Methods of Tissue Engineering

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Overview

Tissue engineering is a dynamic and rapidly growing field emerging from the cross-disciplinary efforts of engineers, physical and life scientists, and physicians to create new tissues and organs from cells and synthetic molds. Recent developments have led to a great expansion of clinical applications using tissue engineering technologies.

This book serves as a starting point for the student, a resource for the experienced tissue engineer, and a guidebook for the next generation of tissue engineers. Contained in one volume is a comprehensive reference that combines the tools, experimental protocols, detailed descriptions, and "know-how" for the successful engineering of tissues and organs.

KEY FEATURES
* Contains practical, hands-on information for tissue engineers and students
* Provides comprehensive protocols covering numerous topics, including polymer synthesis, cell culture, encapsulation, bioreactors, therapeutics, and the creation of tissues and organs
* Includes contributions by leaders in the latest areas of research, such as stem cells and fetal tissue engineering

ABOUT THE EDITORS:
Anthony Atala, M.D., is an associate professor of surgery and the Director of Tissue Engineering and Cellular Therapeutics at Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston. He is a surgeon, researcher, and expert on tissue engineering and stem cell biology. He received his M.D. from the University of Louisville in 1985 and completed his research and clinical fellowships in pediatric urologic surgery at Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Atala has received numerous awards and honors, including the Christopher Columbus Foundation Award for Innovative Scientific and Clinical Discovery.

Robert P. Lanza, M.D., is Medical Director and Vice President of Medical and Scientific Development at Advanced Cell Technology. Dr. Lanza is a former Fulbright Scholar and has been nominated for a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award. He received his B.A. and M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was both a University Scholar and a Benjamin Franklin Scholar. As a student, he studied in the laboratory of Richard Hynes (MIT), Gerald Edelman (Rockefeller University), and Jonas Salk (The Salk Institute). He also worked closely with the late Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner and heart transplant pioneer Christiaan Barnard.

Audience: Chemical engineers, cell biologists, tissue engineers and any individuals working in the field of regenerative medicine.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"prepared for students in their early stages of learning tissue engineering as well as advanced scientists in the life sciences."
—Soon Hong Yuk, Hannam University for PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH (July 2002)
From The Critics
This text presents a clear view of the state of tissue engineering, a key element of regenerative medicine. The 108 contributions describe stem cells, cell culture, polymer synthesis, encapsulation, bioreactors, gene therapy, drug delivery, therapeutics, and the creation of tissue and organs. They include general directions and specific procedures for the cultivation of epithelial, mesenchymal, neuroectodermal, and gonadal cells and the elusive stem cell; methods for making scaffolds upon which these cells may grow and flourish; and progress made to date in creating large and small blood vessels; cornea; cardiac muscle, valves, and arteries; and sections of the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, liver, and kidney. They also discuss rebuilding phalanges of the hand and other small joints; regeneration of the nervous system, including procedures related to the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and parts of the brain; and breast reconstruction. Illustrated in b&w. Edited by Atala (Harvard Medical School) and Lanza (Advanced Cell Technology). Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780124366367
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 10/12/2001
  • Pages: 1285
  • Product dimensions: 8.84 (w) x 11.18 (h) x 2.22 (d)

Meet the Author

Anthony Atala, M.D., is the Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the W.H. Boyce Professor and Chair of the Department of Urology at Wake Forest University. Dr. Atala is a practicing surgeon and a researcher in the area of regenerative medicine. His current work focuses on growing new human cells, tissues and organs.

Dr. Atala works with several journals and serves in various roles, including Editor-in-Chief of Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy, and Therapeutic Advances in Urology; as Associate Editor of the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, The Journal of Rejuvenation Research, Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, Gene Therapy and Regulation, and Current Reviews in Urology; as Executive Board Member or Section Editor of the journal Tissue Engineering and International Journal of Artificial Organs, and as Editorial Board member of the International Journal of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Review Letters, Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, Biomedical Materials, Recent Patents on Regenerative Medicine, the Journal of the American College of Surgeons, the Journal of Urology, BMC Urology, Urology, and Current Opinion in Urology.

Dr. Atala is a recipient of the US Congress funded Christopher Columbus Foundation Award, bestowed on a living American who is currently working on a discovery that will significantly affect society, and the Gold Cystoscope Award for advances in his field. Dr. Atala was named by Scientific American as a Medical Treatments Leader of the Year for his contributions to the fields of cell, tissue and organ regeneration. In 2006, he was named by Fast Company magazine as one of 50 people who “will change how we work and live over the next 10 years. Dr. Atala’s work was listed as Discover Magazinès Number 1 Top Science Story of the Year in the field of medicine, and as Time Magazine’s top 10 medical breakthroughs of the year in 2007. A Time Magazine poll ranked Dr. Atala as the 56th most influential person of the year in 2007. Esquire Magazine in 2008 named Dr. Atala one of the 75 most influential persons of the 21st century. Fast Company Magazine named Dr. Atala one of 100 Most Creative People in Business in 2009. Dr. Atala was featured in U.S. News & World Report as one of “14 Medical Pioneers Who Aren’t Holding Back.”

Dr. Atala has led or served several national professional and government committees, including the National Institutes of Health working group on Cells and Developmental Biology, and the National Institutes of Health Bioengineering Consortium. He is currently an NIH “Quantum Grant” awardee. Dr. Atala heads a team of over 250 physicians and researchers. Ten applications of technologies developed in Dr. Atala's laboratory have been used clinically. He is the editor of nine books, including Minimally Invasive Urology, Methods of Tissue Engineering, Principles of Regenerative Medicine, and Foundations of Regenerative Medicine, and has published more than 300 journal articles and has applied for or received over 200 national and international patents.

Robert Lanza, M.D. is currently Chief Scientific Officer at Advanced Cell Technology, and Adjunct Professor of Surgical Sciences at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. He has several hundred scientific publications and patents, and over 30 books, including Principles of Tissue Engineering (1st through 4th Editions), Methods of Tissue Engineering, Principles of Cloning (1st and 2nd Editions), Essentials of Stem Cell Biology (1st and 2nd Editions), XENO, Yearbook of Cell & Tissue Transplantation, One World: The Health & Survival of the Human Species in the 21st Century (as editor, with forewords by C. Everett Koop and former President Jimmy Carter), and Medical Science & the Advancement of World Health. Dr. Lanza received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was both a University Scholar and Benjamin Franklin Scholar. He is a former Fulbright Scholar, and studied as a student in the laboratory of Richard Hynes (MIT), Jonas Salk (The Salk Institute), and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman (Rockefeller University) and Rodney Porter (Oxford University). He also worked closely (and coauthored a series of papers) with the late Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner and heart transplant pioneer Christiaan Barnard. Dr. Lanza's current area of research focuses on the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine.

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Read an Excerpt

A comprehensive reference for the number one profession of the millennium
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Table of Contents

Contributors.
Foreward.
Preface.

SECTION I: METHODS FOR CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE
Regulatory Issues and Standardization.
Cell Isolation and Selection.
Maintenance of Primary and Early Passage Cultures.
Cell Quantitation and Characterization.
Adventitious Agents and Chemical Toxicity.
Culture Environments: Cell-Polymer-Bioreactor Systems.
Culture Environments: Microarrays.
Culture Environments: Micropatterned Cell Cultures and Cocultures.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Cornea.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Breast.
Liver Cell Culture and Lineage Biology.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Pancreatic Islets.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Tracheal Gland Cells.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Kidney.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Gastrointestinal Tract.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Urothelium.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Prostate.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Three-Dimensional Cervical System.
Epithelial Cell Culture: Vaginal Cell Reconstruction.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Adipose Tissue.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Smooth Muscle.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Cardiac-Derived Muscle Cells.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Functional Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Constructs.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Instrumentation and Methods for Evaluating Engineered Muscle.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Cartilage.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Bone.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Endothelial Cell Tissue Engineering.
Mesenchymal Cell Culture: Blood Vessels.
Neuroectodermal Cell Culture: Endocrine Cells.
Neuroectodermal Cell Culture: Glia and Neurons.
Gonad Cell Culture: Testis.
Gonad Cell Culture: Ovarian Cells.
Stem Cell Culture: Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Culture: Neural Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Culture: Liver Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Culture: Muscle Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Culture: Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Regeneration.
Stem Cell Culture: Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Bone Marrow.
Stem Cell Culture: Chondrogenic Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Culture: Hematopoietic Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Culture: Lymphoid Cells.

SECTION II: METHODS FOR CELL DELIVERY VEHICLES
Modification of Natural Polymers: Collagen.
Modification of Natural Polymers: Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Copolymers.
Modification of Natural Polymers: Albumin.
Modification of Natural Polymers: Hyaluronic Acid.
Modification of Natural Polymers: Fibrinogen-Fibrin.
Modification of Natural Polymers: Chitosan.
Polymers Biosynthesized by Microorganisms: Polyhydroxyalkanoates.
Synthesis of Synthetic Polymers: Aliphatic Carbonate-Based Polymers.
Synthesis of Synthetic Polymers: Dioxanone- and Dioxepanone-Based Polymers.
Synthesis of Synthetic Polymers: Polyphosphazenes.
Synthesis of Synthetic Polymers: Poly(Anhydrides).
Synthesis of Synthetic Polymers: Poly(Ortho Esters).
Synthesis of Synthetic Polymers: Poly(Amino Acids).
Synthesis of Synthetic Polymers: Poly(Propylene Fumarate).
Synthesis of Hydrogels: Alginate Hydrogels.
Synthesis of Hydrogels: Environmentally Sensitive Hydrogels Based on N-Isopropylacrylamide.
Processing of Polymer Scaffolds: Solvent Casting.
Processing of Polymer Scaffolds: Membrane Lamination.
Processing of Polymer Scaffolds: Freeze-Drying.
Processing of Polymer Scaffolds: Polymer-Ceramic Composite Forms.
Processing of Polymer Scaffolds: Phase Separation.
Processing of Polymer Scaffolds: Polymerization.
Processing of Polymer Scaffolds: Gas Foam Processing.
Cell-Synthetic Surface Interactions: Self-Assembling Biomaterials.
Cell-Synthetic Surface Interactions: Targeted Cell Adhesion.
Cell-Synthetic Surface Interactions: Physiochemical Surface Modification.
Microencapsulation Methods: Agarose-PSSa.
Microencapsulation Methods: Alginate (CA2+-Induced Gelation).
Microencapsulation Methods: Alginate-Poly(L-Lysine).
Microencapsulation Methods: Alginate-Poly(Lysine)-Poly(Ethyleneimine)-Protamine Sulfate-Heparin.
Microencapsulation Methods: Glycosaminoglycans and Chitosan.
Microencapsulation Methods: Polyacrylates.
Microencapsulation Methods: Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA).
Microencapsulation Methods: PMCG Capsules.
Microencapsulation Methods: Chitosan and Alginate.

SECTION III: METHODS FOR ENGINEERING CELLS AND TISSUES
Fetal Cell Culture.
Breast Reconstruction.
Blood Vessel Substitute.
Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts.
Cardiac Tissue.
Cardiac Valves and Arteries.
Cornea.
Alimentary Tract.
Monitoring Metabolic Activity and Differentiated Function in a Bioartificial Liver Device.
Blood Cell Substitutes.
Liver.
Extracorporeal Kidney.
Intracorporeal Kidney.
Urethral Tissue.
Penis.
Testes.
Cartilage Recontruction.
Phalanges and Small Joints.
Meniscus.
Cell-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Articular Cartilage Injury.
Cell-Based Therapies for Bulking Agents.
Myoblast Transplantation.
Skeletal Muscle.
Vision Enhancement Systems.
CNS Grafts for Treatment of Neurological Disorders.
Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.
Spinal Cord.
Cryopreserved Dermal Implants.
Bilayered Skin Constructs.
Uterus.
Jawbone.
Periodontal Applications.

Author Index.
Subject Index.

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