Microbiologically Safe Foods / Edition 1

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Overview

This book focuses on state of the art technologies to produce microbiologically safe foods for our global dinner table. Each chapter summarizes the most recent scientific advances, particularly with respect to food processing, pre- and post-harvest food safety, quality control, and regulatory information. The book begins with a general discussion of microbial hazards and their public health ramifications. It then moves on to survey the production processes of different food types, including dairy, eggs, beef, poultry, and fruits and vegetables, pinpointing potential sources of human foodborne diseases. The authors address the growing market in processed foods as well novel interventions such as innovative food packaging and technologies to reduce spoilage organisms and prolong shelf life. Each chapter also describes the ormal flora of raw product, spoilage issues, pathogens of concern, sources of contamination, factors that influence survival and growth of pathogens and spoilage organisms, indicator microorganisms, approaches to maintaining product quailty and reducing harmful microbial populations, microbial standards for end-product testing, conventional microbiological and molecular methods, and regulatory issues. Other important topics include the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), predictive microbiology, emerging foodborne pathogens, good agricultural and manufacturing processes, avian influenza, and bioterrorism.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This book discusses the microbiologicai quality and safety of foods, with particular reference to novel processing techniques for ensuring food safety." (Food Science and Technology Abstracts, July 2010)

“This book focuses on state-of the-art technologies to produce microbiologically safe foods for our dinner table.” (Chemistry World, October 2009)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470053331
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 4/20/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 667
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Norma Heredia, ScD, is Professor of Food Safety at theUniversity of Nuevo Leon in Mexico. Her research focus is theepidemiology and control of microorganisms in foods. She serves theindustry and government as a consultant and in laboratory analysisof food microbiology. She has served on the editorial boards and asan ad hoc reviewer for several journals.

Irene Wesley, DPH, is a microbiologist at the National AnimalDisease Center, part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service,in Ames, Iowa. Her research focus is the on-farm detection ofmicrobial foodborne pathogens in livestock and poultry. She is amember of the American Academy of Microbiology and has served onnational food safety committees and editorial boards.

Santos Garcia, ScD, is Professor and Consultant of Food Safetyat the University of Nuevo Leon in Mexico. His research focus isthe physiology and control of microbial food-borne pathogens. Hehas served on international food safety committees and editorialboards for several journals. He is a coeditor of Guide to FoodbornePathogens (Wiley).

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Table of Contents

CONTRIBUTORS.

FOREWORD.

PREFACE.

I MICROBIAL FOOD HAZARDS.

1 PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACT OF FOODBORNE ILLNESS: IMPETUS FOR THEINTERNATIONAL FOOD SAFETY EFFORT  (Irene V.Wesley).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Statistical Estimates.

1.3 Impact of Representative Foodborne Pathogens.

1.4 National Microbial Baseline Surveys.

1.5 Global Marketplace.

References.

2 FOODBORNE PATHOGENS AND TOXINS: ANOVERVIEW (Santos Garcia and Norma Heredia).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Aeromonas.

2.3 Arcobacter.

2.4 Bacillus cereus.

2.5 Brucella.

2.6 Campylobacter.

2.7 Clostridium botulinum.

2.8 Clostridium perfringens.

2.9 Escherichia coli.

2.10 Listeria.

2.11 Plesiomonas shigelloides.

2.12 Salmonella.

2.13 Shigella.

2.14 Staphylococcus aureus.

2.15 Vibrio.

2.16 Yersinia.

2.17 Mycotoxins and Fungi.

2.18 Cryptosporidium.

2.19 Cyclospora.

2.20 Entamoeba.

2.21 Giardia.

2.22 Anisakis simplex.

2.23 Ascaris.

2.24 Diphyllobothrium latum.

2.25 Taenia.

2.26 Trichinella spiralis.

2.27 Hepatitis A and E Viruses.

2.28 Norovirus.

References.

II EMERGING ISSUES.

3 CRONOBACTER GEN. NOV. (ENTEROBACTER) SAKAZAKII: CURRENTKNOWLEDGE AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS (Genisis IrisDancer and Dong-Hyun Kang).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 History of Illness Caused by (E).sakazakii.

3.3 Infant Susceptibility.

3.4 Novel Prevention Strategies.

3.5 Infant Formula Processing.

3.6 Biochemical Characterization and Taxonomy.

3.7 Environmental Sources of (E). sakazakii.

3.8 Resistance and Virulence Factors of (E).sakazakii.

3.9 Current Isolation and Detection Techniques.

References.

4 PRION DISEASES (Debbie McKenzie and JuddAiken).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies.

4.3 Nature of the Illness Caused.

4.4 Pathogenesis.

4.5 Characteristics of the Agent.

4.6 Epidemiology.

4.7 PrPSc Detection.

4.8 Physical Means of Destruction of the Organism.

4.9 Prevention and Control Measures.

References.

5 AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1): POTENTIAL THREAT TO FOODSAFETY (James Mark Simmerman and Peter K. BenEmbarek).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Emergence of H5N1 Avian Influenza.

5.3 Epidemiology of Human H5N1 Infection.

5.4 Clinical Presentation and Laboratory Diagnosis.

5.5 Food Safety Considerations.

5.6 Global Response.

References.

III FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SPECIFICCOMMODITIES.

6 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OFBEEF (Robin C. Anderson, Steven C. Ricke, Bwalya Lungu,Michael G. Johnson, Christy Oliver, Shane M. Horrocks, and David J.Nisbet).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 inBeef.

6.3 Salmonella in Beef.

6.4 Listeria in Beef.

6.5 Campylobacter in Beef.

6.6 Control of Foodborne Pathogens in Beef.

6.7 Conclusions.

References.

7 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF MILK AND DAIRYPRODUCTS (Mansel W. Griffiths).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Microflora of Raw Milk.

7.3 Public Health Concerns from Dairy Products.

7.4 Milk and Cream.

7.5 Cheese and Fermented Dairy Products.

7.6 Ice Cream.

7.7 Butter.

7.8 Milk Powder.

7.9 Detection of Microorganisms in Milk.

7.10 Novel Processing Methods.

7.11 Global Trade and Regulations.

References.

8 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OFPOULTRY (Irene V. Wesley).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Characteristics of Foodborne Illness.

8.3 Approaches to Maintaining Product Quality and Reducing theNumber of Microorganisms.

8.4 Conclusions.

References.

9 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF EGGS AND EGGPRODUCTS (Jean-Yves D’Aoust).

9.1 Shell Egg Development and Structure.

9.2 Microflora of Shell Eggs.

9.3 Significance of the Detection of Salmonella.

9.4 Eggborne Outbreaks of Human Salmonellosis.

9.5 Thermal Processing of Egg Products.

9.6 Potentially Hazardous Egg Products in the Home.

9.7 Control.

References.

10 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OFPORK (Gay Y. Miller and James S. Dickson).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Normal Flora of Raw Pork.

10.3 Spoilage.

10.4 Pathogens of Concern.

10.5 Risk of Contamination During Processing.

10.6 Survival and Growth of Pathogens and Spoilage Organisms inPork Products.

10.7 Indicator Microorganisms.

10.8 Maintaining Product Quality and Reducing the Number ofMicroorganisms.

10.9 Microbiological Methods for Detection andQuantification.

10.10 Regulations.

References.

11 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF FISH ANDSHELLFISH (Lucio Galaviz-Silva, Gracia Gomez-Anduro, ZinniaJ. Molina-Garza, and Felipe Ascencio-Valle).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Normal Flora of Fish and Shellfish.

11.3 Microbial Hazards and Preventive Measures.

11.4 Spoilage.

11.5 Seafood Processing and Food Safety.

11.6 Product Quality and Microorganism Reduction Methods.

11.7 Microbiological Methods for Detection and Quantification ofSeafood Pathogens.

11.8 Food Safety Challenges for Aquaculture and the CommercialFishing Industry.

11.9 Effects of Climate on Waterborne and Foodborne SeafoodPathogens.

11.10 Conclusions.

References.

12 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF FRUITSAND VEGETABLES (Juan S. Leon, Lee-Ann Jaykus, and ChristineL. Moe).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Normal Microflora of Fresh Produce.

12.3 Spoilage of Fresh Produce.

12.4 Human Pathogens Associated with Produce.

12.5 Factors that Influence Survival and Growth ofOrganisms.

12.6 Microbiological Methods for Detection andQuantification.

12.7 Indicator Microorganisms.

12.8 Sources of Produce Contamination.

12.9 Maintaining Produce Quality and Reducing the Number ofMicroorganisms.

12.10 Regulations.

12.11 Conclusions.

References.

13 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF FRUITBEVERAGES AND BOTTLED WATER (Mickey E. Parish).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Normal Microflora.

13.3 Spoilage.

13.4 Pathogens.

13.5 Maintaining Product Quality and Reducing MicrobialNumbers.

13.6 U.S. Regulations.

References.

14 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF CANNEDAND FROZEN FOODS (Nina G. Parkinson).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 History of Canned Foods.

14.3 Categories of Canned Foods.

14.4 Safety of Canned Foods.

14.5 Microbial Spoilage of Canned Foods.

14.6 History of Frozen Foods.

14.7 Principles of Frozen Food Preservation.

14.8 Safety and Spoilage of Frozen Foods.

14.9 U.S. Regulations.

References.

15 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF CEREALSAND CEREAL PRODUCTS (Lloyd B. Bullerman and AndreiaBianchini).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Health Implications of Fungal Deterioration of Grains.

15.3 Mycotoxins.

15.4 Media and Methods for Molds and Mycotoxins.

References.

16 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SPICESAND HERBS (Keith A. Ito).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Use of Spices and Herbs in Foods.

16.3 Antimicrobial Effects.

16.4 Contamination of Spices and Herbs.

16.5 Recalls and Outbreaks.

16.6 Control Procedures.

16.7 Conclusions.

References.

17 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OFMAYONNAISE, SALAD DRESSINGS, ACIDIC CONDIMENTS, ANDMAYONNAISE-BASED SALADS (Larry R. Beuchat).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Mayonnaise.

17.3 Salad Dressings and Sauces.

17.4 Acidic Condiments.

17.5 Salads, Sandwiches, and Other Ready-to-Eat Foods ContainingMayonnaise and Acidic Condiments.

References.

18 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES AND THE MICROBIOLOGY OFCHOCOLATE AND SWEETENERS (Norma Heredia and SantosGarcia).

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Normal Flora of Raw and Fermented Cocoa Beans.

18.3 Spoilage and Shelf Life of Chocolate.

18.4 Pathogens in Confectionery Products.

18.5 Sources of Contamination.

18.6 Factors that Influence Survival and Growth of Pathogens andSpoilage Organisms.

18.7 Maintaining Product Quality and Reducing MicrobialNumbers.

18.8 Microbiological Methods for Detection andQuantification.

18.9 Regulations.

References.

IV PREVENTION AND CONTROL STRATEGIES.

19 MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT (Marianne D. Miliotis andRobert L. Buchanan).

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Risk Assessment Framework.

19.3 Risk Assessment Analytical Tools.

19.4 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Risk Assessments.

19.5 Types of Risk Assessment.

19.6 Predictive Microbiology.

19.7 Using Risk Assessment to Make Risk ManagementDecisions.

References.

20 GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (Olga I.Padilla-Zakour).

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Personnel.

20.3 Buildings and Facilities.

20.4 Sanitation.

20.5 Pest Control.

20.6 Equipment.

20.7 Operations.

20.8 Warehousing and Distribution.

20.9 Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures.

References.

21 CLEANING AND SANITIZING OPERATIONS (KevinKeener).

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 Food Sanitation.

21.3 Food Regulations.

21.4 Sanitation Programs.

21.5 Sanitation Program Development.

21.6 Crisis Management: How to Survive a Recall.

21.7 Educational and Training Resources.

References.

22 HAZARD ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (MartinW. Bucknavage and Catherine Nettles Cutter).

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 HACCP Fundamentals.

22.3 Conclusions.

References.

23 TRADITIONAL AND HIGH-TECHNOLOGY APPROACHES TOMICROBIAL SAFETY IN FOODS (Tatiana Koutchma).

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Thermal vs. Nonthermal Technology.

23.3 Establishment of Specifications for Preservation.

23.4 Technologies Based on Thermal Effects.

23.5 Technologies Based on Nonthermal Effects.

23.6 Conclusions.

References.

24 FOOD PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES OTHER THAN HEAT ANDIRRADIATION (Ronald G. Labbe and Linda L. Nolan).

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Traditional Physical Methods of Food Preservation.

24.3 Food Antimicrobials.

24.4 Preservatives from Biological Sources.

24.5 Hurdle Technology.

References.

25 FOOD SAFETY AND INNOVATIVE FOOD PACKAGING (Jung (John H. Han).

25.1 Introduction.

25.2 Innovative Packaging to Enhance Food Safety.

25.3 Conclusions.

References.

V DETECTION OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS.

26 TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR DETECTION OF FOODBORNEPATHOGENS (Luisa Solís, Eduardo Sanchez, SantosGarcía, and Norma Heredia).

26.1 Introduction.

26.2 General Quantification Methods.

26.3 Quantification and Detection Methods for SpecificMicroorganisms.

References.

27 RAPID METHODS FOR FOODBORNE BACTERIAL ENUMERATIONAND PATHOGEN DETECTION (Peter Feng and NormaHeredia).

27.1 Introduction.

27.2 Logistics of Food Testing.

27.3 Rapid Pathogen Testing Methods.

27.4 Rapid Enumeration Methods.

27.5 Logistics, Resources, and Applicability.

References.

28 LABORATORY ACCREDITATION AND PROFICIENCYTESTING (DeAnn L. Benesh).

28.1 Introduction.

28.2 Laboratory Accreditation.

28.3 Proficiency Testing.

28.4 Global Perspectives.

References.

VI CURRENT AND FUTURE ISSUES IN FOOD SAFETY.

29 BIOTERRORISM AND FOOD SAFETY  (Barbara. A.Rasco and Gleyn E. Bledsoe).

29.1 Introduction.

29.2 The Need for Protective Food Security Programs.

29.3 Vulnerability Assessment.

29.4 Emergency Response and Product Recovery.

29.5 Prevention as the First Line of Defense.

29.6 Development of a Food Security Plan Based on HACCPPrinciples.

29.7 Evaluating Security Risks and Identifying Hazards.

29.8 Managing Risk: Preventive Measures.

29.9 Security Strategies.

Appendix: An Example.

References.

30 PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGY: GROWTH IN SILICO (Mark L.Tamplin).

30.1 Introduction.

30.2 Applications of Predictive Microbiology in the FoodIndustry.

30.3 Models.

30.4 Tools in Predictive Microbiology.

30.5 Databases to Support Predictive Microbiology.

30.6 Conclusions.

References.

31 ROLE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS IN FOODSAFETY (Fidel Guevara-Lara).

31.1 Introduction .

31.2 Genetically Modified Foods in the World Market.

31.3 Potential of GMOs to Increase Food Safety.

31.4 Increased Safety of GMOs for the Environment and HumanHealth.

31.5 Food Safety Issues and Public Concerns Regarding GMOs.

31.6 Conclusions.

References.

INDEX.

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