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Mesoscale Meteorology in Mid-Latitudes functions as a comprehensive, easy-to-use undergraduate textbook while also providing a useful reference for graduate students, research scientists and weather industry professionals.
List of Symbols.
Part I. General Principles.
1. What is the Mesoscale?
1.1 Space and time scales.
1.2 Dynamical distinctions between the mesoscale and synoptic scale.
2. Basic Equations and Tools.
2.2 Mass conservation.
2.3 Momentum equations.
2.4 Vorticity and circulation.
2.5 Pressure perturbations.
2.6 Thermodynamic diagrams.
3. Mesoscale Instabilities.
3.1 Static instability.
3.2 Centrifugal instability.
3.3 Inertial instability.
3.4 Symmetric instability.
3.5 Shear instability.
Part II. Lower Tropospheric Mesoscale Phenomena.
4. The Boundary Layer.
4.1 The nature of turbulent fluxes.
4.2 Surface energy budget.
4.3 Structure and evolution of the boundary layer.
4.4 Boundary layer convection.
4.5 Lake-effect convection.
4.6 Urban boundary layers.
4.7 The nocturnal low-level wind maximum.
5. Air Mass Boundaries.
5.1 Synoptic fronts.
5.3 Outflow boundaries.
5.4 Mesoscale boundaries originating from differential surface heating.
6. Mesoscale Gravity Waves.
6.1 Basic wave conventions.
6.2 Internal gravity wave dynamics.
6.3 Wave reflection.
6.4 Critical levels.
6.5 Structure and environments of ducted mesoscale gravity waves.
Part III. Deep Moist Convection.
7. Convection Initiation.
7.1 Requisites for convection initiation and the role of larger scales.
7.2 Mesoscale complexities of convection initiation.
7.3 Moisture convergence.
7.4 Elevated convection.
8. Organization of Isolated Convection.
8.1 Role of vertical wind shear.
8.2 Single-cell convection.
8.3 Multicellular convection.
8.4 Supercellular convection.
9. Mesoscale Convective Systems.
9.1 General characteristics.
9.2 Squall line structure.
9.3 Squall line maintenance.
9.4 Rear inflow and bow echoes.
9.5 Mesoscale convection complexes.
10. Hazards Associated with Deep Moist Convection.
10.2 Nontornadic, damaging straight-line winds.
10.4 Flash floods.
Part IV. Orographic Mesoscale Phenomena.
11. Thermally Forced Winds in Mountainous Terrain.
11.1 Slope winds.
11.2 Valley winds.
12. Mountain Waves and Downslope Windstorms.
12.1 Internal gravity waves forced by two-dimensional terrain.
12.2 Gravity waves forced by isolated peaks.
12.3 Downslope windstorms.
13. Blocking of the Wind Terrain.
13.1 Factors that govern whether air flows over or around a terrain obstacle.
13.2 Orographically trapped cold-air surges.
13.3 Lee vortices.
13.4 Gap flows.
Part V. Appendix.
A. Radar and Its Applications.
A.1 Radar basics.
A.2 Doppler radar principles.