Microcomputer Engineering / Edition 3

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Overview

This complete book and laboratory manual focuses on microcomputers and microprocessors used as control devices (e.g., the Motorola 68HC11). It includes extensive material on using the Motorola M6HC11EVB and M68HC11EBU Trainers and encourages hands-on learning. KEY TOPICS Specific chapter topics cover computer fundamentals, instruction subset and machine language, assemblers and assembly language, program structure and design, advanced assembly language programming, hardware, advanced 68HC11 hardware, real-time operating systems, and real-time system design. For individuals studying, for the first time, microcomputers/microcontrollers.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Using the Motorola 68HC11 single-chip microcomputer/microprocessor as the hardware example, this second edition textbook covers the material necessary for students studying engineering and related disciplines in a first microcomputers course. Machine language, assembly language, and system design are discussed. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131428041
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 8/12/2003
  • Edition description: Subsequent
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 592
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Read an Excerpt

To the Student

Microcomputer Engineering, Third Edition, was written for students studying engineering and related disciplines in a first microcomputers course. Knowledge of microprocessors and single-chip microcomputers is essential to the design of products, manufacturing equipment, and laboratory instrumentation. Many schools now require at least one microcomputers course that includes laboratory work with these devices. Practicing engineers with some digital systems background can learn this material without an instructor by using this book. The best background includes courses in electrical circuits, electronics, digital systems, and high-level language programming. Digital systems is the most important of these.

This textbook will help you learn the fundamentals of microcomputers; it is not a computer manual. Examples demonstrate conceptual topics, since most people learn examples before they can generalize. Small sections cover only a few details at a time. I introduce the computer instructions only when the topic requires them; a table of the instructions appears only in an appendix.

You should experience the computer by hands-on work with microcomputer training hardware. In using such hardware, you will see all its features simultaneously, and that is a problem. You cannot force parts of the hardware to stop operating until you learn about them; the hardware operates whether you know about it or not. You must learn to ignore those things that you are not yet prepared to comprehend. Similarly, in this book, unnecessary details are ignored until you are ready for them. Implement all the small program examples on trainer hardware as you read for the bestlearning experience. I recommend the Motorola M68HCIIEVB or M68HC11EVBU2 microcomputer trainers for implementing the examples and exercises. Additional reference material is available through the Internet on the World Wide Web at WWW.PRENHALL.COM.

I sincerely hope that this book will be useful to students. If the opportunity arises, I will improve it based upon the recommendations and other feedback that I receive. I invite and urge you to write to me to comment on this book; student opinion about books is hardly ever heard, but always appreciated. To the Instructor

Microcomputer Engineering is a complete course-teaching aid that encourages hands-on laboratory work. The exercises in this third edition have been greatly expanded and improved. An associated website at WWW.PRENHALL.COM supports the text material.

The Motorola 68HCII single-chip microcomputer/microprocessor is the only hardware discussed. I recommend the Motorola M68HC 11EVB or the M68HC 11EVBU2 microcomputer trainer with a personal computer system running Microsoft® Windows NT® or its successors for laboratory work. Considering the low cost of microcomputer trainers, I prefer them over software simulators. All the example programs and exercises can be run on the recommended trainers. I also recommend the PFE freeware editor and the 2500AD assembler. Material related to this support equipment and software is provided on the Web site. Other equipment and software can be used, although with greater effort. The aforementioned Web site also describes how to set up a complete laboratory.

The text makes teaching easy. The order of the chapters is the order in which I present the material. I want students working on a trainer as soon as possible, so I deliberately simplified the early topics. Reading assigned by section is possible since the sections are mostly independent of one another. Small laboratory/homework exercises are at the end of each chapter. Larger projects are on the Web site.

Chapter 1 reviews the digital systems and computer fundamentals required. The section on number systems is essential to understanding later chapters.

Chapter 2 introduces some of the microprocessor registers, the programming model, and the functions of these registers. Following this, some instructions and the addressing modes are introduced with straightforward examples. At the end of this chapter, a section discusses designing and writing a small machine language program.

I encourage laboratory/homework exercises on the trainer that demonstrate the instruction set, addressing modes, and a machine language program.

Chapter 3 changes direction and introduces assembly language. All examples thereafter use assembly language.

Motorola notation and terminology are used so you can reference Motorola manuals without confusion. Anything in program examples specifically related to the particular assembler program used for their development has been removed. Exercises in writing simple programs using an editor and assembler are appropriate, but only use the instructions from Chapter 2 at this point.

The student is now beginning to understand what a microcomputer is and how to program it. Because bad habits develop quickly, discussing program design before people have much programming experience is important. Chapter 4 concentrates on the established ideas for writing cost-effective and useful programs. Most microcomputer book authors avoid this topic apparently assuming that good software engineering is unnecessary; this author assumes exactly the contrary.

Chapter 5 introduces most of the remaining instructions using assembly language. Instructions are grouped according to their usual function, such as bit manipulation, comparison, BCD arithmetic, and stack operations. Subroutines and several parameter-passing techniques are covered in detail.

Chapter 6 covers hardware, input/output concepts, and input/output programming. Microprocessor buses, memory and 1/O chips, and input/output synchronization techniques are the main topics. Little electronics knowledge is required. The I/O section includes both polling and interrupt techniques. The interrupt material is quite extensive, including discussion of concurrency and reentrancy problems and their solutions.

Chapter 7 covers the I/O hardware capabilities of the 68HC 11 chip. Operation in both the single-chip microcomputer and expanded modes, chip versions, chip configuration, and pin connections are first. The next topics include hardware reset and details of the interrupt system. The I/O hardware sections that follow discuss the real-time clock, programmable timer, pulse accumulator, serial communications interface, and the analog-to-digital converter—all with programming examples. The next section on fail-safe operation discusses the COP timer, clock failure detection, and illegal instruction response. The hardware expansion section covers microprocessor bus extension, the SPI bus, and the port replacement unit. Finally, special hardware operations, such as stopping the clock, are covered.

Chapter 8 introduces the concept of an operating system and discusses the principles of real-time systems and multitasking systems.

Chapter 9 contains a major design example that encompasses much of the material in the first eight chapters. The goal is to develop a working product based on a relatively simple real-time multitasking operating system with preemptive priority scheduling. The product is a basic weather station that displays wind speed and direction on both digital displays and on a CRT. Design specifications for the weather station are stated first, then the complete operating system software is presented and discussed. Finally, all the tasks required to meet the weather station specifications are presented and discussed. The simplest working approach to the software is chosen in all cases. While reading the discussion of the software in this chapter, also "read the code."

Chapter 9 provides all the program code to make a working weather station. The required laboratory hardware is common to most student labs. The anemometer and wind vane are easily simulated with simple electronics if necessary.

Developing realistic student projects is often difficult because of the time required for students to get started. The design project in Chapter 9 provides a significant foundation for building additional projects. The projects can be modifications and improvements to the operating system, additions to the weather station, or development of entirely new applications of the operating system. In all these cases, the complexity is great enough to challenge students without requiring many hours of preliminary work. The modular nature of the multitasking operating system encourages student teamwork.

Appendix A documents the 68HC 11 instruction set with an instruction set table, a reverse instruction set table, and op code maps. Appendix B tabulates the internal 68HCI 1A8 1/O hardware control registers. Appendix C has been expanded to include information about the M68HC 11EVB, M68HC 11EVBU, and M68HCI 1EVBU2 trainers and includes a tutorial on their use. The presentation should minimize any confusion about the differing features of the three trainers. Appendix C is particularly useful to the student doing hands-on projects in a laboratory using a Motorola trainer. Appendix D contains answers to selected exercises.

See the associated Web site for additional material, such as documentation on other microcomputer trainers, the PFE editor program, and assembler programs; lab setup information; source code for some examples; and laboratory exercises. A glossary of terms used in the text is also available.

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter includes end-of-chapter exercises and a review.)

1. Computer Fundamentals.

2. Instruction Subset and Machine Language.

3. Assemblers and Assembly Language.

4. Program Structure and Design.

5. Advanced Assembly Language Programming.

6. Hardware.

7. Advanced 68HC11 Hardware.

8. Real-time Operating Systems.

9. Real-time System Design.

Appendix A. The 68HC11 Instruction Set.

Appendix B. Hardware Control Registers.

Appendix C. The Motorola M68HC11EVB, EVBU, and EVBU2 Microcomputer Trainers.

Appendix D. Answers to Selected Exercises.

General Index.

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Preface

To the Student

Microcomputer Engineering, Third Edition, was written for students studying engineering and related disciplines in a first microcomputers course. Knowledge of microprocessors and single-chip microcomputers is essential to the design of products, manufacturing equipment, and laboratory instrumentation. Many schools now require at least one microcomputers course that includes laboratory work with these devices. Practicing engineers with some digital systems background can learn this material without an instructor by using this book. The best background includes courses in electrical circuits, electronics, digital systems, and high-level language programming. Digital systems is the most important of these.

This textbook will help you learn the fundamentals of microcomputers; it is not a computer manual. Examples demonstrate conceptual topics, since most people learn examples before they can generalize. Small sections cover only a few details at a time. I introduce the computer instructions only when the topic requires them; a table of the instructions appears only in an appendix.

You should experience the computer by hands-on work with microcomputer training hardware. In using such hardware, you will see all its features simultaneously, and that is a problem. You cannot force parts of the hardware to stop operating until you learn about them; the hardware operates whether you know about it or not. You must learn to ignore those things that you are not yet prepared to comprehend. Similarly, in this book, unnecessary details are ignored until you are ready for them. Implement all the small program examples on trainer hardware as you read for the best learning experience. I recommend the Motorola M68HCIIEVB or M68HC11EVBU2 microcomputer trainers for implementing the examples and exercises. Additional reference material is available through the Internet on the World Wide Web at WWW.PRENHALL.COM.

I sincerely hope that this book will be useful to students. If the opportunity arises, I will improve it based upon the recommendations and other feedback that I receive. I invite and urge you to write to me to comment on this book; student opinion about books is hardly ever heard, but always appreciated.

To the Instructor

Microcomputer Engineering is a complete course-teaching aid that encourages hands-on laboratory work. The exercises in this third edition have been greatly expanded and improved. An associated website at WWW.PRENHALL.COM supports the text material.

The Motorola 68HCII single-chip microcomputer/microprocessor is the only hardware discussed. I recommend the Motorola M68HC 11EVB or the M68HC 11EVBU2 microcomputer trainer with a personal computer system running Microsoft® Windows NT® or its successors for laboratory work. Considering the low cost of microcomputer trainers, I prefer them over software simulators. All the example programs and exercises can be run on the recommended trainers. I also recommend the PFE freeware editor and the 2500AD assembler. Material related to this support equipment and software is provided on the Web site. Other equipment and software can be used, although with greater effort. The aforementioned Web site also describes how to set up a complete laboratory.

The text makes teaching easy. The order of the chapters is the order in which I present the material. I want students working on a trainer as soon as possible, so I deliberately simplified the early topics. Reading assigned by section is possible since the sections are mostly independent of one another. Small laboratory/homework exercises are at the end of each chapter. Larger projects are on the Web site.

Chapter 1 reviews the digital systems and computer fundamentals required. The section on number systems is essential to understanding later chapters.

Chapter 2 introduces some of the microprocessor registers, the programming model, and the functions of these registers. Following this, some instructions and the addressing modes are introduced with straightforward examples. At the end of this chapter, a section discusses designing and writing a small machine language program.

I encourage laboratory/homework exercises on the trainer that demonstrate the instruction set, addressing modes, and a machine language program.

Chapter 3 changes direction and introduces assembly language. All examples thereafter use assembly language.

Motorola notation and terminology are used so you can reference Motorola manuals without confusion. Anything in program examples specifically related to the particular assembler program used for their development has been removed. Exercises in writing simple programs using an editor and assembler are appropriate, but only use the instructions from Chapter 2 at this point.

The student is now beginning to understand what a microcomputer is and how to program it. Because bad habits develop quickly, discussing program design before people have much programming experience is important. Chapter 4 concentrates on the established ideas for writing cost-effective and useful programs. Most microcomputer book authors avoid this topic apparently assuming that good software engineering is unnecessary; this author assumes exactly the contrary.

Chapter 5 introduces most of the remaining instructions using assembly language. Instructions are grouped according to their usual function, such as bit manipulation, comparison, BCD arithmetic, and stack operations. Subroutines and several parameter-passing techniques are covered in detail.

Chapter 6 covers hardware, input/output concepts, and input/output programming. Microprocessor buses, memory and 1/O chips, and input/output synchronization techniques are the main topics. Little electronics knowledge is required. The I/O section includes both polling and interrupt techniques. The interrupt material is quite extensive, including discussion of concurrency and reentrancy problems and their solutions.

Chapter 7 covers the I/O hardware capabilities of the 68HC 11 chip. Operation in both the single-chip microcomputer and expanded modes, chip versions, chip configuration, and pin connections are first. The next topics include hardware reset and details of the interrupt system. The I/O hardware sections that follow discuss the real-time clock, programmable timer, pulse accumulator, serial communications interface, and the analog-to-digital converter—all with programming examples. The next section on fail-safe operation discusses the COP timer, clock failure detection, and illegal instruction response. The hardware expansion section covers microprocessor bus extension, the SPI bus, and the port replacement unit. Finally, special hardware operations, such as stopping the clock, are covered.

Chapter 8 introduces the concept of an operating system and discusses the principles of real-time systems and multitasking systems.

Chapter 9 contains a major design example that encompasses much of the material in the first eight chapters. The goal is to develop a working product based on a relatively simple real-time multitasking operating system with preemptive priority scheduling. The product is a basic weather station that displays wind speed and direction on both digital displays and on a CRT. Design specifications for the weather station are stated first, then the complete operating system software is presented and discussed. Finally, all the tasks required to meet the weather station specifications are presented and discussed. The simplest working approach to the software is chosen in all cases. While reading the discussion of the software in this chapter, also "read the code."

Chapter 9 provides all the program code to make a working weather station. The required laboratory hardware is common to most student labs. The anemometer and wind vane are easily simulated with simple electronics if necessary.

Developing realistic student projects is often difficult because of the time required for students to get started. The design project in Chapter 9 provides a significant foundation for building additional projects. The projects can be modifications and improvements to the operating system, additions to the weather station, or development of entirely new applications of the operating system. In all these cases, the complexity is great enough to challenge students without requiring many hours of preliminary work. The modular nature of the multitasking operating system encourages student teamwork.

Appendix A documents the 68HC 11 instruction set with an instruction set table, a reverse instruction set table, and op code maps. Appendix B tabulates the internal 68HCI 1A8 1/O hardware control registers. Appendix C has been expanded to include information about the M68HC 11EVB, M68HC 11EVBU, and M68HCI 1EVBU2 trainers and includes a tutorial on their use. The presentation should minimize any confusion about the differing features of the three trainers. Appendix C is particularly useful to the student doing hands-on projects in a laboratory using a Motorola trainer. Appendix D contains answers to selected exercises.

See the associated Web site for additional material, such as documentation on other microcomputer trainers, the PFE editor program, and assembler programs; lab setup information; source code for some examples; and laboratory exercises. A glossary of terms used in the text is also available.

Read More Show Less

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