Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment

This Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed) is Not Available through BN.com
Sending request ...

More About This Book

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642965135
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 508
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 1.02 (d)

Table of Contents

A Introduction.- 1 Environmental Pollution.- 2 Sources, Pathways and Reservoirs.- 3 Aquatic Ecosystems.- B Toxic Metals.- 1 Metals.- 1.1 Classification of the Elements.- 1.2 Classification of Metals.- 1.3 Trace Metal Species in Aquatic Systems.- 2 Trace Metals and Organic Life.- 2.1 Trace Elements Essential to Human Life.- 2.2 Deficiency and Oversupply.- 2.3 Metal Toxicity.- 2.4 Health Hazard Due to Certain Trace Elements.- 2.5 Accumulation of Toxic Substances in the Aquatic Food Chain.- 2.6 Catastrophic Episodes of Metal Poisonings.- 2.6.1 Mercury Poisoning.- 2.6.2 Cadmium Poisoning.- 2.6.3 Lead Poisoning.- 2.6.4 Chromium Poisoning.- 2.6.5 Arsenic Poisoning.- 2.7 Recent Studies on Metal Intoxication.- 3 Water Quality Criteria: Standards.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Criteria Development.- 3.3 Water Quality Criteria.- 4 The Sources of Metal Pollution.- 4.1 Geologic Weathering.- 4.2 Mining Effluents.- 4.3 Industrial Effluents.- 4.4 Domestic Effluents and Urban Stormwater Runoff.- 4.4.1 Domestic Effluents.- 4.4.2 Urban Storm Water Runoff.- 4.4.3 Spoil Heaps.- 4.5 Metal Inputs from Rural Areas.- 4.6 Atmospheric Sources.- 4.7 Special Sources.- 4.8 Multi-Source Effects.- 5 Metal Analysis.- 5.1 Media of Pollution Assessment.- 5.2 Sampling and Analytic Methods.- 5.2.1 Sampling.- 5.2.2 Analytic Methods.- C Metal Concentrations in River, Lake, and Ocean Waters.- 1 Distribution of Major Ions.- 1.1 Natural Salt Concentrations.- 1.2 Man-Made Contamination.- 2 Chemical Conditions for Trace Metals in Natural Waters.- 2.1 Chemical Speciation in Freshwater and Seawater.- 2.1.1 Analysis of Trace Metal Speciation.- 2.1.2 Freshwater/Seawater Model.- 2.2 Redox Conditions in Natural Waters.- 3 Trace Metals in Seawater.- 3.1 Natural Distribution.- 3.2 Man-Made Effects.- 3.2.1 Atmospheric Input of Metals.- 3.2.2 Metal Input from Sewage Effluents.- 4 Trace Metals in Inland Waters.- 4.1 Natural Contents.- 4.2 Metal Pollution in River Water: Regional Examples.- 4.2.1 Heavy Metal Pollution in United States Water Systems.- 4.2.2 Metal Pollution in Inland and Coastal Waters of Great Britain.- 4.2.3 Heavy Metals in River Water of the Federal Republic of Germany.- 4.2.4 Metals in Waters of the People’s Republic of China.- 4.2.5 Heavy Metals in River Water of the U.S.S.R.- 4.2.6 Heavy Metals in Waters of Japan.- 4.3 Metal Transport in Freshwater Systems.- 4.3.1 Water Discharge and Metal Transport.- 4.3.2 Annual Cycles of Metal Transport.- D Metal Pollution Assessment from Sediment Analysis.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Soluble/Solid Equilibrium.- 1.2 Surface Samples and Sediment Cores.- 2 Metal Investigations on Aquatic Sediments.- 2.1 Sampling and Storage.- 2.1.1 Soils and Sediments.- 2.1.2 Grab and Sore Samplers.- 2.1.3 Bottom Sediment Traps.- 2.1.4 Suspended Materials.- 2.1.5 Recovery of Pore Waters.- 2.1.6 Storage.- 2.2 The Mechanical Sediment Analysis.- 2.3 Mineralogical Analysis.- 2.4 Chemical Analysis of Nutrient Components (C—N—P).- 2.4.1 Determinations of Oxidizable Matter (Organic Carbon) by the Chromic Acid Method.- 2.4.2 Determination of Kjeldahl Nitrogen.- 2.4.3 Determination of Total Phosphorus.- 2.5 Sediment Digestion in Metal Analysis.- 2.5.1 Hydrofluoric Acid Decomposition.- 2.5.2 Hydrochloric-Nitric Acid (Aqua Regia) Decomposition or Digestion by Nitric Acid.- 2.5.3 Lithium Metaborate Fusion (with Simultaneous Determination of Silica).- 2.5.4 Transfer of Solid Suspensions into Graphite Cuvettes.- 3 Geochemical Reconnaissance of Aquatic Sediments.- 4 Grain-Size Effects.- 4.1 Grain-Size Dependencies of Trace Metal Concentrations.- 4.2 Reduction of Grain-Size Effects.- 4.2.1 Extrapolation from Grain-Size Distribution.- 4.2.2 Metal Concentrations vs Surface Area.- 4.2.3 Separation of Clay/Silt and Fine Sand Fractions by Sieving.- 4.2.4 Separation of the Pelitic Fraction in Settling Tubes.- 4.2.5 Treatment with Dilute Acids (Hydrochloric Acid, Nitric Acid).- 4.2.6 Mineral Separation: Quartz Correction Method.- 4.2.7 Comparison with “Conservative” Elements.- 4.2.8 The Relative Atomic Variations of Elements.- 5 Factors Controlling the Distribution of Metals in Aquatic Sediments.- 6 Natural Metal Content—Civilizational Accumulation.- 6.1 Average Shale: Global Standard Value.- 6.2 Fossil Lake Sediments: Standards Regarding Environmental Data.- 6.3 Fossil Fluviatile Deposits: Regional Influences.- 6.4 Short, Dated Sediment Cores: 200 Years of Industrial Development.- 6.5 Recent Lake Deposits in Relatively Unpolluted Areas.- 6.6 Metals in Suspended Matter: Background Values in Storm Water.- 6.7 Background Values and Nonpoint Sources.- 7 Lake Sediments as Indicators of Heavy Metal Pollution.- 7.1 Interference: Geochemical Background and Man’s Impact.- 7.2 Metal Pollution in Lake Sediments (Examples).- 7.3 Metal Contamination Recorded in Dated Sedimentary Cores.- 7.4 Mercury Poisoning of Lakes.- 7.4.1 Sources of Mercury Pollution.- 7.4.2 Swedish Lakes.- 7.4.3 Canadian Lakes: Clay Lake.- 7.4.4 Laurentian Great Lakes.- 8 Metal Pollution in River Sediments.- 8.1 Geochemical Reconnaissance of Mercury.- 8.2 Stream Sediments: a Response to Environmental Contamination.- 8.3 Heavy Metal Enrichment of River Sediments by Man-Made Influences.- 9 Assessing Metal Pollution in the Sea by Sediment Study.- 9.1 Mercury Contamination—Forms of Metal Enrichment in Coastal Sediments.- 9.1.1 Minamata—Industrial Metal Contamination in Japanese Coastal Waters.- 9.1.2 Firth of Clyde—Sewage Sludge Disposal.- 9.1.3 Southern Californian Coast—Sewer Outfalls and Atmospheric Influences.- 9.1.4 New Haven—Unregulated Effluent Discharge.- 9.2 Marine Waste Deposits in the New York Metropolitan Region.- 9.3 Industrial Effluents in New Bedford Harbor, Mass.- 9.4 Heavy Metal Enrichment in the North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.- 9.4.1 Metal Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.- 9.4.2 Metal Pollution in the North Sea.- 9.4.3 Metal Contamination of the Baltic Sea.- 9.4.4 Other Restricted Basins—Fjords.- 9.5 Heavy Metal in Estuarine Sediments.- 9.5.1 The Estuarine Environment.- 9.5.2 The Rhine Estuary.- 9.5.3 The Elbe Estuary.- 9.5.4 Mixing Processes.- E Metal Transfer Between Solid and Aqueous Phases.- 1 Residence Times of Metals in Aquatic Systems.- 2 Types of Metal Association in Sediments.- 2.1 Classification of Chemical Phases in Sediment.- 2.2 Heavy Metals in Detrital Minerals.- 2.3 Heavy Metal Precipitation.- 2.3.1 Hydroxides.- 2.3.2 Sulfides.- 2.3.3 Carbonates.- 2.4 Cation Exchange and Adsorption.- 2.5 Sorption onto Clay Minerals.- 2.6 Sorption and Coprecipitation on Hydrous Fe/Mn-Oxides and Fe-Sulfides.- 2.6.1 Formation of Hydrous Mn and Fe Oxides.- 2.6.2 Sorption of Heavy Metals onto Fe/Mn Oxides.- 2.6.3 Coprecipitation of Trace Elements with Iron Sulfides.- 2.7 Metal Associations with Organic Substances.- 2.7.1 Organic Substances in Natural Waters.- 2.7.2 Sorption and Complexation of Metals by Humic Substances.- 2.7.3 Coagulation and Flocculation of Metal-Organic Matter.- 2.7.4 Associations of Metal-Organic Compounds to Sediments.- 2.8 Sorption of Trace Elements on Carbonates and Phosphates.- 3 Metal Accumulation in Aquatic Sediments—Interactions and Effects of Various Processes and Sinks.- 3.1 Hydroxidic Coatings on Clay Minerals.- 3.2 Organic Coatings on Clay Minerals.- 3.3 Interactions Between Hydrous Metal Oxides, Organic Substances, Carbonate, and Phosphate.- 3.4 Significance of the Different Sinks in Natural Systems.- 3.5 Non-Conservative Effects of Trace Metals in Estuaries.- 4 Determination of Chemical Phases in Natural and Polluted Sediments.- 4.1 Proportion of the Individual Types of Metal Associations in Natural and Polluted Aquatic Sediments.- 4.2 Grain Size and Chronological Variations; Phase Concentration Factor.- 5 Mobilization of Heavy Metals from Sediments.- 5.1 Saltwater/Sediment Interactions.- 5.1.1 Desorption Experiments.- 5.1.2 Estuary-Sediment Boundary.- 5.2 Redox Changes and Metal Release.- 5.2.1 Chemical Factors Affecting Metal Distribution in Interstitial Water.- 5.2.2 Physical Processes Affecting Metal Release from Pore Water.- 5.3 Metal Release by Acidic Water.- 5.3.1 Acid Mine Drainage.- 5.3.2 Acid Precipitation.- 5.4 Mobilization of Metals by Organic Complexing Agents.- 5.5 Mobilization of Heavy Metals by Microbial Activity.- 5.5.1 Microbial Interactions in Natural Environments.- 5.5.2 Bacterial Leaching of Metals.- 5.5.3 Microbial Action in the Mercury Cycle.- 5.5.4 Bacterial Methylation of Arsenic, Lead, and Selenium.- F Heavy Metals in Aquatic Organisms.- 1 Physico-Chemical Influences on the Toxicity and the Uptake of Heavy Metals with Respect to Organisms.- 1.1 Temperature and Oxygen Content.- 1.2 Water Hardness.- 1.3 Organic Compounds.- 1.4 pH Values.- 1.5 Salinity.- 2 Biologic Factors Affecting Heavy Metal Concentrations in Aquatic Organisms.- 2.1 General Physiologic Behavior.- 2.2 Life Cycle and Life History of the Organism.- 2.3 Seasonal Variations of Metal Content in Organisms.- 2.4 Species-Specific and Individual Variability.- 2.5 Contamination by Food and Intestine Content.- 3 Heavy Metal Enrichment in Limnic and Marine Organisms at Different Trophic Levels.- 3.1 Autotrophic Organisms.- 3.1.1 Phytoplankton.- 3.1.2 Marine Macroalgae.- 3.1.3 Freshwater Algae.- 3.1.4 Mosses.- 3.1.5 Higher Water Plants.- 3.2 Heterotrophic Organisms.- 3.2.1 Zooplankton.- 3.2.2 Bivalves.- 3.2.3 Higher Marine Crustaceans.- 3.2.4 Freshwater Crustaceans.- 3.2.5 Marine and Freshwater Fish.- 3.3 The Mobilization of Heavy Metals from Sediment by Aquatic Biota.- 3.4 Food Chain Enrichment in Aquatic Life.- G Trace Metals in Water Purification Processes.- 1 Heavy Metal Removal for the Production of Drinking Water.- 1.1 Obtaining Water by Bank Filtration.- 1.2 Artificial Recharge of Groundwater by Land Spreading and Injection.- 1.3 Direct Water Purification by Traditional Physico-Chemical Treatment (PCT) and Related Advanced Methods.- 1.3.1 Traditional Removal of Trace Metals by Pre-Clarification, Chlorination, Flocculation, and Filtration.- 1.3.2 Heavy Metal Removal by Chemical Precipitation.- 1.3.3 Activated Carbon Filtration in Drinking Water Purification.- 1.3.4 Heavy Metal Removal by Ion Exchange.- 1.3.5 Potential Metal Enrichments in the Water Distribution System.- 2 Heavy Metals in Industrial and Domestic Effluents.- 2.1 Effluents from the Electroplating Industry.- 2.2 Mercury Removal from Chlor-Alkali Plant Effluents.- 2.3 Prevention and Control of Acidic Mine Drainage.- 2.4 Heavy Metals in Urban Drainage Systems—Biologic Treatment (BT).- 2.4.1 Metal Extraction in the Mechanical (Primary) Sedimentation Unit.- 2.4.2 Reduction of Metal Loads in the Biologic Stage.- 2.5 Tertiary Physico-Chemical Treatment of Wastewater.- 3 Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludges.- 3.1 Land Application of Sewage Sludges.- 3.2 Impact of Heavy Metals on Groundwater Quality.- 3.3 Sewage Sludge Disposal to the Sea.- 3.4 Incineration of Sewage Sludge.- H Concluding Remarks.- 1 Disposal Versus Reuse.- 2 Alternative Materials.- References.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)