Microbial Plant Pathogens-Detection and Disease Diagnosis: Viral and Viroid Pathogens, Vol.3 / Edition 1

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More About This Textbook

Overview

The need for the development of techniques based on the characteristics of the viral proteins and genomic nucleic acids was realized in order to detect, identify, differentiate and quantify viruses in the infected plants/planting materials with or without symptoms of infection. Immunoassays have been successfully applied for the detection of viruses in crop and weed host plant species as well as in the vectors. Nucleic acid-based techniques have been demonstrated to be the most reliable and sensitive tests for detection, identification and differentiation of viruses and viroids present in plants and planting materials.. Inclusion of numerous prools in appropriate chapters as appendix is a unique feature of this volume.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789048197538
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 11/2/2010
  • Edition description: 2011
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 321
  • Product dimensions: 0.81 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 6.14 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Acknowledgement ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Microbial Plant Pathogens as a Major Limiting Factor of Crop Production 1

1.2 Discovery of Fungi as Plant Pathogens 2

1.3 Detection of Fungal Plant Pathogens and Disease Diagnosis 2

References 4

2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Plants 5

2.1 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Plant Organs 7

2.1.1 Biological Methods 7

2.1.2 Pathogenicity and Host Range 24

2.1.3 Biochemical Methods 26

2.1.4 Immunoassays 33

2.1.5 Nucleic Acid-Based Detection Techniques 52

2.2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Seeds and Planting Materials 113

2.2.1 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Seeds 114

2.2.2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Propagative Planting Materials 130

2.2.3 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Postharvest Produce 137

Appendix 1 General and Selective Media for Isolation of Fungal Pathogens 144

Appendix 2 Assessment of Vegetative Compatibility Relationships Among Verticillium dahliae Strains (Joaquim and Rowe 1990; Daayf et al. 1995) 146

Appendix 3 Media for Generation and Selection of Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs) of Fusarium oxysporum (Correll et al. 1987) 147

Appendix 4 Generation of Antibodies Against Fungi (Banks et al. 1992) 148

Appendix 5 Detection of Botrytis cinerea by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test (Bossi and Dewey 1992) 149

Appendix 6 Quantitative Detection of Mycosphaerella fijiensis by Triple Antibody Sandwich (TAS)-ELISA (Otero et al. 2007) 150

Appendix 7 Detection of Resting Spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Plant Tissues by ELISA (Orihara and Yamamoto 1998) 152

Appendix 8 Detection of Fusarium spp. by Direct Tissue Blot Immunoassay (DTBIA) (Arie et al. 1995; Arie et al. 1998) 153

Appendix 9 Detection of Fusarium spp. in Tomato by Immunofluorescence Assay (Arie et al. 1995) 154

Appendix 10 Detection of Polymyxa graminis by Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) (Delfosse et al. 2000) 154

Appendix 11 Detection of Botrytis cinerea by Protein A-Gold Labeling Technique (Svircev et al. 1986) 155

Appendix 12 Detection of Fungal Pathogens with DNA Probes (Tisserat et al. 1991) 156

Appendix 13 Identification of Fungal Pathogens by Repetitive DNA Polymorphism (Panabieres et al. 1989) 156

Appendix 14 Rapid Extraction of DNA from Fusarium oxysporum (Plyler et al. 1999) 157

Appendix 15 Extraction of Genomic DNA from Claviceps sp. by Magnetic Separation (Scott Jr et al. 2002) 157

Appendix 16 Extraction of DNA from Fungal Cultures (Griffin et al. 2002) 158

Appendix 17 Extraction of Genomic DNA from Phytophthora spp. (Lamour and Finley 2006) 159

Appendix 18 Rapid PCR-Based Method for the Detection of Fungal Pathogen (Harmon et al. 2003) 161

Appendix 19 Detection of Powdery Mildew Pathogens by PCR-mediated Method (Chen et al. 2008) 162

Appendix 20 Detection of Rust Pathogen by PCR-Based Method (Weng et al. 2008) 162

Appendix 21 Detection of Colletotrichum acutatum by Arbitrarily Primed (AP)-PCR (Yoshida et al. 2007) 163

Appendix 22 Detection of Puccinia coronata by Real-Time PCR Assay (Jackson et al. 2006) 164

Appendix 23 Detection of Colletotrichum spp. in Strawberry Plants by Real-Time PCR Assays (Garrido et al. 2009) 165

Appendix 24 Detection of Phytophthora cactorum by RAPD-PCR Technique (Causin et al. 2005) 166

Appendix 25 Detection of Macrophomina phaseolina in Cowpea Seeds by DAS-ELISA Technique (Afouda et al. 2009) 167

Appendix 26 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Soybean Seeds by PCR-RFLP Technique (Zhang et al. 1999) 169

Appendix 27 Detection of Rhynchosporium secalis in Barley Seeds by Competitive PCR (Lee et al. 2002) 170

Appendix 28 Detection of Verticillium dahliae in Olive Seeds by Nested PCR (Karajeh 2006) 171

Appendix 29 Detection of Pythhim spp. in Carrot Tissue by PCR Assay (Klemsdal et al. 2008) 172

References 173

3 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in the Environment 201

3.1 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Soil 202

3.1.1 Bioassays 202

3.1.2 Immunoassays 205

3.1.3 Nucleic Acid-Based Techniques 207

3.1.4 Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry 219

3.2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Water 220

3.2.1 Immunoassays 220

3.2.2 Nucleic Acid-Based Techniques 221

3.3 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Air 223

3.4 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Alternative Host Plants 230

Appendix 1 Detection of Plasmodiophora barassicae from soil (Orihara and Yamamoto 1998) 231

Appendix 2 Detection of Resting Spores of Pythium myriotylum from Soil by PCR (Wang and Chang 2003) 233

Appendix 3 Detection of Phytophthora sojae in Soils by PCR Assay (Wang et al. 2006) 233

Appendix 4 Detection of Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea from Soil by PCR Assays (Qu et al. 2006) 235

Appendix 5 Extraction of DNA Directly from Soil Samples for PCR-Based Assays (Volossiouk et al. 1995) 236

Appendix 6 Detection of Phytophthora nicotianae in Irrigation Water (Kong et al. 2003) 236

Appendix 7 Detection of Airborne Inoculum of Mycosphaerella brassicae (Kennedy et al. 1999) 237

Appendix 8 Detection of Monilinia fructicola Spores in the Air by Real-Time PCR Assay (Luo et al. 2007) 239

References 240

4 Assessment of Variability in Fungal Plant Pathogens 245

4.1 Methods of Assessment of Variability in Fungal Pathogens 246

4.1.1 Assessment of Variations in Biological Characteristics 246

4.1.2 Assessment of Variations in Biochemical Characteristics 248

4.1.3 Assessment of Variations in Immunological Characteristics 250

4.1.4 Assessment of Variations in Genomic Characteristics 251

4.2 Assessment of Variability in Sensitivity to Chemicals 262

4.2.1 Assessment of Variations in Biological Characteristics 262

4.2.2 Assessment of Variations in Genetic Characteristics 264

Appendix 1 Identification of Guignardia citricarpa by PCR-Based Technique (Peres et al. 2007) 267

References 267

5 Diagnosis of Fungal Diseases of Plants 273

5.1 Choice of Diagnostic Tests for Fungal Pathogens 274

5.1.1 Conventional Methods 274

5.1.2 Molecular Methods 276

5.2 Agencies Involved in Disease Diagnosis 278

5.2.1 Disease Diagnostic Centers 279

5.2.2 Plant Quarantines 281

References 283

Index 285

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