltration 265

12.2.1 Microfiltration 265

12.2.2 Ultrafiltration 265

12.2.3 Selection of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes 266

12.3 Membrane fouling and membrane cleaning 266

12.3.1 Membrane fouling 266

12.3.2 Methods of reducing membrane fouling 267

12.3.3 Methods of fouling treatment 268

12.4 Performance of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes 269

12.5 Process configurations 273

12.6 Quality of the clarified juices 274

12.7 Integrated processes 276

12.8 Conclusions and future development 277

References 277

13 Beer and Cider 281
J. Bergin and J.J. Tuohy

13.1 Introduction 281

13.2 Beer brewing process 282

13.2.1 Milling 283

13.2.2 Mashing 284

13.2.3 Wort separation 284

13.2.4 Boiling 287

13.2.5 Trub separation 287

13.2.6 Fermentation 288

13.2.7 Clarification 289

13.2.8 Beer make-up 290

13.2.9 Packaging and microbiological stabilisation 291

13.3 Cidermaking process 292

13.3.1 Juice extraction and formulation 292

13.3.2 Fermentation 293

13.3.3 Racking and maturation 293

13.3.4 Blending, filtration and packaging 293

13.4 Membrane applications in the brewing process 294

13.4.1 Wort separation 295

13.4.2 Beer filtration and stabilisation 298

13.5 Membrane applications in cidermaking 300

13.5.1 Background 300

13.5.2 Cider clarification 301

13.6 Membrane applications common to brewing and cidermaking 302

13.6.1 Yeast separation and product recovery 302

13.6.2 Microbiological stabilisation 304

13.6.3 Gas standardisation using membranes 305

13.6.4 Water recovery/cleaning-in-place systems 308

13.6.5 Alcohol removal for non- or low-alcohol products and malt beverage production 309

13.7 Future opportunities 311

References 313

14 Wine 316
K. Grainger

14.1 Background 316

14.2 Clarification and filtration methods 318

14.2.1 Traditional methods in common use 318

14.2.2 Membrane filtration 319

14.2.3 Cross-flow microfiltration 320

14.3 Membrane fouling 322

14.4 Must correction, wine correction and alcohol reduction using membrane technologies 322

14.4.1 Reverse osmosis 322

14.4.2 Ultrafiltration 324

14.4.3 Wine correction: reducing alcohol content 324

14.4.4 Wine correction: removing acetic acid 325

14.4.5 Wine correction: removal of taints 326

14.5 Wine stabilisation and pH adjustment 327

14.5.1 Tartrate stabilisation 327

14.5.2 pH adjustment 328

14.6 Conclusions and future developments 328

References 330

15 Application of Membrane Technology in Vinegar 334
F. Lopez

15.1 Introduction 334

15.2 Process of vinegar making 335

15.3 Membrane technology in the production of vinegar 336

15.4 Conclusions 338

References 338

Index 339

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)