Metastases in Head and Neck Cancer / Edition 1

Metastases in Head and Neck Cancer / Edition 1

by Jochen A. Werner
     
 

ISBN-10: 3540205071

ISBN-13: 9783540205074

Pub. Date: 06/02/2005

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

-Richly illustrated; 109 illustrations, 57 in color

-Cover a wide range of diagnostic and theraputic techniques, i.e. MRI, PET, surgical treatment, radiation therapy

Overview

-Richly illustrated; 109 illustrations, 57 in color

-Cover a wide range of diagnostic and theraputic techniques, i.e. MRI, PET, surgical treatment, radiation therapy

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9783540205074
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date:
06/02/2005
Pages:
233
Product dimensions:
7.60(w) x 9.53(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Basics of Lymphology.- 1.1 Embryology and Anatomy.- 1.1.1 Lymph Vessels.- 1.1.1.1 History.- 1.1.1.1 History.- 1.1.1.3 Morphology.- 1.1.1.4 Distribution.- 1.1.2 Lymph Nodes.- 1.1.2.1 Embryology.- 1.1.2.2 Morphology.- 1.1.2.3 Topography and Classification of Cervicofacial Lymph Nodes.- 1.1.2.4 Fascial System of the Neck.- 1.2 Physiology and Pathophysiology.- 1.2.1 Lymph Vessels.- 1.2.2 Lymph Nodes.- References.- 2 Lymphogenic Metastatic Spread.- 2.1 Squamous Cell Carcinomas.- 2.1.1 Nasal Cavity and Paranasal SinusesM.- 2.1.2 Lip and Oral Cavity.- 2.1.3 Nasopharynx.- 2.1.4 Oropharynx.- 2.1.5 Hypopharynx and Cervical Esophagus.- 2.1.6 Larynx and Trachea.- 2.1.7 Skin.- 2.2 Malignant Melanoma.- 2.3 Merkel Cell Carcinoma.- 2.4 Carcinomas of the Salivary Glands.- 2.5 Carcinomas of the Thyroid Gland.- References.- 3 The Pathology of Lymphogenic Metastatic Spread.- 3.1 Examination Methods.- 3.2 Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck.- 3.2.1 Conventional Squamous Cell Carcinoma.- 3.2.2 Cytologic Diagnosis.- 3.2.3 Variants of Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck.- 3.2.3.1 Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma.- 3.2.3.2 Adenoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma.- 3.2.3.3 Undifferentiated (Lymphoepithelial) Carcinoma (Schmincke Tumor).- 3.2.3.4 Adenosquamous Carcinoma.- 3.2.3.5 Spindle Cell Carcinoma.- 3.2.4 Micrometastases of Squamous Cell Carcinomas.- 3.2.5 Extracapsular Extension of Lymph Node Metastases.- 3.2.6 Cystic Cervical Lymph Node Metastases.- 3.2.7 Changes of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases After Radiation and Chemotherapy.- 3.3 Metastases of Salivary Gland Tumors and Thyroid Gland Carcinomas.- 3.4 Uncommon Cervical Lymph Node Metastases.- 3.5 Non-Neoplastic Reactive Lymph Node Alterations.- References.- 4 Diagnostic Techniques.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Inspection and Palpation.- 4.2.1 Inspection.- 4.2.2 Palpation.- 4.3 B-Mode Sonography.- 4.3.1 Benign Lymphadenitis.- 4.3.2 Malignant Lymphomas.- 4.3.3 Lymph Node Metastases.- 4.3.3.1 Sonographic Criteria.- 4.3.3.2 Extracapsular Growth.- 4.3.3.3 Lymph Node Metastases of Non-Squamous Origin.- 4.3.3.4 Follow-Up.- 4.3.4 Sonographic Differential Diagnosis of Enlarged Cervical Lymph Nodes.- 4.3.5 Sonographically Controlled Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.- 4.3.6 Future Technical Developments.- 4.3.6.1 Color-Coded Duplex Sonography.- 4.3.6.2 Signal Amplification.- 4.3.6.3 Digital Sonographic Procedures.- 4.4 Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 4.4.1 Computed Tomography.- 4.4.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 4.4.3 CT/MRI for Benign Cervical Masses.- 4.4.4 CT/MRI for Lymph Node Metastases.- 4.5 Lymphoscintigraphy.- 4.5.1 Dynamic Scintigraphy of Lymphatic Drainage.- 4.5.2 Thallium-201 Scintigraphy.- 4.5.3 Sentinel Lymphadenectomy.- 4.5.4 Radioimmunoscintigraphy.- 4.6 Positron Emission Tomography.- 4.7 Lymphography.- 4.8 Lymph Node Biopsy.- 4.8.1 Lymph Node Extirpation.- 4.8.2 Scalene Node Biopsy.- 4.8.3 Mediastinoscopy.- 4.9 Conclusion.- References.- 5 Principles of Surgery.- 5.1 History and Classification of the Surgical Treatment of Cervicofacial Lymph Node Metastases.- 5.1.1 History.- 5.1.2 Neck Dissection Classification.- 5.2 Decision Points in Neck Dissection.- 5.2.1 Pre- and Perioperative Care.- 5.2.1.1 Facets of Preoperative Lymph Node Biopsy.- 5.2.1.2 Diagnostics of Therapeutic Carotid Occlusion.- 5.2.2 Timing of Neck Dissection.- 5.2.3 Patient Age and Neck Dissection.- 5.2.4 Infectious Prophylaxis.- 5.2.5 Operative Approaches.- 5.2.5.1 Radical Neck Dissection.- 5.2.5.2 Modified Radical Neck Dissection.- 5.2.5.3 Selective Neck Dissection.- 6 Radiation Therapy: Principles and Treatment.- 6.1 Elective Neck Irradiation.- 6.2 Postoperative Radiation of the Node Positive Neck.- 6.3 Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy.- 6.3.1 IMRT in Nasopharynx Cancer.- 6.3.2 IMRT of Oropharynx Cancer.- 6.3.3 IMRT of Paranasal Sinus Cancers.- 6.3.4 IMRT in Other Situations.- 6.4 Future Potential Applications.- References.- 7 Surgical Treatment Concepts.- 7.1 The Role of Neck Dissection in the Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract.- 7.1.1 Clinical No Neck.- 7.1.2 Contralateral No Neck in the Case of an Ipsilateral N+ Neck.- 7.1.2.1 Anterior Oral Cavity.- 7.1.2.2 Oropharynx.- 7.1.2.3 Supraglottis.- 7.1.2.4 Glottis.- 7.1.2.5 Hypopharynx.- 7.1.3 Verified Lymph Node Metastases (N+ Neck).- 7.1.3.1 N1 and N2 Neck.- 7.1.3.2 Fixed Lymph Node Metastases.- 7.1.3.3 Neck Dissection Following Primary Radio(Chemo)Therapy.- 7.1.3.4 Peristomal Recurrence.- 7.1.3.5 Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodes in Metastases from Head and Neck Cancers.- 7.2 Neck Dissection for Lymphoepithelial Carcinomas.- Neck Dissection for Skin Malignancies.- 7.3.1 Squamous Cell Carcinomas.- 7.3.2 Malignant Melanoma.- 7.3.3 Merkel Cell Carcinoma.- 7.4 Neck Dissection for Carcinomas of the Salivary Glands.- 7.5 Neck Dissection for Carcinomas of the Thyroid Gland.- 7.6 Sentinel Node Biopsy.- 7.6.1 Marking of the Sentinel Node.- 7.6.2 Intraoperative Detection of Activity.- 7.6.3 Limits and Sources of Errors.- 7.7 Conclusion.- References.- 8 Complications.- 8.1 Surgical Complications.- 8.1.1 General Considerations.- 8.1.2 Preoperative Informed Consent.- 8.1.3 Wound Healing Impairment.- 8.1.4 Vascular System.- 8.1.6 Vasovagal Response.- 8.1.7 Chylus Fistula and Chylothorax.- 8.1.8 Increased Intracranial Pressure.- 8.1.9 Visual Loss and Blindness.- 8.1.10 Lymphedema.- 8.1.11 Clavicular Fracture.- 8.1.12 Postoperative Care.- 8.2 Complications from Radiation Therapy.- 8.2.1 Clinically Evident Acute Toxicities.- 8.2.2 Delayed Radiation Effects.- References.- 9 Cancer of Unknown Primary Sites.- 9.1 General Considerations.- 9.2 Topography of Lymph Node Metastases in Cancer of Unknown Primary.- 9.3 Diagnostics.- 9.4 Prognosis in Patients with Cancer of Unknown Primary Site.- 9.4.1 Metastases in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary.- 9.4.2 Metastases in Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Primary.- 9.4.3 Metastases in Malignant Melanoma of Unknown Primary.- 9.5 Treatment Concepts of Lymph Node Metastases in Sqamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site.- 9.5.1 Primary Radio(chemo)therapy.- 9.5.2 Combined Radiotherapy and Surgery.- 9.5.3 Treatment Concept of Cervical N1 Lymph Node Metastasis in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck.- 9.5.4 Treatment Concept of the Contralateral Neck Side (No).- 9.6 Treatment Concepts of Lymph Node Metastases in Adenocarcinoma.- 9.7 Treatment Concepts of Lymph Node Metastases in Occult Malignant Melanoma.- 9.8 Value of Post-Therapeutic Appearance of the Primary Cancer.- 9.9 Branchiogenic Carcinoma.- References.- 10 Distant Metastases.- 10.1 Nasopharynx.- 10.2 Lips and Anterior Oral Cavity.- 10.3 Oropharynx.- 10.4 Larynx and Hypopharynx.- 10.5 Cervical Esophagus.- 10.6 Salivary Glands.- 10.7 Thyroid Gland.- References.- 11 Post-Therapeutic Follow-Up Principles.- 11.1 General Considerations.- 11.2 Follow-Up Interval.- 11.3 Type, Extent and Costs of Follow-up Examinations.- 11.3.1 The Upper Aerodigestive Tract.- 11.3.2 Neck.- 11.3.3 Thorax.- 11.3.4 Abdomen and Scintigraphy of the Skeletal Bones.- 11.3.5 Possible Strategies.- References.

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