Metal Fatigue

Overview

Definitive, clearly written, and well-illustrated volume addresses all aspects of the subject, from the historical development of understanding metal fatigue to vital concepts of the cyclic stress that causes a crack to grow. Examines effect of stress concentrations on notches, theories of fatigue crack propagation, and many other topics. Seven appendixes describe laboratory fatigue testing, stress concentrations, material stress-strain relationships, and more. Invaluable text for students of engineering design ...

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Overview

Definitive, clearly written, and well-illustrated volume addresses all aspects of the subject, from the historical development of understanding metal fatigue to vital concepts of the cyclic stress that causes a crack to grow. Examines effect of stress concentrations on notches, theories of fatigue crack propagation, and many other topics. Seven appendixes describe laboratory fatigue testing, stress concentrations, material stress-strain relationships, and more. Invaluable text for students of engineering design and metallurgy.

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Editorial Reviews

Don D'Ammassa
Metal Fatigue is one of the best recent after-the-war novels, and with a handful of clever new twists.
Science Fiction Chronicle
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Product Details

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION
  References
2. CRACK INITIATION
  2.1 Introduction
  2.2 Surface examination
  2.3 Changes in bulk properties
    2.3.1 Hysteresis loop and damping measurements
    2.3.2 "Changes in mechanical properties, stiffness, hardness, etc."
    2.3.3 Changes in physical properties
    2.3.4 "Strain-ageing effects: coaxing, rest-periods, intermittent heat-treatments"
    2.3.5 Diffusion and surface emission studies
    2.3.6 X-ray diffraction studies
  2.4 Discussion of surface crack initiation
  References
3. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF PLAIN SPECIMENS
  3.1 Introduction
  3.2 "The fatigue limit, or fatigue strength at long endurances"
  3.3 Effect of surface finish
    3.3.1 Method of machining
    3.3.2 Effect of electropolishing
    3.3.3 Effect of stress-relieving
    3.3.4 Effect of forged surfaces
    3.3.5 Discussion
  3.4 Different testing methods and size effects
    3.4.1 Discussion
  3.5 Effect of a mean stress
    3.5.1 Discussion
  3.6 Effect of combined stresses and anisotropy
    3.6.1 Discussion
  3.7 Effect of frequency of stress application
  3.8 Effect of temperature
    3.8.1 Low-temperature fatigue
    3.8.2 Elevated-temperature fatigue
    3.8.3 Thermal fatigue
    3.8.4 Discussion
  3.9 Effect of environment
    3.9.1 Mechanism of corrosion fatigue
    3.9.2 Fatigue strength in water and brine
    3.9.3 Effect of humidity
    3.9.4 Protective measures
    3.9.5 Exclusion of the atmosphere
    3.9.6 Discussion
  References
4. EFFECT OF STRESS CONCENTRATIONS AND CRACKS ON FATIGUE STRENGTH
  4.1 Introduction
  4.2 Elastic stress distribution around a notch
  4.3 Behaviour of notched laboratory specimens at zero mean load
    4.3.1 Experimental data
    4.3.2 Kf-Kt relationships
  4.4 Non-propagating cracks in notched specimens
  4.5 The minimum alternating stress required to propagate a crack of a given length or depth at zero mean stress
    4.5.1 Tests on specimens containing artificial cracks
    4.5.2 Tests on plain specimens containing fatigue cracks
    4.5.3 Tests on specimens containing fatigue cracks grown at notches
    4.5.4 Tests to determine the relationship between crack length and the stress necessary for crack growth
  4.6 Interpretation of zero mean load notched fatigue data
    4.6.1 Wrought materials
    4.6.2 Cast materials
  4.7 Effect of a mean load
    4.7.1 Notched specimens
    4.7.2 Cracked specimens
  4.8 Effect of combined stresses
  4.9 Effect of temperature
  4.10 Efffect of environment
  4.11 Additional implications of a macrocrack length-cyclic propagation stress relationship
  References
5. THE GROWTH OF FATIGUE CRACKS
  5.1 Introduction
  5.2 Linear elastic fracture mechanics
    5.2.1 Modes of crack growth
    5.2.2 Stress intensity factor
    5.2.3 Crack direction
    5.2.4 Effect of yielding
    5.2.5 Application to fatigue crack growth
  5.3 Fractographic aspects of crack growth
    5.3.1 Macroscopic appearance
    5.3.2 Crack direction
    5.3.3 Microscopic appearance
  5.4 Metal physics aspects of crack growth
  5.5 Determination of fatigue crack growth rates
  5.6 Some fatigue crack growth theories
    5.6.1 Head's theory
    5.6.2 The geometrical similarity hypothesis
    5.6.3 Net area stress theories
    5.6.4 Accumulated strain hypothesis
    5.6.5 Dislocation theories
    5.6.6 Energy theories
    5.6.7 Frost and Dixon's theory
    5.6.8 A fracture-mechanics crack growth theory
    5.6.9 Correlation with experiment
  5.7 Fatigue crack growth data for various materials
  5.8 Threshold effects in fatigue crack growth
  5.9 Othe factors affecting crack growth
    5.9.1 Effect of thickness
    5.9.2 Effect of test frequency
    5.9.3 Effect of load changes
    5.9.4 Effect of environment
    5.9.5 Effect of stress state
    5.9.6 Methods of increasing resistance to fatigue crack growth
  5.10 Fatigue cracks in structure
    5.10.1 Residual static strength of cracked structures
    5.10.2 Estimation of service life
  References
6. NOTES ON VARIOUS OTHER ASPECTS OF FATIGUE
  6.1 Low-endurance fatigue
    6.1.1 Introduction
    6.1.2 Total strain amplitude tests
    6.1.3 Plastic strain amplitude tests
    6.1.4 Mode of fracture and the effect of mean strain
    6.1.5 Notched specimens
    6.1.6 Discussion
  6.2 Fatigue under varying stress amplitudes
    6.2.1 Introduction
    6.2.2 The Palmgren-Miner rule and early experimental work
    6.2.3 Other prediction methods
    6.2.4 Programme loading to simulate service conditions
    6.2.5 Random loading
    6.2.6 Servo-hydraulic testing methods
    6.2.7 Structural fatigue tests on vehicles
    6.2.8 Accelerated testing
    6.2.9 Discussion
  6.3 Effect of mechanical working
    6.3.1 Introduction
    6.3.2 Effect of work-hardening
    6.3.3 Effect of residual stresses
    6.3.4 Discussion
  6.4 Surface treatments
    6.4.1 Metal platings
    6.4.2 Anodizing
    6.4.3 Metallurgical surface-hardening techniques
    6.4.4 Soft layers
  6.5 Pressurized cylinders
  6.6 Fretting
  6.7 "Pin, riveted, and bolted joints"
    6.7.1 Pin joints
    6.7.2 Riveted and bolted joints
  6.8 Welded joints
    6.8.1 Introduction
    6.8.2 Butt welds in structural steels
    6.8.3 Fillet welds in structural steels
    6.8.4 Butt welds in light alloys
    6.8.5 Methods of improving fatigue strength
    6.8.6 Spot welds
    6.8.7 "Glued, brazed, and pressured-welded joints"
  6.9 Shrink-fit assemblies
  6.10 Screwed connections
  6.11 Rolling contact
  6.12 Methods of rapidly estimating the fatigue limit of a material
  6.13 Statistical analysis of fatigue test results
    6.13.1 Introduction
    6.13.2 Application to S/N curves
    6.13.3 Combined distributions
    6.14.4 Test methods based on statistical theory
  6.14 Fabricated materials
  6.15 Components and structures
  References
  APPENDIX 1. TERMS USED IN DEFINING THE STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS OF A MATERIAL
  References
  APPENDIX 2. REPEATED LOADING AND FRACTURE
  References
  APPENDIX 3. COMPARISON OF APPEARANCES OF BROKEN TENSILE AND FATIGUE SPECIMENS
  APPENDIX 4. ELEMENTARY CONCEPTS OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION IN DUCTILE METALS
  References
  APPEND
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