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Metrology in Industry: The Key for Quality / Edition 1
     

Metrology in Industry: The Key for Quality / Edition 1

by French College of Metrology, Dominique Placko
 

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ISBN-10: 1905209517

ISBN-13: 9781905209514

Pub. Date: 02/04/2008

Publisher: Wiley

Metrology is an integral part of the structure of today’s world: navigation and telecommunications require highly accurate time and frequency standards; human health and safety relies on authoritative measurements in diagnosis and treatment, as does food production and trade; global climate studies also depend on reliable and consistent data. Moreover,

Overview

Metrology is an integral part of the structure of today’s world: navigation and telecommunications require highly accurate time and frequency standards; human health and safety relies on authoritative measurements in diagnosis and treatment, as does food production and trade; global climate studies also depend on reliable and consistent data. Moreover, international trade practices increasingly require institutions to display demonstrated conformity to written standards and specifications.

As such, having relevant and reliable results of measurements and tests in compliance with mutually recognised standards can be a technical, commercial and statutory necessity for a company. This book, the results of a working group from the French College of Metrology and featuring chapters written by a range of experts from a variety of European countries, gives a comprehensive and international treatment of the subject. Academics involved in metrology as well as people involved in the metrology capacities of companies and institutions will find this book of great interest.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781905209514
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
02/04/2008
Series:
ISTE Series , #647
Pages:
270
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.50(h) x 0.73(d)

Table of Contents

Preface 15

Foreword 17

Chapter 1. Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 19
Jean-Yves ARRIAT and Klaus-Dieter SCHITTHELM

1.1. Introduction 19

1.2. Definition of the objectives 21

1.3. Choice of the method of measurement 22

1.3.1. Accounting for the selection of the method 22

1.3.2. Defining the method and the principle to implement 23

1.4. Choice of the means of measurement 24

1.4.1. Introduction 24

1.4.2. Analysis of what is already available 25

1.4.3. Assessment and acquisition of material 26

1.4.4. Technical criteria 27

1.4.5. Economic criteria 30

1.4.6. Grid of the analysis of the choice 31

1.4.7. Technical assistance for users of measuring instruments 33

1.5. The traceability of the measurements 36

1.5.1. The necessity of traceability of the measurements 36

1.5.2. Calibration requirements 38

1.5.3. The selection of standards 39

1.6. Conclusion 42

Chapter 2. Organization of Metrology: Industrial, Scientific, Legal 43
Luc ERARD, Jean-François MAGANA, Roberto PERISSI, Patrick REPOSEUR and Jean-Michel VIRIEUX

2.1. A metrological organization: why? 43

2.2. Metrology: how? 45

2.3. Scientific and technical metrology 47

2.3.1. The BIPM 48

2.3.2. Results of the international activities 50

2.3.3. Regional organizations 51

2.3.4. Organization at the national level 59

2.4. Legal metrology 67

2.4.1. Scope of legal metrology 67

2.4.2. The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) 68

2.4.3. The European level 71

2.4.4. At national level 73

Chapter 3. Mastering Measurement Processes Approach to the Setting up of a Metrology Function 79
Marc PRIEL and Patrick REPOSEUR

3.1. What to do at the beginning? 79

3.2. Goals and role of the measurement management system – metrological function 80

3.3. The measurement processes 86

3.3.1. Conception and development of a new measurement process 86

3.3.2. Exploitation of a valid process 88

3.3.3. Continuous improvement of measurement processes 88

3.4. Management of the measuring equipment (metrological confirmation) 89

3.4.1. Analysis of the requirement and selection of the measuring equipments 91

3.4.2. Receiving the measuring equipment and putting it into service 93

3.4.3. Calibration and verification operations 97

3.4.4. Fitness for use of measuring equipment 100

3.5. Setting up a metrological structure within the firm 102

3.5.1. Analysis of the metrological requirements and setting up standards 102

3.5.2. Traceability of the measuring instrument(s) to the firm’s reference standards 104

3.5.3. Traceability of the firm’s reference standards to the SI 104

3.6. Suggested approach for setting up a metrology function 105

3.7. Bibliography 106

Chapter 4. Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 109
Jean-Yves ARRIAT

4.1. Acquaintance with the bank 110

4.1.1. Inventory 110

4.1.2. Identification 110

4.2. Metrological policy of the firm 113

4.2.1. Objective and commitment of the firm’s management 113

4.2.2. Plan of actions to launch 113

4.2.3. Awareness, training and vocabulary 113

4.2.4. Selection of the material to be followed periodically 114

4.3. Drafting of the documents 115

4.3.1. Codification of the documents 115

4.3.2. Work instructions 116

4.3.3. Result-recording documents 117

4.3.4. Other documents 118

4.4. Physical handling of the measuring instruments 119

4.4.1. Receipt 119

4.4.2. Transfer 120

4.4.3. Storing and environment 121

4.4.4. Maintenance 122

4.5. Follow-up of the measuring instruments over time 123

4.5.1. Periodicity of the follow-up 123

4.5.2. Campaign of recall 124

4.5.3. Follow-up of the results 125

4.6. Software for the handling of the means of measurements 125

Chapter 5. Traceability to National Standards 127
Luc ERARD and Patrick REPOSEUR

5.1. Introduction 127

5.2. Definitions 127

5.2.1. Traceability 127

5.2.2. Calibration 128

5.2.3. Verification 129

5.3. Traceability chains 129

5.4. Traceability 131

5.5. Calibration 132

5.5.1. Calibration in an accredited laboratory 132

5.5.2. Calibration in a non-accredited laboratory 132

5.6. Verification 133

5.6.1. Verification in an accredited laboratory and in its accreditation scope 133

5.6.2. Verification in a non-accredited laboratory or out of the accreditation scope 133

5.7. Use of calibration and verification results 133

5.7.1. Use of the results of a calibration 134

5.7.2. Use of the results of a verification 134

5.8. Particular cases 135

5.8.1. “Self-calibrating” or “self-gauging” measuring instruments 135

5.8.2. Complex instruments in which components/equipments and software are narrowly combined and large measurement ranges are covered for complex quantities 136

5.9. Metrology in chemistry and physical methods of chemical analysis 136

5.9.1. Traceabilty in metrology in chemistry 137

5.9.2. Influence of the principle of the method 139

5.9.3. “Documentary” traceability 141

5.9.4. Control of the reference materials 143

5.9.5. Conclusion 145

5.10. Assessment of traceability 145

5.11. Bibliography 146

Chapter 6. Calibration Intervals and Methods for Monitoring the Measurement Processes 149
Patrizia TAVELLA and Marc PRIEL

6.1. Normative requirements 149

6.2. Methods for monitoring the instruments in use – general criteria 150

6.2.1. First method: metrological redundancies 150

6.2.2. Second method: checking the coherence of the results 151

6.2.3. Third method: “monitoring standards” and statistical supervision of the measurement processes 152

6.3. The determination of the calibration intervals 158

6.4. Bibliography 161

Chapter 7. Measurements and Uncertainties 163
Marc PRIEL

7.1. Introduction 163

7.2. Measurement of physical quantity 164

7.3. Analysis of the measurement process 166

7.3.1. The cause and effect diagram method 166

7.3.2. Using the list published in the GUM (section 3.3.2) 167

7.3.3. Errors 168

7.3.4. Cutting down the errors 169

7.4. Modeling of the measurement process 172

7.4.1. Measurement procedure and model of the measurement process 172

7.4.2. An essential stage for the assessment of uncertainty: modeling the measurement 173

7.5. Assessment of the uncertainty of the input quantities 174

7.5.1. Type A methods 175

7.5.2. Type B methods 176

7.5.3. Comparing the Type A and Type B methods 179

7.6. Calculating the combined uncertainty on the result 180

7.6.1. Situation when all the input quantities are independent 180

7.6.2. Situation when the input quantities are dependent 181

7.7. Use of the performances of the method (repeatability and freedom of bias) to assess the uncertainty of the measurement result 183

7.7.1. Intra- or interlaboratory approaches 184

7.7.2. Intra-laboratory approach 185

7.7.3. Interlaboratory approach 186

7.7.4. Data processing for intra- and interlaboratory approaches 187

7.8. Reporting of the measurement result 189

7.9. Example 190

7.10. Bibliography 193

Chapter 8.The Environment of Measuring 195
Jean-Yves ARRIAT and Marc PRIEL

8.1. The premises 196

8.1.1. Ambient temperature 197

8.1.2. Relative humidity 198

8.1.3. Handling of the air conditioning systems 199

8.1.4. Power network 199

8.1.5. Radioelectric disturbances 199

8.1.6. Measurements on-site 200

8.2. The personnel 200

8.2.1. The connection of metrology function 200

8.2.2. Staff involved in the metrology function 201

8.2.3. The qualification of the personnel 202

8.3. The documentation 202

8.3.1. Filing of the documents 202

8.3.2. Management of the documents 204

8.4. Bibliography 205

8.5. Appendix 206

Chapter 9. About Measuring 209
Claude KOCH

9.1. Preliminary information 209

9.1.1. Physical quantity 209

9.1.2. The object to be measured 210

9.1.3. Field of measurement 210

9.1.4. Four types of uses of measuring instruments 211

9.1.5. Influencing quantities 212

9.2. Choice of a measuring principle 213

9.2.1. Differential measurement 214

9.2.2. Direct measurement 214

9.2.3. Indirect measurement 214

9.3. Practicing in metrology 215

9.3.1. Implementing the instruments 216

9.3.2. Precautions before measuring 216

9.3.3. Measurements 216

9.3.4. Variations and their sign 217

9.3.5. The time factor 218

9.4. Expression of the results 218

9.4.1. Graphs 220

9.4.2. Histograms 220

9.5. What qualities does a metrologist require? 221

9.5.1. Be inquisitive 222

9.5.2. Be tidy and methodical 222

9.5.3. Be open to doubt 222

9.5.4. Be observant 222

9.5.5. Be honest 223

Chapter 10. Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 225
José MONTES

10.1. Presentation of the company 225

10.2. Organization of the metrology sector 226

10.2.1. Creation 226

10.2.2. Missions 226

10.2.3. Organization 226

10.2.4. Geographic localization of the activities 227

10.2.5. Composition of the bank of measuring equipment 227

10.3. Metrology 228

10.3.1. Identification 228

10.3.2. Connection of the standards 228

10.3.3. Periodicity of the calibrations 229

10.3.4. Calibration operations 229

10.3.5. Documentation of the calibration results 230

10.3.6. Verdict of the metrological confirmation 231

10.3.7. Indication of the state of the calibrations 231

10.3.8. Personnel and subcontracting 232

Chapter 11. Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 233
Philippe LANNEAU and Patrick REPOSEUR

11.1. Introduction 233

11.2. Introduction to the evolution of the standard 234

11.2.1. The concept of continuous improvement 234

11.2.2. The process approach 235

11.3. Measurement control process 236

11.4. The ISO 9001 (2000) standard step-by-step 238

11.5. Conclusion 245

Chapter 12. Training for the Metrology Professions in France 247
Bernard LARQUIER

12.1. The metrology function in a firm’s strategy 247

12.2. Metrology profession 248

12.2.1. Metrological engineer 249

12.2.2. Metrological technician 249

12.2.3. Metrological operator 250

12.3. Initial training 250

12.3.1. Schools for engineers 250

12.3.2. Courses for higher level technicians 251

12.3.3. Vocational high schools 251

12.4. Continuing education 251

12.5. Long-lasting training courses 253

12.6. The teaching of metrology in secondary schools 265

12.7. Prospects for the development of long-lasting training courses 265

12.8. Bibliography 266

The Authors 267

Index 269

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