From Brooke Allen's "READER'S DIARY" column on The Barnes & Noble Review
anyone requires proof of how profoundly this world has changed in the last
sixty or seventy years, the city of Freetown in Sierra Leone might serve as a
prime exhibit. Novelist Graham Greene was posted there as a British
intelligence agent during World War II, and his famous descriptions in The Heart of the Matter (1948) branded it unforgettably on his readers'
imaginations as a sleepy colonial backwater dominated by bored British
functionaries. The country itself, "the soupsweet land," Greene
portrayed as a place of benighted but real beauty.
Contrast this atmosphere
with that of contemporary Freetown as depicted in Aminatta Forna's fine new
novel The Memory of Love. The capital is now a massive city full of decayed
colonial infrastructure and burgeoning shantytowns. Still trying to recover
from a long civil war of unprecedented brutality (1991-2002), Freetown's
denizens attempt to rebuild lives that appear to have been shattered beyond
repair. Now things are once again peaceful on the surface, but remembered
horrors cannot be suppressed. And as with most wars, the survivors have to face
not only the physical and mental injuries that have been inflicted on them but
those they have inflicted, either passively or with malice, on others. A novel
like this makes one understand just how trite the concept of "reconciliation,"
that word so freely bandied about by politicians, can be. The wounds, in so
many cases, are too deep for a simple resolution.
It is not the first time
Forna has delved into such issues: her first book, The Devil That Danced On the Water (2002), explored the execution on trumped-up
charges of her father, a Sierra Leonean cabinet minister and political
activist, when she was only eleven -- events shrouded in mystery and fear
throughout her childhood. By that time her parents had split up and she and her
Scottish mother had moved to Britain, where Forna was educated; she eventually
took a job in television broadcasting at the BBC. But she has maintained a
strong connection with her natal country and paternal family, and continues to
take part in family business and philanthropic ventures.
The Devil That Danced On the Water created a sensation in Sierra Leone, where the
numerous "disappearings" and political murders that had taken place
in the early years of Siaka Stevens's premiership were still forbidden subjects.
Mohamed Forna, Aminatta's father, was part of a hopeful and progressive
generation of young Africans, in the first decade after independence, who went
to Europe or America for their studies and returned home to assume leadership
positions in the new nations. Their idealism was soon dashed as one African
country after another succumbed to cruel and exploitative dictators.
With The Memory of Love Forna shifts her
focus from brave men like her father, willing to pay for their ideals with
their lives, to their opposites: the men who survive and thrive by colluding
with evil. It is 2003 and Elias Cole, an elderly university administrator, is
slowly dying of pulmonary disease. As he fades from life he narrates his
memories of the past forty years to Adrian, an English psychologist. At first
Elias's tale seems straightforward enough: he describes the ferment and
political passions of the Sixties, his firebrand friend Julius, his secret love
for Julius's wife Saffia, Julius's arrest and death in prison, and his own
subsequent marriage to Saffia. But as the story progresses we realize that
Elias is a perfect example of that literary archetype so hard for authors to
pull off: the unreliable narrator. His version of events is a complex edifice
of self-justification and lies of omission. Julius, the brave and joyful man,
is dead, while cowardly Elias has lived on for joyless decades.
But these are distant
memories; it is the more recent past that has blighted the new generation. According
to one estimate, by the end of the civil war ninety percent of Sierra Leoneans
were suffering from what the medical profession defines as Post-Traumatic
Stress Disorder. When there is trauma on this scale, can it even be described
as pathological or is it, quite simply, life? How can a whole population "recover"?
Can the nation ever move on? Adrian, an English psychologist who has come out
to Freetown to volunteer his help, finds himself dealing with apparently
hopeless cases. There is Agnes, for instance, who finds her long-lost daughter
only to discover that the young woman is now married to the sadistic officer
who murdered her other child. There is Adecali, a pathetic man so tortured by
the atrocities he committed as a member of the rebel army that he has landed in
a mental hospital. And there is Kai, a young surgeon who becomes Adrian's
closest friend: what Kai has undergone does not bear thinking about, and cannot
be told even to Adrian.
And anyway Adrian himself,
for all his fine intentions, is a suspect character to these haunted citizens,
for in postwar Freetown aid workers like Adrian have assumed the places vacated
by Greene's parasitic colonials: they buzz around town in air-conditioned cars,
live luxuriously, with staffs of servants, and generally behave as though they
own the place and its inhabitants. Adrian is not of their ilk, but it is true
that altruism is not his only reason for being in Sierra Leone: as Kai easily
intuits, Adrian is there to escape his old life as well as to embrace a new
The Memory of Love is philosophically a rather complex novel, and
Forna has wisely opted to present her material at a leisurely, measured pace. The
slow movement suits the atmosphere she is attempting to transmit -- for despite
all the changes that have overtaken the country, Forna's Sierra Leone is still
recognizably Greene's soupsweet land:
this country there is no dawn. No spring or autumn. Nature is an abrupt
timekeeper. About daybreak there is nothing in the least ambiguous, it is dark
or it is light, with barely a sliver in between. Adrian wakes to the light. The
air is heavy and carries the faint odour of mould, like a cricket pavilion
entered for the first time in the season. It is always there, stronger in the
morning and on some days more than others. It pervades everything, the bed
sheets, towels, his clothes. Dust and mould.
As this passage indicates,
the author's visceral appreciation of her troubled country is evident on every
page of The Memory of Love. So, too,
is her probing intelligence -- and her compassion.
Read an Excerpt
THE MEMORY OF LOVE
By Aminatta Forna
Atlantic Monthly Press
Copyright © 2010 Aminatta Forna
All right reserved.
Chapter One On the iron-framed bed a single, scant sheet has moulded itself into the form of the human beneath. On top of the bedside cabinet, a small pile of spiral-bound notebooks sits alongside a vase of flowers, bright-coloured and plastic. The notebooks are worn from handling, the leaves rippled with damp. In the atmosphere of the room the memories of a man float and form. The man in the bed is telling a story. His name is Elias Cole.
Adrian listens. He is new here.
Elias Cole says:
* * *
I heard a song, a morning as I walked to college. It came to me across the radio playing on a stall I passed. A song from far away, about a lost love. At least so I imagined, I didn't understand the words, only the melody. But in the low notes I could hear the loss this man had suffered. And in the high notes I understood too that it was a song about something that could never be. I had not wept in years. But I did, there and then, on the side of a dusty street, surrounded by strangers. The melody stayed with me for years.
This is how it is when you glimpse a woman for the first time, a woman you know you could love. People are wrong when they talk of love at first sight. It is neither love nor lust. No. As she walks away from you, what you feel is loss. A premonition of loss.
I never thought I would hear that tune again. Then a month, or perhaps it was two months ago, as I sat alone in the room in my house that serves as a study, the window was open, and through it faintly, I heard somebody whistling the tune and singing pieces from the refrain. A woman's voice. The very same tune from those years ago. I shouted for Babagaleh, who for once came on the first call. I sent him down into the street to find whoever was whistling. He seemed to be gone for ever. And all the time I waited what could I do but sit and listen to my heart keeping time with my impatience.
The person Babagaleh brought to me was a builder, a Fula, dressed in torn trousers, bare of chest and covered in cement dust, which reminded me of funeral ashes. Babagaleh ushered him off the carpets, but I called him close again. I asked him to sing and he did, some other tune. I wouldn't have put it past Babagaleh to have called the first person he saw from the gate. I hummed a few of the notes, as I remembered them.
And then the man in front of me sang, and there was the tune and his voice, girlish and high. After he had sung for me, I asked him to tell me the meaning of the words. The song was indeed about loss, but not of a woman. In the song a young man longed for a time past, a time he had only heard about in the words of those who'd lived it, a time of hope and dreams. He was singing of the life lost to him, because it had been his misfortune to be born much later, when the world was already a different place.
I had woken later than usual that morning. Babagaleh had been up for hours. A Muslim, a northerner, he's up with the call to prayer by five every morning, which is one good thing about him. Also, he doesn't drink and is an honest man, which is more than you can say of many. Quick to temper, though, those northerners. I called him to take a bucket of hot water to the bathroom, so I could shave. These days there is no hot water, we're lucky if there is water at all. The taps run dry, as had been the case for the last few days. We kept a barrel at the back of the house for such contingencies.
'I want to finish the study today,' I told him. 'When you come back from market come and find me there.'
'Today is Friday,' he replied as he filled the sink and prepared to withdraw. I was still in my pyjamas, sitting on the edge of the bath, summoning the energy to lift myself up and reach the sink. Of course, Friday. Babagaleh would be at the mosque. No one to help me all day.
'Very well,' I said. 'Mind you come straight back. No wasting time with all that congosa afterwards.'
No reply, which meant he intended to do just as he pleased. He poured the water into the sink and set down the bucket, came and hovered over me like a bluebottle. I waved him away. When he had gone, I took a breath, as deep as my lungs would allow, and levered myself up with the aid of the towel rail. Four steps to the sink. I rested my hands on the edge of the porcelain, steadied myself on my feet and stared into the mirror. The pale hairs on my chin gave my face an ashen cast. I leaned forward and pulled down each eyelid. My eyeballs were yellow, streaked with red. Admirable colours in a sunset, perhaps.
The night before, as on other nights, Babagaleh arranged the pillows behind me. By then I was forced to sleep virtually upright. I had lain gazing into the black listening to the creaking of my stiffened lungs, the air whistling through the tubes, like a piece of rusted machinery.
I picked up my shaving brush, wet the bristles and lathered my face with soap. The razor was less than sharp and pulled at the hairs, dragging them out of the loose folds of skin. Where the furrows were deepest the razor slid over the wet hairs. I stuck my tongue into the side of my cheek and with my left hand pulled the skin taut. When I had finished, I splashed the water in the basin over my face. It was still hot; I luxuriated in the feel of it. Afterwards I looked again in the mirror. The blood welled up in a number of nicks in my skin. Over the years my skin had grown thinner. It hung down, beneath my eyes, under my jaw, sliding off the bones of my face. I squeezed toothpaste on to my toothbrush and attacked my teeth. Blood on the bristles. My gums had shrivelled away, like slugs in the midday sun. When I was through, I rinsed my mouth and spat into the basin. Then I pulled the plug and watched the toothpaste, bloodstained suds, hairs and water swirl away down the hole, like so many lost years.
When Babagaleh returned from the market I was sitting on the unmade bed, struggling into my clothes. The effort of getting dressed had provoked in me a coughing fit, the sound of which must have brought him to the door of my room. Wordlessly he set down the tray containing my medicine, a jug of water and a glass, poured a little of the water and helped me to take a few sips. Gradually the coughing subsided. Then I sat still, submitting to his ministrations like a child or a halfwit. He freed my left arm from where it was trapped in the shirtsleeve, then he buttoned the cuffs. I pushed away his hands, insisted on buttoning the front myself. He bent and rolled a sock over each foot, pushed them into my shoes and tied the laces.
Starched white shirt. Black trousers. Proper footwear. I could shamble around, unshaven, wearing stained pyjamas, like my neighbour opposite. All over town, you see them. Slumped on the balconies of their homes, amid the traffic fumes, staring into space, gradually being covered in a layer of dust from the street. The living dead.
As I left the room I caught a glimpse of my own reflection in the dresser mirror. A straw man in the half-light. The shirt and trousers billowed out above and below my belt. Every week I pulled the belt a notch tighter. A smear of blood on the collar of the shirt. What to do? I could not go through the effort of changing my clothes again. I expected no visitors.
Babagaleh came to tell me he was leaving. He was dressed for the mosque, wearing a long djellaba of pure white, leather sandals and an embroidered round hat of deep blue. It occurred to me, not for the first time, how easy it would make life to be able to dress like that. Each day Babagaleh performed his simple duties; on Fridays he took his place in the second row in the mosque. A day off every other week. Once a month he went to visit his wife. Though they had long since gone their separate ways, only last year he'd paid for a new roof and window frames. Together they drank coffee and spoke of their grandchildren.
Before he left Babagaleh returned carrying another tray, this time holding a Thermos of tea, a loaf of Fula bread, margarine, a pair of hard-boiled eggs. He poured me a cup of tea and loaded it with sugar. Like all his kinsmen he holds to the belief that sugar is heartening.
He walked the length of the room partially drawing the curtains against the coming heat, left without speaking again. I sat for a moment or two sipping the tea, aware of my sudden solitude. Thoughts like weevils burrowed into my brain. Nothing I did could shake them out; at night they forced me awake just as often as my bouts of breathlessness. There is nothing new in this, I'm sure. A condition of age. A consequence of insufficient occupation.
White-painted walls. Dark-wood floor. Parquet. It had cost money to have that laid. Over by the window, visible beneath the coat of wax, a parallelogram of bleached wood where the sun entered. A fringed, dark-red rug, with its own matching diamonds of sun-lightened wool. A pair of planter's chairs bought from the Forestry Commission thirty years before. Tooled red-leather pouffes, cracked and mildew-stained.
Increasingly I found it hard not to look around the place and do the sums in my head of what it might all fetch in a sale. One day I watched Babagaleh shaking out the curtains, wiping down the arms of the chairs with a damp cloth — I wondered if he was thinking the same. The thought got me going and as the day wore on I became preoccupied with the matter of my library. The volumes on the shelves amounted to hundreds. I decided to set myself the task of deciding which ones were worth keeping. The rest could go to the university library. A donation. That was the way to do it. This new angle on the idea invigorated my project with purpose.
We are like caged pets, we elderly. Like mice or hamsters, constantly reordering our small spaces, taking turns going round and round on the wheel to stop ourselves from going mad.
A year ago I'd ordered the whole interior of the house redecorated. Two painters arrived with dust sheets and set up their ladders. From time to time I'd mount the stairs to check their progress, make sure that they didn't spill paint on the parquet floor, but also to watch the pair of them balanced perfectly on a single board suspended between stepladders while they painted the ceiling. They talked between themselves, all manner of subjects, proletariat wisdom prompted more often than not by the words issued from their wireless. They did not mind me, it was not their place to do so and besides they knew I had little enough with which to occupy myself.
It was at this time I began to suffer problems with my breathing; the fumes of the paint, you understand. Before then, a dry cough that bothered me occasionally. I put it down to the harmattan wind, pollen from the garden, the smog of traffic fumes that lay across the city. I hadn't been to see a doctor. For what? So the man could tap my chest, write a prescription for some antibiotics and then chase me for an outrageous sum?
A spider had spun a web in one corner of the ceiling, silken trapeze wires. And over on the carpet, flecks of white powder, missed by Babagaleh. Cement dust.
I saw a woman once, the loss of whom I mourned, even before I had spoken a single word to her.
20 January 1969. The faculty wives dinner. We, the bachelors, gathered together at the bottom of the lawn, a patch of untended weeds. On the other side of the grass was the reception line. I was listening, or at least making the appearance of it, to my companion complain about the reallocation of space in the faculty building. He had lost out, which was a shame, no doubt. I looked away, towards the arriving guests. She wore a blue gown and, as she descended the stone steps to the lawn, her fingers plucked lightly at the fabric, which clung to her in the heat. I watched her and felt a surge of feeling, that then nameless emotion.
The first conscious thought I had came moments later — and it struck me like a blow — the man coming down the stairs a pace behind was her husband.
Within a few yards of the receiving line, I saw him move away. Not her husband. Relief, a cold breath down my spine. Then I saw her reach out her hand and touch him lightly on the sleeve. And with that light touch, made with just the ends of her fingers, she may as well have had the strength of ten men, so quickly did he yield and alter his course back towards the long line of people. I saw how he submitted his will to hers. I saw her smile, an upward curving of her lips, faint and sweet. A smile he returned, gracious in defeat. Seconds had passed since I first laid eyes on her and I'd already lost her twice over.
I excused myself, placed my glass on the tray of a passing waiter, moved across the lawn and stood at the end of the receiving line next to the last man, a fellow I recognised vaguely from the faculty hierarchy. I nodded and he nodded back, barely registering me, having lapsed long before into the sort of stupor such social obligations are inclined to induce.
I shook one or two hands, muttered greetings. Nobody knew or cared, their minds were already turned to thoughts of alcohol and food. And then there she was, standing before me, her hand held out, smiling. I took her hand. I spoke my name. Saw her smile, a poor man's version of the smile she had given to her husband. She moved on and hovered a few yards away while I shook her husband's hand. Together they walked across the lawn, his hand once more at her elbow.
My eyes followed them. I realised I had no idea of her name, for it had been obliterated in the moment of our meeting, by the drumming in my ears.
The tea had cooled by the time I got around to drinking it. I have a dislike of lukewarm liquids. I carried the cup across the room and set it down on a low table while I heaved open the glass door to the verandah. Outside I poured the liquid over the railing into the flowerbed and watched with satisfaction as it bored a hole in the dry earth. The garden had suffered during the drought; bare patches of rough earth had appeared in the lawn, the beds looked more like neglected graves.
By the time I returned to the chair, the effort had brought me out in a sweat. I poured myself a fresh cup of tea, and drank it carefully. I cracked one of the eggs on the side of the tray, and picked at the shell with my fingernails. Then I poured a little salt on to the plate and dipped the egg into it. Babagaleh never had subscribed to the view that an egg could be overcooked. It was as much as I could do to swallow. I returned the rest to the tray. Still no appetite. It is a mockery. It should be liberating, the absence of a desire. Instead you feel another kind of longing, for the desire that is lost. I yearned to want food again, to feel hunger and then to indulge the pleasure of sating it. I felt a sudden, whimsical urge for a cigarette. What could be more pleasurable than casually inhaling toxins, deep into the lungs?
In time I levered myself back to my feet and went to sit behind the desk, swivelled the chair around to face the bookshelves. I selected a volume and brought it down. Banton's West African City, published under the auspices of the International African Institute. The book was cloth-bound with stitched seams, the paper yellow and grainy beneath my fingertips. I searched the front pages for the publication date. 1957.
I began to read where the book fell open, about the growth of this city: The third stratum comprised the tribal immigrants, who were regarded by the Creoles as hewers of wood and drawers of water, and who were for a time content with their station.
I turned back a page: They called them 'unto whom', quoting from Psalm 95: 'Unto whom I sware in my wrath: that they should not enter into my rest.'
In the margin were scribbled some words. Had I not been as familiar as I was with the hand, I would have struggled to decipher the words: Give me a full belly and a hammock and I shall enter my own rest. Julius. It had been a habit of his, typical of the man, to enter marginalia into a borrowed book. I closed the page, took a few minutes to bring control to my breathing. I leaned over the desk and let the book drop into the cardboard box by the side of the desk.
The next volume I picked up was Lethbridge Banbury's book on these parts. Now this one was actually worth something. A handsome deep-red volume. On the cover a gold-engraved image of an elephant and a palm tree. Hand-cut leaves. Black-and-white illustrated plates, each one protected by a leaf of tracing paper.
I can quote the first lines by heart, still: Why I went to S is neither here nor there: perhaps I took that step from that insatiable wish to 'see the world', which so ardently possesses many Englishmen; or perhaps I was actuated by an ambitious desire of obtaining promotion in a service in which success is popularly supposed to come specially to those who depart from the beaten track in search of it.
Excerpted from THE MEMORY OF LOVE by Aminatta Forna Copyright © 2010 by Aminatta Forna. Excerpted by permission of Atlantic Monthly Press. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.