Micro-Cutting: Fundamentals and Applications

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Overview

State-of-the-art of research and engineering practice in micro cutting which is becoming increasingly important in modern micro manufacturing. Micro-Cutting is a comprehensive presentation of the state-of-the- art of research and engineering practice in micro cutting, a technique that is becoming increasingly important in modern micro manufacturing, ultraprecision manufacturing and high value manufacturing in particular. -Addresses basic theory, design and analysis of micro-toolings and machines, modelling ...

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Overview

State-of-the-art of research and engineering practice in micro cutting which is becoming increasingly important in modern micro manufacturing. Micro-Cutting is a comprehensive presentation of the state-of-the- art of research and engineering practice in micro cutting, a technique that is becoming increasingly important in modern micro manufacturing, ultraprecision manufacturing and high value manufacturing in particular. -Addresses basic theory, design and analysis of micro-toolings and machines, modelling methods and techniques, and integrated approaches for micro-cutting -Provides practicing engineers with good exemplars of how to implement and apply micro-cutting in precision and micro- manufacturing practices -Presents applications in a variety of machining processes including diamond turning, micro-milling, micro-drilling, micro- grinding/polishing and ultraprecision machining, as well as the design and implementation of micro-cutting process chains and micromachining systems -Authored by a team of leading global researchers

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Kai Cheng, Brunel University, UK

Professor Kai Cheng holds the chair professorship in Manufacturing Systems at Brunel University. His current research interests focus on micro manufacturing, design of precision machine tools, and global/sustainable manufacturing and systems. Professor Cheng has published over 160 papers in learned international journals and refereed conferences, authored/edited 5 books and contributed 6 book chapters.

Professor Cheng is a fellow of the IET and IMechE. He is the head of the Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Engineering (AMEE) Department at Brunel, which consists of 10 academics and over 30 research assistants and PhD students. Professor Cheng is the European editor of the International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and a member of the editorial board of International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

Part One Fundamentals 1

1 Overview of Micro Cutting 3
Dehong Huo and Kai Cheng

1.1 Background and Scope 3

1.1.1 Micro Manufacturing 3

1.1.2 History and Development Process of Micro Cutting 5

1.1.3 Definition and Scope of Micro Cutting 7

1.1.4 Micro Cutting and Nanometric Cutting 8

1.2 Materials in Micro Cutting 10

1.3 Micro Cutting Processes 11

1.3.1 Micro Turning 12

1.3.2 Micro Milling 12

1.3.3 Micro Drilling 13

1.3.4 Micro Grinding 14

1.4 Micro Cutting Framework 14

References 16

2 Micro Cutting Mechanics 19
Dehong Huo and Kai Cheng

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Characterization of Micro Cutting 20

2.2.1 Micro Cutting and Ultra-Precision Machining 21

2.2.2 Enabling Technologies for Micro Cutting 22

2.3 Micro Cutting Mechanics 25

2.3.1 Size Effects 26

2.3.2 Chip Formation and Minimum Chip Thickness 27

2.3.3 Specific Cutting Energy and Micro Cutting Force Modelling 29

2.3.4 Surface Generation and Burr Formation 33

2.4 Micro Machinability Issues and the Scientific Approaches 39

2.4.1 Vibration Assisted Micro Cutting 40

2.4.2 Laser Assisted Micro Cutting 40

2.5 Summary 41

References 42

3 Micro Tooling Design and Manufacturing 45
Paul T. Mativenga, Ampara Aramcharoen and Dehong Huo

3.1 Tool Size and Machining Scale 45

3.2 Manufacturing Methods for Solid Shank Micro Tools 46

3.3 Coatings and Coated Solid Shank Micro Tools 48

3.3.1 Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) 50

3.3.2 Coating Layout 50

3.4 Importance of Coated Micro Tools 52

3.5 Diamond Micro Cutting Tools 53

3.6 Micro Cutting Tool Wear 55

3.7 Smart Cutting Tools 58

References 59

4 Ultraprecision and Micro Machine Tools for Micro Cutting 63
Christian Brecher and Christian Wenzel

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Components of High Precision Machine Tools 64

4.2.1 Machine Base Materials 65

4.2.2 Drive Systems 66

4.2.3 Guidance Systems 69

4.2.4 Control Systems and Amplifiers 70

4.3 Diamond Turning Machines and Components 70

4.3.1 Typical Machine Setup 71

4.3.2 Market Comparison 73

4.3.3 Fast Tool Servo Technology 78

4.4 Precision Milling Machines 79

References 85

5 Engineering Materials for Micro Cutting 87
Sathyan Subbiah and Shreyes N. Melkote

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 ‘Size’ Effects 88

5.3 Strain and Stress in Cutting 90

5.4 Elastic and Plastic Behaviours at the Micro-scale 94

5.5 Fracture 99

5.6 Metals, Brittle Materials and Others 105

5.6.1 Pure Materials 105

5.6.2 Ductile Metals 106

5.6.3 Brittle Materials – Glass, Silicon, Germanium, Tungsten Carbide 107

5.6.4 Other Materials – Amorphous Alloys, Graphene and Embedded Polymers 108

5.7 Summary 111

References 112

6 Modelling and Simulation of Micro Cutting 115
Ying-Chun Liang, Qing-Shun Bai and Jia-Xuan Chen

6.1 FE modelling and Analysis 116

6.1.1 Finite Element Model 116

6.1.2 Simulation on Micro-burr Formation 117

6.1.3 Influence of the Tool Edge Radius on Cutting Forces 118

6.1.4 Stress Distribution on the Micro-cutter 120

6.1.5 Micro-tool-tip Breakage 120

6.1.6 Thermal Analysis on Micro Cutting 123

6.2 Molecular Dynamics (MD) Modelling and Analysis 124

6.2.1 MD Modelling Process and Simulation 124

6.2.2 Modelling Analysis of Micro Cutting 127

6.2.3 Scratching Simulation by Using MD 128

6.2.4 Friction and Wear Simulation by Using MD 132

6.2.5 Effect of the Crystal Plane of Single Crystal and Multicrystalline 135

6.2.6 Improvement of the MD Simulation Capability 137

6.3 Multiscale Modelling and Analysis 138

6.3.1 Advance in Multiscale Simulation Methods 140

6.3.2 Applications of Multiscale Simulation in Micro Cutting Processes 143

6.3.3 Research Challenges and Future Trends 147

6.4 Summary 148

References 148

Part Two Applications 153

7 Diamond Turning and Micro Turning 155
Dehong Huo and Kai Cheng

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Ultra-precision Diamond Turning 155

7.2.1 A Historical Perspective of Diamond Turning 156

7.2.2 Material Perspectives 158

7.2.3 Micro Structuring by Diamond Turning 159

7.3 Micro Turning 166

7.3.1 Micro Turning Tool Fabrication 166

7.3.2 Micro Machines for Micro Turning 171

7.3.3 Size Effect Arising from Micro Turning 178

7.4 Challenges Arising from Micro Turning 182

References 182

8 Micro Milling: The State-of-the-art Approach Towards Applications 185
Tao Wu and Kai Cheng

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Fundamental Elements in Micro Milling 186

8.2.1 Micro Milling Machines 187

8.2.2 Cutting Tools 189

8.2.3 Process Conditions 195

8.2.4 Work Materials 197

8.3 Micro Milling Mechanics 198

8.3.1 Size Effect in Micro-Scale Cutting 198

8.3.2 Minimum Chip Thickness 200

8.3.3 Work Micro Structure Effect 203

8.4 Modelling of the Micro Milling Process 205

8.4.1 Finite Element Modelling 206

8.4.2 Mechanistic Modelling 208

8.5 Metrology and Instrumentation 212

8.5.1 3D Surface Profilers 212

8.5.2 Microscopes 212

8.5.3 Process Monitoring Sensors and Systems 214

8.6 Scientific and Technological Challenges 217

8.6.1 Tool Run-out 217

8.6.2 Tool Wear and Life 218

8.6.3 Micro-Burr Formation 218

8.6.4 Process Conditions Optimization 219

8.7 Application Perspectives 220

8.8 Concluding Remarks 220

References 221

9 Micro Drilling Applications 227
M. J. Jackson, T. Novakov and K. Mosiman

9.1 Chapter Overview 227

9.2 Investigation of Chatter in Mesoscale Drilling 227

9.2.1 Torsional-axial Model 231

9.2.2 Bending Model 239

9.2.3 Combination of the Bending and Torsional-axial Models 242

9.2.4 Chatter Suppression 251

9.2.5 Research Challenges 256

9.3 Investigation of Chatter in Micro Drilling 257

9.4 Case Study: Micro Drilling Medical Polymer Materials and Composites 265

9.4.1 Tooling Selection 266

9.4.2 Cutting Mechanisms and Considerations 267

9.4.3 Drilling 268

9.4.4 Burr Elimination when Drilling Polymers 269

9.5 Conclusions 270

Acknowledgements 271

References 272

10 Micro Grinding Applications 275
Han Huang

10.1 Introduction 275

10.2 Principles and Methodologies 278

10.2.1 Removal Mechanism in the Grinding of Brittle Materials 278

10.2.2 Interaction Between a Work Material and Diamond Abrasives 280

10.2.3 Grinding Approaches for Micro Grinding 285

10.3 Implementation Perspectives 286

10.3.1 Truing and Dressing 286

10.3.2 Characterization of Wheel Topography and Cutting Edge Distribution 287

10.3.3 Measurement of Grit Height Distribution 291

10.3.4 Characterization of Abrasive Wear 292

10.3.5 Compensation Grinding 292

10.3.6 Pragmatic Aspects in Profile Grinding 297

10.3.7 Parametric Effects in Profile Grinding 298

10.4 Application Cases 299

10.4.1 Micro Grinding of Aspherical Moulds 299

10.4.2 Micro Grinding of Optical Fibre Connectors 305

Acknowledgements 311

References 311

11 In-Process Micro/Nano Measurement for Micro Cutting 315
Wei Gao, Kang-Won Lee, Young-Jin Noh, Yoshikazu Arai and Yuki Shimizu

11.1 Introduction 315

11.2 The Hybrid Instrument for Micro Cutting and In-process Measurement 316

11.3 In-process Measurement of Micro Cutting Force 326

11.4 In-process Measurement of Micro Wear of Cutting Tool 331

11.5 In-process Measurement of Micro Surface Form 337

11.6 Summary 342

References 343

Index 345

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