Membrane Technology: A Practical Guide to Membrane Technology and Applications in Food and Bioprocessing

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Overview

Membrane technology is a rapidly developing area, with key growth accross the process sector, including biotech separation and biomedical applications (e.g. haemodialysis, artificial lungs), through to large scale industrial applications in the water and waste-water processing and the food and drink industries. As processes mature, and the cost of membranes continues to dramatically reduce, so their applications and use are set to expand. Process engineers need access to the latest information in this area to assist with their daily work and to help to develop and apply new and ever more efficient liquid processing solutions.

This book covers the latest technologies and applications, with contributions from leading figures in the field. Throughout, the emphasis is on delivering solutions to practitioners. Real world case studies and data from leading organizations — including Cargill, Lilly, Microbach, ITT — mean this book delivers the latest solutions as well as a critical working reference to filtration and separation professionals.

• Covers the latest technologies and applications in this fast moving bioprocessing sector
• Presents a wide range of case studies that ensure readers benefit from the hard-won experience of others, saving time, money and effort.
• World class author team headed up by the Chair of Chemical Engineering at Oxford University, UK and the VP of Plant Operations and Process Technology at Cargill Corp, the food services company and largest privately owned company in the US.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781856176323
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 9/10/2010
  • Pages: 312
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

About the Editors xiii

About the Contributors xv

1 Fundamentals of Pressure-Driven Membrane Separation Processes Z.F. Cui Y. Jiang R.W. Field 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Processes 2

1.2.1 Process Classification 2

1.2.2 Definitions 3

1.3 Membranes 5

1.3.1 Membrane Structures 5

1.3.2 Membrane Materials 6

1.3.3 Membrane Modules 8

1.4 Operation 8

1.4.1 Concentration Polarization 8

1.4.2 Membrane Fouling 12

1.5 Prediction and Enhancement of Permeate Flux 13

1.5.1 Flux Prediction Models 13

1.5.2 Flux Enhancement and Fouling Control 16

1.6 Summary 18

Further Readings 18

2 Challenges of Membrane Technology in the XXI Century H.S. Muralidhara 19

2.1 History Overview 19

2.2 Membrane Industry 23

2.3 Current Challenges of Membrane Technology 25

2.4 Emerging Applications and Hybrid Processes 28

2.5 Summary 32

References 32

3 Membrane Processes in Fruit Juice Processing Allen Merry 33

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Clarification 33

3.2.1 Apple 35

3.2.2 Other Juices 38

3.2.3 Concentration 39

3.2.4 Special Applications 42

References 43

4 Membrane Application in Soy Sauce Processing Yinhua Wan Jianquan Luo Zhanfeng Cui 45

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration for Sterilization and Clarification of Soy Sauce 47

4.2.1 Membrane Selection 47

4.2.2 Optimization of Process Parameters 51

4.2.3 Industrial Application of Soy Sauce Ultrafiltration 52

4.3 Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration for Desalination and Decoloration of Soy Sauce 53

4.3.1 Performance of Different Membranes 54

4.3.2 Effect of Operating Conditions 55

4.3.3 A Pilot-Plant Test 55

4.4 Membrane Fouling and Regeneration 58

4.5 Summary 60

Acknowledgments 61

References 61

5 Application of Membrane Technology in Vegetable Oil Processing Abhay R. Ladhe N.S. Krishna Kumar 63

5.1 Introduction 63

5.2 Membrane-Based Applications in Vegetable Oil Processing 65

5.2.1 Degumming 66

5.2.2 Deacidification 70

5.2.3 Bleaching 73

5.2.4 Dewaxing 73

5.2.5 Vegetable Oil Hydrogenation Catalyst Recovery and Reuse 73

5.2.6 Other General Applications in Oilseed Processing 74

5.3 Conclusion 75

Abbreviations 75

References 76

6 Membrane Applications in Monoclonal Antibody Production Jim L. Davies Martin P. Smith 79

6.1 Introduction 80

6.1.1 Monoclonal Antibody Purification Overview 80

6.1.2 Membrane Operations in Monoclonal Antibody Production 81

6.1.3 The Future of use of Membranes 82

6.2 Direct Filtration for Particle Reduction 82

6.2.1 Modeling of Pore Blockage 82

6.2.2 Membrane Filtration of Process Buffers 83

6.2.3 Using Membranes as Column Guard Filters 85

6.2.4 Intermediate Product Filtration 86

6.3 Tangential Flow Filtration 86

6.3.1 Primary Separation by Microfiltration 87

6.3.2 Ultrafiltration 89

6.3.3 Scale-Up and Membrane Reuse 95

6.3.4 Tangential Flow Filtration in Summary 97

6.4 Virus Reduction Filtration 97

6.4.1 Introduction 97

6.4.2 Filter Sizing 98

6.4.3 Virus Clearance Studies 98

6.4.4 Flux-Decay Profiles 99

6.4.5 Location of Virus Filter Within a Purification Process 100

6.4.6 Modeling Filtration Throughput 100

6.4.7 Assessing Virus Clearance 102

6.4.8 Balancing Practical Filtration Area, Process Economics and LRV 104

6.4.9 Conclusions 107

6.5 New Techniques for Membranes in Antibody Manufacture 107

6.5.1 Tangential Flow Filtration 107

6.5.2 Membrane Adsorbers 115

6.5.3 Conclusions 118

6.6 Summary 119

References 119

7 Membrane Processes for the Production of Bulk Fermentation Products Frank Lipnizki 121

7.1 Introduction 121

7.2 Antibiotics 125

7.2.1 Special Section: Diafiltration 129

7.3 Enzymes 131

7.4 Organic Acids 135

7.4.1 Acetic Acid 135

7.4.2 Citric Acid 137

7.4.3 Lactic Acid 137

7.5 Amino Acids 138

7.5.1 Glutamic Acid 139

7.5.2 Lysine 139

7.6 Vitamins 140

7.6.1 Vitamin C 140

7.7 Biopolymers 142

7.7.1 Xanthan Gum 142

7.8 Yeast 144

7.8.1 Baker's Yeast 144

7.8.2 Yeast Extract 146

7.9 Water and Wastewater in the Bulk Biotech Industry 148

7.10 Outlook 149

References 151

8 Membrane Technologies for Food Processing Waste Treatment Val S. Frenkel 155

8.1 Introduction 155

8.2 Overview of Membrane Technology 156

8.3 Application of Membrane Technology in Food Processing Waste Treatment 158

8.3.1 Membrane Bioreactors for Food Processing Waste Treatment 159

8.4 Membranes for Food Processing Wastewater Reuse 159

8.4.1 Membrane Versus Conventional Wastewater Treatment for Food Processing Waste Treatment and Wastewater Resue 160

8.4.2 Methodology for Treating Food Processing Wastes 163

8.4.3 Regulatory Aspects of Food Processing Effluent Treatment 169

8.5 Case Examples 172

8.6 Food Processor 173

8.6.1 Restaurant 174

8.6.2 Olive Processing Facility 174

8.6.3 Squid Processing Plant 175

8.7 Summary 176

References 177

9 Practical Aspects of Membrane System Design in Food and Bioprocessing Applications Bassam F. Jirjis Susana Luque 179

9.1 Introduction 180

9.2 Membrane Performance Characterization 181

9.3 Selection of the Membrane Process and Membrane Type 183

9.3.1 Membrane Screening 183

9.3.2 Bench-Scale Testing 186

9.3.3 Pilot Testing 189

9.4 Feed Pretreatment 193

9.5 Designing a Full-Scale Membrane System 195

9.5.1 Batch versus Continuous Operation 196

9.5.2 Modes of Operation 196

9.5.3 System Operation Control 198

9.6 Calculating Membrane Surface Area 200

9.6.1 Feed Spacer Design 201

9.7 Estimating the Cost of a Membrane System 203

9.7.1 Membrane Elements 205

9.7.2 Membrane Performance Changes, Cleaning, and Membrane Lifetime 205

9.7.3 Number of Elements in Housing 206

9.7.4 Membrane Housings and Skids 206

9.7.5 Storage Tanks and Transfer Tanks 207

9.7.6 Pumps for the Membrane Skids 207

9.8 Economic Evaluation 208

9.9 Summary: Step by Step Recommendation for Membrane System Design 210

References 211

10 Membrane Fouling and Cleaning in Food and Bioprocessing Hongyu Li Vicki Chen 213

10.1 Introduction 213

10.2 Membrane Fouling in Food and Bioprocessing 216

10.2.1 Factors Affecting Membrane Fouling 217

10.3 Membrane Cleaning 224

10.3.1 Physical Cleaning 224

10.3.2 Chemical Cleaning 225

10.3.3 Cleaning Mechanisms of Common Chemicals 227

10.3.4 Design of Cleaning Protocols 232

10.3.5 Evaluation of Cleaning Efficiency 234

10.3.6 Examples of Cleaning Agents for Specific Applications 235

10.3.7 Factors Influencing Membrane Cleaning Efficiency 239

10.4 Modeling of Cleaning Mechanisms 246

10.5 Current Trends and Challenges 247

Acknowledgment 248

References 248

11 US Regulatory Approval of Membrane Technology Joseph Scimeca 255

11.1 Introduction 255

11.2 US Regulatory Approval 256

11.2.1 Regulatory Framework: General 256

11.2.2 Food Contact Regulation 257

11.2.3 Feed Additive Regulation 261

11.3 Achieving US Legal/Regulatory Compliance 261

11.3.1 Approval Under an Existing Regulation 261

11.3.2 Prior to Choosing the Regulatory Pathway 262

11.3.3 Choosing the Regulatory Pathway 263

11.3.4 GMP and Regulatory Compliance 270

11.4 Concluding Remarks 271

References 271

Index 273

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