Microbial and Enzymatic Degradation of Wood and Wood Components

Overview

This detailed review describes the biochemical mechanisms involved in the biodegradation of wood and the wood components, cellulose and hemicellulose, as well as lignin by fungi and bacteria. Main topics are:
• Biosynthesis and structure of the wood components;
• Description of the various fungal and bacterial enzymes involved in the degradation of wood components and their ...

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Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990)
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Overview

This detailed review describes the biochemical mechanisms involved in the biodegradation of wood and the wood components, cellulose and hemicellulose, as well as lignin by fungi and bacteria. Main topics are:
• Biosynthesis and structure of the wood components;
• Description of the various fungal and bacterial enzymes involved in the degradation of wood components and their mode of action;
• The possibilities for biotechnology based on microorganisms or their enzymes degrading wood and wood components.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642466892
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 3/14/2012
  • Series: Springer Series in Wood Science
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 407
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.86 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Morphological Aspects of Wood Degradation by Fungi and Bacteria.- 1.1 Morphology of Wood and Wood Components.- 1.2 Wood Degradation by White-Rot Fungi.- 1.3 Wood Degradation by Brown-Rot Fungi.- 1.4 Wood Degradation by Soft-Rot Fungi.- 1.5 Wood Degradation by Bacteria.- 2 Biodegradation of Cellulose.- 2.1 The Structure and Biosynthesis of Cellulose.- 2.1.1 The Chemical Structure of Cellulose.- 2.1.2 Cellulose Biosynthesis: Biochemical Studies.- 2.1.3 The Cellulose Microfibril.- 2.2 Cellulolytic Fungi.- 2.3 Cellulolytic Enzymes.- 2.3.1 The Old Concept.- 2.3.2 Hydrolytic Enzymes.- 2.3.3 Oxidative Enzymes.- 2.3.4 Phosphorolytic Enzymes.- 2.4 Assay of Enzymes Participating in Cellulose Degradation.- 2.4.1 Endo-1,4-?-Glucanase Activity.- 2.4.2 Exo-1,4-?-Glucanase Activity.- 2.4.3 1,4-?-Glucosidase Activity.- 2.4.4 Oxidative Enzymes.- 2.4.5 Phosphorolytic Enzymes.- 2.5 Cellulose Degradation by White-Rot, Brown-Rot, Soft-Rot, and Anaerobic Fungi.- 2.5.1 White-Rot Fungi.- 2.5.2 Brown-Rot Fungi.- 2.5.3 Soft-Rot Fungi.- 2.5.4 Anaerobic Fungi.- 2.6 Cellulose Degradation by Bacteria.- 2.6.1 Aerobic Bacteria.- 2.6.2 Anaerobic Bacteria.- 2.7 Regulation of Cellulase Synthesis.- 2.8 Synergistic Mechanisms Involved in Cellulose Degradation.- 2.9 Examples of Applications of Cellulolytic Microorganisms and Their Enzymes.- 2.9.1 Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Materials to Protein.- 2.9.2 Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Materials for Ethanol Production.- 3 Biodegradation of Hemicelluloses.- 3.1 The Structures of Hemicelluloses.- 3.1.1 Softwood Hemicelluloses.- 3.1.2 Hardwood Hemicelluloses.- 3.2 Biosynthesis of Hemicelluloses.- 3.3 Xylanolytic Enzymes.- 3.3.1 Endo-1,4-?-d-Xylanases.- 3.3.2 1,4-?-d-Xylosidases.- 3.3.3—-Arabinosidase.- 3.3.4—-d-Glucuronidase.- 3.3.5 Acetyl(Xylan) Esterase.- 3.4 Mannan-Degrading Enzymes.- 3.4.1 Endo-1,4-?-d-Mannanases.- 3.4.2 1,4-?-d-Mannosidase.- 3.4.3—-Galactosidase.- 3.5 Examples of Applications of Hemicellulolytic Organisms and Their Enzymes.- 4 Biodegradation of Lignin.- 4.1 Biosynthesis and Structure of Lignin.- 4.2 Lignin Preparations and Methods for Studying Lignin Biodegradation.- 4.3 Lignin Degradation by White-Rot Fungi.- 4.3.1 Physiological Demands, Secondary Metabolism, and Veratryl Alcohol Production in White-Rot Fungi.- 4.3.2 Influence of Nitrogen on Secondary Metabolism and Lignin Degradation.- 4.3.3 Influence of Carbon Source on Lignin Degradation.- 4.3.4 Influence of Agitation and Other Cultivation Conditions on Lignin Degradation and Ligninase Production.- 4.3.5 Influence of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide on Lignin Degradation. Anaerobic Degradation of Lignin and Related Compounds.- 4.4 Chemistry of Lignin Degraded by White-Rot Fungi.- 4.5 Biochemistry of Lignin Degradation.- 4.5.1 Oxygen Radicals and Lignin Degradation.- 4.5.2 The Phenoloxidases Laccase and Peroxidase Including Manganese-Dependent Pexoxidase.- 4.5.3 Ligninase/Lignin Peroxidase.- 4.5.4 Biomimetic Oxidation of Lignin Models.- 4.5.5 H2O2-Producing Enzymes.- 4.5.6 Quinone-Reducing Enzymes.- 4.5.7 Cleavage of Methoxyl Groups by Wood-Rotting Fungi.- 4.6 Metabolism of Monomeric Lignin-Related Compounds.- 4.7 Lignin Degradation by Brown-Rot, Soft-Rot, and Other Fungi.- 4.7.1 Brown-Rot Fungi.- 4.7.2 Soft-Rot Fungi.- 4.7.3 Other Fungi.- 4.8 Lignin Degradation by Bacteria.- 4.8.1 Actinomycetes.- 4.8.2 Other Bacteria.- 4.9 Potential Applications of White-Rot Fungi.- 4.9.1 Biopulping and Biomechanical Pulping.- 4.9.2 Treatment of Wood and Straw to Produce Feed and Food.- 4.9.3 Treatment of Spent Kraft Bleach Liquors.- 4.9.4 By-Products from Lignin.- 4.10 Some Examples of Future Research Possibilities.- References.

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