Metamaterials: Critique and Alternatives / Edition 1

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In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's fore-most authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative meta-materials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refraction, the author provides convincing alternative explanations for some of the experimental examples in the literature.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470377048
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/24/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 189
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Ben A. Munk, PhD, is Professor of Electrical Engineering at Ohio State University. He is considered a major contributor to the theory and design of periodic structures, particularly frequency selective surfaces, circuit analog absorbers, and phased arrays.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

1 Why Periodic Structures Cannot Synthesize Negative Indices of Refraction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Overview 1

1.1.2 Background 2

1.2 Current Assumptions Regarding Veselago's Medium 2

1.2.1 Negative Index of Refraction 2

1.2.2 Phase Advance when n1 <0 3

1.2.3 Evanescent Waves Grow with Distance for n1 <0 3

1.2.4 The Field and Phase Vectors Form a Left-Handed Triplet for n1 <0 3

1.3 Fantastic Designs Could Be Realized if Veselago's Material Existed 5

1.4 How Veselago's Medium Is Envisioned To Be Synthesized Using Periodic Structures 6

1.5 How Does a Periodic Structure Refract? 9

1.5.1 Infinite Arrays 9

1.5.2 What About Finite Arrays? 15

1.6 On the Field Surrounding an Infinite Periodic Structure of Arbitrary Wire Elements Located in One or More Arrays 16

1.6.1 Single Array of Elements with One Segment 16

1.6.2 Single Array of Elements with Two Segments 18

1.6.3 Single Array of Elements with an Arbitrary Number of Segments 19

1.6.4 On Grating Lobes and Backward-Traveling Waves 20

1.6.5 Two Arrays of Elements with an Arbitrary Number of Segments 21

1.6.6 Can Arrays of Wires Ever Change the Direction of the Incident Field? 23

1.7 On Increasing Evanescent Waves: A Fatal Misconception 23

1.8 Preliminary Conclusion: Synthesizing Veselago's Medium by a Periodic Structure Is Not Feasible 24

1.9 On Transmission-Line Dispersion: Backward-Traveling Waves 26

1.9.1 Transmission Lines 26

1.9.2 Periodic Structures 30

1.10 Regarding Veselago's Conclusion: Are There Deficiencies? 32

1.10.1 Background 32

1.10.2 Veselago's Argument for a Negative Index of Refraction 32

1.10.3 Veselago's Flat Lens: IsIt Really Realistic? 34

1.11 Conclusions 35

1.12 Common Misconceptions 38

1.12.1 Artificial Dielectrics: Do They Really Refract? 38

1.12.2 Real Dielectrics: How Do They Refract? 40

1.12.3 On the E-and H-Fields 41

1.12.4 On Concentric Split-Ring Resonators 42

1.12.5 What Would Veselago Have Asked if... 42

1.12.6 On "Magic" Structures 43

References 44

2 On Cloaks and Reactive Radomes 47

2.1 Cloaks 47

2.1.1 Concept 47

2.1.2 Prior Art 47

2.1.3 Alternative Explanation 48

2.1.4 Alternative Design 50

2.1.5 What Can You Really Expect from a Cloak? 50

2.2 Reactive Radomes 51

2.2.1 Infinite Planar Array with and Without Reactive Radome 51

2.2.2 Line Arrays and Single Elements 54

2.3 Common Misconceptions 55

2.3.1 Misinterpretation of Calculated Results 55

2.3.2 Ultimately: What Power Can You Expect from a Short Dipole Encapsulated in a Small Spherical Radome? 56

2.4 Concluding Remarks 57

References 58

3 Absorbers with Windows 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Statement of the Problem 61

3.3 Concept 62

3.4 Conceptual Designs 63

3.5 Extension to Arbitrary Polarization 66

3.6 The High-Frequency Band 66

3.7 Complete Conceptual Rasorber Design 67

3.8 Practical Designs 69

3.9 Other Applications of Traps: Multiband Arrays 69

Reference 70

4 On Designing Absorbers for an Oblique Angle of Incidence 71

4.1 Lagarkov's and Classical Designs 71

4.2 Salisbury Screen 74

4.3 Scan Compensation 76

4.4 Frequency Compensation 77

4.5 Circuit Analog Absorbers 80

4.6 Other Designs: Comparison and Discussion 85

4.7 Conclusions 89

References 91

5 The Titan Antenna: An Alternative to Magnetic Ground Planes 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Layout of the Antenna 94

5.3 On Double-Band Matching in General 96

5.4 Matching the Sleeve Elements 97

5.5 Further Matching: The Main Distribution Network 101

5.6 The Balun 103

5.7 The Radiation Pattern 104

5.8 Something that Sounds Too Good To Be True Usually Is 106

5.9 Efficiency Measurements 108

5.10 A Common Misconception 108

5.11 We Put the Magnetic Ground Plane to Rest 109

5.12 Conclusions 112

References 113

6 Summary and Concluding Remarks 115

6.1 Background 115

6.2 The Features of Veselago's Material 116

6.3 What Can a Periodic Structure Actually Simulate? 117

6.4 Did Veselago Choose the Wrong Branch Cut? 118

6.5 Could We Ever Have a Negative Index of Refraction? 118

6.6 Could Veselago Have Avoided the Wrong Solution? 120

6.7 So What Came Out of It? 121

6.8 Is Publishing the Ultimate Goal in Scientific Research? 122

6.9 What Excites a Scientist? 122

6.10 How Far Have We Gone in Our Self-Deception? 124

6.11 But Didn't Anyone Suspect Anything? 124

6.12 How Realistic Are Small Arrays? 125

References 126

Appendix A The Paper Rejected in 2003 129

A.1 Comments Written in 2007 Concerning My Rejected Paper Submitted in 2003 129

A.2 The Paper Rejected in 2003 131

Appendix B Cavity-Type Broadband Antenna with a Steerable Cardioid Pattern 149

B.1 Introduction 149

B.2 Design 1 149

B.3 Design 2 151

B.4 Development of Design 2b 154

B.4.1 Push-Push Traps 157

B.4.2 Actual Layout 158

B.4.3 Phase Reversal in the Balun 160

B.4.4 Final Execution of Design 2b 162

B.4.5 Radiation Pattern 162

B.4.6 Impedance 165

B.5 Conclusions 165

References 166

Appendix C How to Measure the Characteristic Impedance and Attenuation of a Cable 167

C.1 Background 167

C.2 Input Connector Effect 170

C.3 Do the Formulas Hold in the Smith Charts? 171

C.4 How to Measure the Cable Loss 171

Reference 173

Appendix D Can Negative Refraction Be Observed Using a Wedge of Lossy Material? 175

D.1 Introduction 175

D.2 Refraction for Planar Slabs 175

D.3 Wedge-Shaped Dielectric 179

D.4 Asymmetric Aperture Distributions in General 181

D.5 Conclusions 181

References 184

Index 185

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