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Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research

Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research

by Alan E. Kazdin

ISBN-10: 155798154X

ISBN-13: 9781557981547

Pub. Date: 03/01/1992

Publisher: American Psychological Association

This third edition of the now-classic Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research is, like its predecessors, intended to assist students and professionals alike in increasing their mastery of the range of methodological approaches available with which to examine clinical issues and phenomena. Editor Alan E. Kazdin's goal is to foster a greater


This third edition of the now-classic Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research is, like its predecessors, intended to assist students and professionals alike in increasing their mastery of the range of methodological approaches available with which to examine clinical issues and phenomena. Editor Alan E. Kazdin's goal is to foster a greater understanding of the implications of decisions about methodology and design in the context of contemporary research practices. Presented are articles on experimental design; the principles, procedures, and practices that govern research; assessment of study constructs and their interrelationships; potential sources of artifact and bias; methods of data analysis and interpretation; ethical issues; and publication and communication of research findings. The book's divisions mirror the logical and (often) the temporal order of the research process, focusing in turn on each step traversed during the course of an investigation.

With 21 new articles and significantly revised and expanded introductory material, the third edition features many scholarly contributions that explicate core concepts, survey contemporary issues in research, and elaborate on ethical responsibilities in relation both to research participants and to science itself. Additions include articles on mediators and moderators of effects, on methods for studying the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy, and on ways of incorporating systematic observation and evaluation into clinical practice to improve patient care. A key concept reiterated throughout is that methodology, far from being a neutral tool for acquiring knowledge, is rather a powerful contributor to and determinant of the knowledge that one obtains.

Product Details

American Psychological Association
Publication date:
Edition description:
1st ed

Table of Contents

I.Introduction: Overview and Background3
Chapter 1.Methodology: What It Is and Why It Is So Important5
Chapter 2.Unified Psychology23
II.Beginning the Research Process49
Research Ideas55
Chapter 3.Getting Out of Our Conceptual Ruts: Strategies for Expanding Conceptual Frameworks57
Chapter 4.Toward Terminological, Conceptual, and Statistical Clarity in the Study of Mediators and Moderators: Examples From the Child-Clinical and Pediatric Psychology Literatures77
Foci of Research107
Chapter 5.In Defense of External Invalidity109
Chapter 6.When Small Effects Are Impressive127
III.Methods: Principles and Practices139
Sampling Participants and Conditions145
Chapter 7.Random Sampling, Randomization, and Equivalence of Contrasted Groups in Psychotherapy Outcome Research147
Chapter 8.Stimulus Sampling in Clinical Research: Representative Design Reviewed163
Ethnicity and Underrepresented Groups171
Chapter 9.Science, Ethnicity, and Bias: Where Have We Gone Wrong?173
Chapter 10.Ethnic Representation in a Sample of the Literature of Applied Psychology189
Developing Measures205
Chapter 11.Constructing Validity: Basic Issues in Objective Scale Development207
Reliability, Validity, and Utility233
Chapter 12.Clinical Applications of Analogue Behavioral Observation: Dimensions of Psychometric Evaluation235
Chapter 13.Psychological Testing and Psychological Assessment: A Review of Evidence and Issues
Measurement Among Different Samples347
Chapter 14.Methodological Issues in Assessment Research With Ethnic Minorities349
V.Data Analysis, Evaluation, and Interpretation369
Background and Underpinnings of Data Analyses377
Chapter 15.On the Origins of the .05 Level of Statistical Significance379
Chapter 16.Hypothesis Validity of Clinical Research389
Chapter 17.Things I Have Learned (So Far)407
Null Hypotheses and Statistical Significance Testing425
Chapter 18.A Power Primer427
Chapter 19.Statistical Significance Testing and Cumulative Knowledge in Psychology: Implications for Training of Researchers437
Chapter 20.One Cheer for Null Hypothesis Significance Testing461
Chapter 21.The Proof of the Pudding: An Illustration of the Relative Strengths of Null Hypothesis, Meta-Analysis, and Bayesian Analysis465
VI.Special Topics in Clinical Research493
Treatment Evaluation: Efficacy and Effectiveness503
Chapter 22.Research on Psychotherapy Efficacy and Effectiveness: Between Scylla and Charybdis?505
Chapter 23.Are Results of Randomized Controlled Trials Useful to Psychotherapists?547
Chapter 24.Improving the Transition From Basic Efficacy Research to Effectiveness Studies: Methodological Issues and Procedures569
Chapter 25.The Role of Method in Treatment Effectiveness Research: Evidence From Meta-Analysis589
Evaluation in Clinical Work617
Chapter 26.Outcome Assessment: From Conceptualization to Implementation619
Chapter 27.Single-Participant Research Design: Bringing Science to Managed Care635
Chapter 28.Drawing Valid Inferences From Case Studies655
Chapter 29.Efficacy and Specific Effects Data on New Treatments: A Case Study Strategy With Mixed Anxiety-Depression671
Expanding Outcome Assessment and Domains689
Chapter 30.Clinical Significance: Measuring Whether Interventions Make a Difference691
Chapter 31.Toward the Incorporation of Costs, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, and Cost-Benefit Analysis Into Clinical Research711
VII.Ethics in Research729
Guidelines and Codes735
Chapter 32.Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct737
Chapter 33.Moral Foundations in Research with Human Participants771
Special Topics and Issues779
Chapter 34.Ethical Transgressions of Psychology Graduate Students: Critical Incidents With Implications for Training781
Chapter 35.Reflections on Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order on Faculty-Student Collaborations791
VIII.Publication and Communication of Research807
Connecting Assessment, Research Design, and Conclusions811
Chapter 36.Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations813
Journal Publication835
Chapter 37.Preparing and Evaluating Research Reports837
Chapter 38.Writing a Review Article for Psychological Bulletin859
IX.Perspectives on Methodology875
Chapter 39.Methodology: General Lessons to Guide Research877
About the Editor913

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