Methane Gas Hydrate

Overview

Gas hydrates are potentially one of the most important energy resources for the future. They represent one of the World's largest untapped reservoirs of energy and, according to some estimates, have the potential to meet global energy needs for the next thousand years. Methane Gas Hydrate examines this potential by focusing on methane gas hydrate, which is increasingly considered a significant source of energy.

Methane Gas Hydrate gives a general overview of natural gas, before ...

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Overview

Gas hydrates are potentially one of the most important energy resources for the future. They represent one of the World's largest untapped reservoirs of energy and, according to some estimates, have the potential to meet global energy needs for the next thousand years. Methane Gas Hydrate examines this potential by focusing on methane gas hydrate, which is increasingly considered a significant source of energy.

Methane Gas Hydrate gives a general overview of natural gas, before delving into the subject of gas hydrates in more detail and methane gas hydrate in particular. As well as discussing methods of gas production, it also examines the safety and environmental concerns associated with the presence of natural gas hydrates, ranging from their possible impact on the safety of conventional drilling operations to their influence on Earth's climate.

Methane Gas Hydrate is a useful reference on an increasingly popular energy source. It contains valuable information for chemical engineers and researchers, as well as for postgraduate students.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848828711
  • Publisher: Springer London
  • Publication date: 3/5/2010
  • Series: Green Energy and Technology Series
  • Edition description: 2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 186
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Ayhan Demirbas is a full professor at Sila Science and Energy. He was a Professor in Energy Technologies Science at Karadeniz Technical University between 1991 and 2001, and at Selcuk University from 2003 to 2007. His research is mainly concerned with renewable and sustainable energy.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Global Energy Sources 1

1.2 Fossil Fuel Sources 3

1.2.1 The History of Petroleum 4

1.2.2 Petroleum Refining 6

1.2.3 Petroleum Products and Fuels 9

1.2.4 Coal 13

1.2.5 Chemicals and Fuels from Coal 15

1.2.6 Natural Gas 17

1.2.7 Gas Hydrates 17

1.2.8 Oil Shale 18

1.2.9 Tar Sands 19

1.2.10 Natural Bitumen and Extra-heavy Oil 20

1.3 Renewable Energy Sources 21

1.3.1 Biomass 22

1.3.2 Hydropower 43

1.3.3 Geothermal Energy 46

1.3.4 Wind Energy 47

1.3.5 Solar Energy 48

1.3.6 Other Renewable Energy Sources 50

1.3.7 Municipal Solid Waste and Landfill Gas 50

1.4 Nuclear Fuel Sources 52

1.5 Summary 53

References 54

2 Natural Gas 57

2.1 Introduction 57

2.2 Definition and History 59

2.3 Origin of Natural Gas 60

2.4 Natural Gas Resources 61

2.5 Natural Gas Production, Consumption, and Distribution 62

2.6 Compressed Natural Gas 65

2.7 Liquefied Natural Gas 66

2.8 Contribution of Natural Gas to Global Warning 67

2.9 Use of Natural Gas 68

2.9.1 Industrial Uses 69

2.9.2 Residential Use 70

2.9.3 Electricity Generation using Natural Gas 71

2.9.4 Commercial Use 72

2.9.5 Natural Gas in the Transportation Sector 72

2.10 Importance of Natural Gas 73

2.11 Environmental Impacts 73

2.12 Summary 75

References 76

3 Gas Hydrates 77

3.1 Introduction 77

3.1.1 Definition 79

3.1.2 History 80

3.1.3 Gas Hydrate Origin and Formation 81

3.1.4 Clathrates and Crystalline Clathrate Solids 85

3.1.5 Storage of Hydrogen in Clathrates 86

3.2 Chemical Structures 87

3.2.1 Chemical Structure of the Water Molecule 87

3.2.2 Chemical Structure of the Methane Molecule 89

3.2.3 Crystalline Structure of Water Ice 90

3.2.4 Crystalline Structure of Gas Hydrate 91

3.3 Crystal Types of Gas Hydrates 92

3.3.1 Clathrate Structure I 94

3.3.2 Clathrate Structure II 95

3.3.3 Clathrate Structure H 96

3.4 Methane Gas Fuel 98

3.4.1 Combustion of Methane 100

3.4.2 Main Reactions of Methane 103

3.5 Summary 107

References 108

4 Methane Gas Hydrate: as a Natural Gas Source 113

4.1 Introduction 113

4.2 Importance of Methane Hydrates 114

4.3 Global Climate Change 116

4.3.1 Air Pollution 116

4.3.2 Greenhouse Effect 121

4.3.3 Global Warming 122

4.3.4 Arguments Against Global Warming 125

4.3 5 Kyoto Protocol 125

4.3.6 Carbon Credits 126

4.3.7 Carbon Sequestration 127

4.4 Effects of Methane Hydrates on Climate Change 128

4.5 World's Methane Hydrate Resources 132

4.5.1 Gas Hydrates on the North Slope, Alaska 136

4.5.2 Gas Hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico 136

4.5.3 Gas Hydrates in Russia's West Siberian Basin 137

4.5.4 Gas Hydrates in Canada 137

4.5.5 Projects Related to Methane Hydrates in Japan, India, China, Malaysia, and Korea 138

4.5.6 A Case Study: Methane Hydrates in the Black Sea 139

4.6 Properties of Methane Hydrates 141

4.7 Methane Hydrate Stability 143

4.8 Facilities for Recovery of Methane from Methane Hydrate 147

4.8.1 Disposal of Impurities from Methane 148

4.8.2 Gas Hydrate Research and Development 148

4.9 Properties of Seawater 150

4.10 Summary 154

References 155

5 Processes for Methane Production from Gas Hydrates 161

5.1 Introduction 161

5.2 Depressurization Process 163

5.3 Thermal Stimulation Process 165

5.4 Chemical Inhibitor Injection Process 166

5.5 Gas Hydrate Reservoirs 169

5.5.1 Arctic Hydrates 169

5.5.2 Marine Hydrates 170

5.6 Seafloor Drilling of the Hydrate Zone for Exploration and Production of Methane 171

5.7 Possible Transportation Routes 174

5.8 Economic and Political Issues 176

5.9 Summary 177

References 178

Index 183

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