Meta-Analytic Procedures for Social Research

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Rosenthal describes meta-analytic procedures (the quantitative summary of a research domain) in sufficient detail for readers either to carry them out for themselves, or evaluate them when used by others. The book addresses itself to techniques for solving the problems of poor cumulation and small effects — both of which are sources of pessimism in the social and behavioral sciences. Elementary algebra is all that is required for this book, designed for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Revised Edition vii
Preface to the First Edition ix
A Note on the Revised Edition 1
1. Introduction 3
I. Two Sources of Pessimism in the Social Sciences 3
II. Early Examples of Meta-Analytic Procedures 5
III. The Current Status of Meta-Analytic Procedures 10
IV. An Empirical Evaluation of Meta-Analytic Procedures 12
2. Defining Research Results 13
I. Effect Size and Statistical Significance 14
II. Inferential Errors 20
III. Adjusting Effect Size Estimates 21
IV. Some Solutions to the Problem of Multiple (Correlated) Results 26
V. A Summary of Some Effect Size Indicators 34
3. Retrieving and Assessing Research Results 36
I. Retrieving Research Results 36
II. Assessing Research Results 46
4. Comparing and Combining Research Results 59
I. A Framework for Meta-Analytic Procedures 59
II. Meta-Analytic Procedures: Two Independent Studies 61
III. Meta-Analytic Procedures: Any Number of Independent Studies 72
5. Combining Probabilities 89
I. General Procedures 89
II. Special Issues 101
6. Illustrations of Meta-Analytic Procedures 110
I. Displaying and Combining Effect Sizes 110
II. Combining Effect Sizes and Significance Levels 111
III. Combining Effect Sizes and Blocking 114
IV. Combining Effect Sizes, Blocking, and Confidence Intervals 116
V. Comparing Effect Sizes: Early Comparisons, Focused and Diffuse 117
VI. Comparing Effect Sizes: More Recent Comparisons 120
VII. A One-Sample Effect Size Index: II 123
7. The Evaluation of Meta-Analytic Procedures and Meta-Analytic Results 127
I. Sampling Bias and the File Drawer Problem 128
II. Loss of Information 128
III. Problems of Heterogeneity 129
IV. Problems of Independence 130
V. Exaggeration of Significance Levels 132
VI. The Practical Importance of the Estimated Effect Size 132
References 137
Index 149
About the Author 155
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