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More About This Textbook
Overview
As was the case with the first three editions, the objective of this book is to develop in the reader the ability to analyze and design electronic circuits, both analog and digital, discrete and integrated. While the application of integrated circuits is covered, emphasis is placed on transistor circuit design. This is done because of our belief that even if the majority of those studying the book were not to pursue a career in IC design, knowledge of what is inside the IC package would enable intelligent and innovative application of such chips. Furthermore, with the advances in VLSI technology and design methodology, IC design itself is becoming accessible to an increasing number of engineers.
Editorial Reviews
Booknews
Revised and updated text for the core courses in electronic circuits taught to majors in electrical and computer engineering stresses development of the ability to analyze and design electronic circuits, both analog and digital, discrete and integrated. While the application of integrated circuits is covered, emphasis is placed on transistor circuit design. The prerequisite is a first course in circuit analysis. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)Product Details
Related Subjects
Meet the Author
Adel S. Sedra is Dean of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Waterloo and former Provost of the University of Toronto.
Kenneth C. Smith (KC) is Professor Emeritus in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering, and Information Studies at the University of Toronto.
Table of Contents
Brief Table of Contents
Part I. Devices and Basic Circuits
1. Signals and Amplifiers
2. Operational Amplifiers
3. Semiconductors
4. Diodes
5. MOS FieldEffect Transistors (MOSFETs)
6. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
Part II. IntegratedCircuit Amplifiers
7. Building Blocks of IntegratedCircuit Amplifiers
8. Differential and Multistage Amplifiers
9. Frequency Response
10. Feedback
11. Output Stages and Power Amplifiers
12. Operational Amplifier Circuits
Part III. Digital Integrated Circuits
13. CMOS Digital Logic Circuits
14. Advanced MOS and Bipolar Logic Circuits
15. Memory Circuits
Part IV. Filters and Oscillators
16. Filters and Tuned Amplifiers
17. Signal Generators and WaveformShaping Circuits
Full Table of Contents
Part I. Devices and Basic Circuits
Chapter 1. Signals and Amplifiers
Introduction
1.1 Signals
1.2 Frequency Spectrum of Signals
1.3 Analog and Digital Signals
1.4 Amplifiers
1.4.1 Signal Amplification
1.4.2 Amplifier Circuit Symbol
1.4.3 Voltage Gain
1.4.4 Power Gain and Current Gain
1.4.5 Expressing Gain in Decibels
1.4.6 Amplifier Power Supplies
1.4.7 Amplifier Saturation
1.4.8 Symbol Convention
1.5 Circuit Models for Amplifiers
1.5.1 Voltage Amplifiers
1.5.2 Cascaded Amplifiers
1.5.3 Other Amplifier Types
1.5.4 Relationships Between the Four Amplifier Models
1.5.5 Determining Ri and Ro
1.5.6 Unilateral Models
1.6 Frequency Response of Amplifiers
1.6.1 Measuring the Amplifier Frequency Response
1.6.2 Amplifier Bandwidth
1.6.3 Evaluating the Frequency Response of Amplifiers
1.6.4 SingleTimeConstant Networks
1.6.5 Classification of Amplifiers Based on Frequency Response
Summary
Problems
Chapter 2. Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps)
Introduction
2.1 The Ideal Op Amp
2.1.1 The OpAmp Terminals
2.1.2 Function and Characteristics of the Ideal Op Amp
2.1.3 Differential and CommonMode Signals
2.2 The Inverting Configuration
2.2.1 The ClosedLoop Gain
2.2.2 Effect of the Finite OpenLoop Gain
2.2.3 Input and Output Resistances
2.2.4 An Important Application: The Weighted Summer
2.3 The Noninverting Configuration
2.3.1 The ClosedLoop Gain
2.3.2 Effect of the Finite OpenLoop Gain
2.3.3 Input and Output Resistances
2.3.4 The Voltage Follower
2.4 Difference Amplifiers
2.4.1 A Single OpAmp Difference Amplifier
2.4.2 A Superior Circuit: The Instrumentation Amplifier
2.5 Integrators and Differentiators
2.5.1 The Inverting Configuration with General Impedances
2.5.2 The Inverting Integrator
2.5.3 The OpAmp Differentiator
2.6 DC Imperfections
2.6.1 Offset Voltage
2.6.2 Input Bias and Offset Currents
2.6.3 Effect of Vos and Ios on the Operation of the Inverting Integrator
2.7 Effect of Finite OpenLoop Gain and Bandwidth on Circuit Performance
2.7.1 Frequency Dependence of the OpenLoop Gain
2.7.2 Frequency Response of the ClosedLoop Amplifier
2.8 LargeSignal Operation of Op Amps
2.8.1 Output Voltage Saturation
2.8.2 Output Current Limits
2.8.3 Slew Rate
2.8.4 FullPower Bandwidth
Summary
Problems
Chapter 3. Semiconductors
3.1 Intrinsic Semiconductors
3.2 Doped Semiconductors
3.3 Current Flow in Semiconductors
3.3.1 Drift Current
3.3.2 Diffusion Current
3.3.3 Relationship Between D and ?
3.4 The pn Junction with OpenCircuit Terminals (Equilibrium)
3.4.1 Physical Structure
3.4.2 Operation with OpenCircuit Terminals
3.5 The pn Junction with Applied Voltage
3.5.1 Qualitative Description of Junction Operation
3.5.2 The CurrentVoltage Relationship of the Junction
3.5.3 Reverse Breakdown
3.6 Capacitive Effects in the pn Junction
3.6.1 Depletion or Junction Capacitance
3.6.2 Diffusion Capacitance
Summary
Problems
Chapter 4. Diodes
4.1 The Ideal Diode
4.1.1 CurrentVoltage Characteristic
4.1.2 A Simple Application: The Rectifier
4.1.3 Another Application: Diode Logic Gates
4.2 Terminal Characteristics of Junction Diodes
4.2.1 The ForwardBias Region
4.2.2 The ReverseBias Region
4.2.3 The Breakdown Region
4.3 Modelling the Diode Forward Characteristic
4.3.1 The Exponential Model
4.3.2 Graphical Analysis Using the Exponential Model
4.3.3 Iterative Analysis Using the Exponential Model
4.3.4 The Need for Rapid Analysis
4.3.5 The ConstantVoltage Drop Model
4.3.6 The IdealDiode Model
4.3.7 The SmallSignal Model
4.3.8 Use of the Diode Forward Drop in Voltage Regulation
4.4 Operation in the Reverse Breakdown RegionZener Diodes
4.4.1 Specifying and Modeling the Zener Diode
4.4.2 Use of the Zener as a Shunt Regulator
4.4.3 Temperature Effects
4.4.4 A Final Remark
4.5 Rectifier Circuits
4.5.1 The HalfWave Rectifier
4.5.2 The FullWave Rectifier
4.5.3 The Bridge Rectifier
4.5.4 The Rectifier with a Filter CapacitorThe Peak Rectifier
4.5.5 Precision HalfWave RectifierThe Super Diode
4.6 Limiting and Clamping Circuits
4.6.1 Limiter Circuits
4.6.2 The Clamped Capacitor or DC Restorer
4.6.3 The Voltage Doubler
4.7 Special Diode Types
4.7.1 The SchottkyBarrier Diode (SBD)
4.7.2 Varactors
4.7.3 Photodiodes
4.7.4 LightEmitting Diodes (LEDs)
Summary
Problems
Chapter 5. MOS FieldEffect Transistors (MOSFETs)
5.1 Device Structure and Physical Operation
5.1.1 Device Structure
5.1.2 Operation with Zero Gate Voltage
5.1.3 Creating a Channel for Current Flow
5.1.4 Applying a Small ?DS
5.1.5 Operation as ?DS is Increased
5.1.6 Operation for ?DS ? VOV
5.1.7 The pChannel MOSFET
5.1.8 Complementary MOS or CMOS
5.1.9 Operating the MOS Transistor in the Subthreshold Region
5.2 CurrentVoltage Characteristics
5.2.1 Circuit Symbol
5.2.2 The iD ?DS Characteristics
5.2.3 The iDnuGS Characteristic
5.2.4 Finite Output Resistance in Saturation
5.2.5 Characteristics of the pChannel MOSFET
5.3 MOSFET Circuits at DC
5.4 Applying the MOSFET in Amplifier Design
5.4.1 Obtaining a Voltage Amplifier
5.4.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC)
5.4.3 Biasing the MOSFET to Obtain Linear Amplification
5.4.4 The SmallSignal Voltage Gain
5.4.5 Determining the VTC by Graphical Analysis
5.4.6 Locating the Bias Point Q
5.5 SmallSignal Operation and Models
5.5.1 The DC Bias Point
5.5.2 The Signal Current in the Drain Terminal
5.5.3 Voltage Gain
5.5.4 Separating the DC Analysis and the Signal Analysis
5.5.5 SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit Models
5.5.6 The Transconductance gm
5.5.7 The T Equivalent Circuit Model
5.5.8 Summary
5.6 Basic MOSFET Amplifier Configurations
5.6.1 The Three Basic Configurations
5.6.2 Characterizing Amplifiers
5.6.3 The CommonSource Configuration
5.6.4 The CommonSource Amplifier with a Source Resistance
5.6.5 The CommonGate Amplifier
5.6.6 The CommonDrain Amplifier or Source Follower
5.6.7 Summary and Comparisons
5.7 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuits
5.7.1 Biasing by Fixing VGS
5.7.2 Biasing by Fixing VG and Connecting a Resistance in the Source
5.7.3 Biasing Using a DraintoGate Feedback Resistance
5.7.4 Biasing Using a ConstantCurrent Source
5.7.5 A Final Remark
5.8 DiscreteCircuit MOS Amplifiers
5.8.1 The Basic Structure
5.8.2 The CommonSource (CS) Amplifier
5.8.3 The CommonSource Amplifier with a Source Resistance
5.8.4 The CommonGate Amplifier
5.8.5 The Source Follower
5.8.6 The Amplifier Bandwidth
5.9 The Body Effect and Other Topics
5.9.1 The Role of the SubstrateThe Body Effect
5.9.2 Modeling the Body Effect
5.9.3 Temperature Effects
5.9.4 Breakdown and Input Protection
5.9.5 Velocity Saturation
5.9.6 The DepletionType MOSFET
Summary
Problems
Chapter 6. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
6.1 Device Structure and Physical Operation
6.1.1 Simplified Structure and Modes of Operation
6.1.2 Operation of the npn Transistor in the Active Mode
Current Flow
The Collector Current
The Base Current
The Emitter Current
Recapitulation and EquivalentCircuit Models
6.1.3 Structure of Actual Transistors
6.1.4 Operation in the Saturation Mode
6.1.5 The pnp Transistor
6.2 CurrentVoltage Characteristics
6.2.1 Circuit Symbols and Conventions
The Constant n
CollectorBase Reverse Current (ICBO)
6.2.2 Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics
6.2.3 Dependence of iC on the Collector VoltageThe Early Effect
6.2.4 An Alternative Form of the CommonEmitter Characteristics
The CommonEmitter Current Gain ?
The Saturation Voltage VCEsat and Saturation Resistance RCEsat
6.3 BJT Circuits at DC
6.4 Applying the BJT in Amplifier Design
6.4.1 Obtaining a Voltage Amplifier
6.4.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC)
6.4.3 Biasing the BJT to Obtain Linear Amplification
6.4.4 The SmallSignal Voltage Gain
6.4.5 Determining the VTC by Graphical Analysis
6.4.6 Locating the Bias Point Q
6.5 SmallSignal Operation and Models
6.5.1 The Collector Current and the Transconductance
6.5.2 The Base Current and the Input Resistance at the Base
6.5.3 The Emitter Current and the Input Resistance at the Emitter
6.5.4 Voltage Gain
6.5.5 Separating the Signal and the DC Quantities
6.5.6 The Hybrid? Model
6.5.7 The T Model
6.5.8 SmallSignal Models of the pnp Transistor
6.5.9 Application of the SmallSignal Equivalent Circuits
6.5.10 Performing SmallSignal Analysis Directly on the Circuit Diagram
6.5.11 Augmenting the SmallSignal Model to Account for the Early Effect
6.5.12 Summary
6.6 Basic BJT Amplifier Configurations
6.6.1 The Three Basic Configurations
6.6.2 Characterizing Amplifiers
6.6.3 The CommonEmitter Amplifier
Characteristic Parameters of the CE Amplifier
Overall Voltage Gain
Alternative Gain Expressions
Performing the Analysis Directly on the Circuit
6.6.4 The CommonEmitter Amplifier with An Emitter Resistance
6.6.5 The CommonBase (CB) Amplifier
6.6.6 The CommonCollector Amplifier or Emitter Follower
The Need for Voltage Buffers
Characteristic Parameters of the Emitter Follower
Overall Voltage Gain
Thévenin Representation of the Emitter Follower Output
6.6.7 Summary and Comparisons
6.7 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits
6.7.1 The Classical DiscreteCircuit Biasing Arrangement
6.7.2 A TwoPowerSupply Version of the Classical Bias Arrangement
6.7.3 Biasing Using a CollectortoBase Feedback Resistor
6.7.4 Biasing Using a ConstantCurrent Source
6.8 DiscreteCircuit BJT Amplifier
6.8.1 The Basic Structure
6.8.2 The CommonEmitter Amplifier
6.8.3 The CommonEmitter Amplifier with an Emitter Resistance
6.8.4 The CommonBase Amplifier
6.8.5 The Emitter Follower
6.8.6 The Amplifier Frequency Response
6.9 Transistor Breakdown and Temperature Effects
6.9.1 Transistor Breakdown
6.9.2 Dependence of ? on IC and Temperature
Summary
Problems
Part II. IntegratedCircuit Amplifiers
Chapter 7. Building Blocks of IntegratedCircuit Amplifiers
7.1 IC Design Philosophy
7.2 The Basic Gain Cell
7.2.1 The CS and CE Amplifiers with CurrentSource Loads
7.2.2 The Intrinsic Gain
7.2.3 Effect of the Output Resistance of the CurrentSource Load
7.2.4 Increasing the Gain of the Basic Cell
7.3 The Cascode Amplifier
7.3.1 Cascoding
7.3.2 The MOS Cascode
7.3.3 Distribution of Voltage Gain in a Cascode Amplifier
7.3.4 The Output Resistance of a SourceDegenerated CS Amplifier
7.3.5 Double Cascoding
7.3.6 The Folded Cascode
7.3.7 The BJT Cascode
7.3.8 The Output Resistance of an EmitterDegenerated CE Amplifier
7.3.9 BiCMOS Cascodes
7.4 IC BiasingCurrent Sources, Current Mirrors, and CurrentSteering Circuits
7.4.1 The Basic MOSFET Current Source
7.4.2 MOS CurrentSteering Circuits
7.4.3 BJT Circuits
7.5 CurrentMirror Circuits with Improved Performance
7.5.1 Cascode MOS Mirrors
7.5.2 A Bipolar Mirror with BaseCurrent Compensation
7.5.3 The Wilson Current Mirror
7.5.4 The Wilson MOS Mirror
7.5.5 The Widlar Current Source
7.6 Some Useful Transistor Pairings
7.6.1 The CCCE, CDCS, and CDCE Configurations
7.6.2 The Darlington Configuration
7.6.3 The CCCB and CDCG Configurations
Summary
Appendix 7.A: Comparison of the MOSFET and BJT
7.A.1 Typical Values of IC MOSFET Parameters
7.A.2 Typical Values of IC BJT Parameters
7.A.3 Comparison of Important Characteristics
7.A.4 Combining MOS and Bipolar Transistors: BiCMOS Circuits
7.A.5 Validity of the SquareLaw MOSFET Model
Problems
Chapter 8. Differential and Multistage Amplifiers
8.1 The MOS Differential Pair
8.1.1 Operation with a CommonMode Input Voltage
8.1.2 Operation with a Differential Input Voltage
8.1.3 LargeSignal Operation
8.2 SmallSignal Operation of the MOS Differential Pair
8.2.1 Differential Gain
8.2.2 The Differential HalfCircuit
8.2.3 The Differential Amplifier with CurrentSource Loads
8.2.4 Cascode Differential Amplifier
8.2.5 CommonMode Gain and CommonMode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
8.3 The BJT Differential Pair
8.3.1 Basic Operation
8.3.2 Input CommonMode Range
8.3.3 LargeSignal Operation
8.3.4 SmallSignal Operation
8.3.5 CommonMode Gain and CMRR
8.4 Other Nonideal Characteristics of the Differential Amplifier
8.4.1 Input Offset Voltage of the MOS Differential Amplifier
8.4.2 Input Offset Voltage of the Bipolar Differential Amplifier
8.4.3 Input Bias and Offset Currents of the Bipolar Differential Amplifier
8.4.4 A Concluding Remark
8.5 The Differential Amplifier with Active Load
8.5.1 Differential to SingleEnded Conversion
8.5.2 The ActiveLoaded MOS Differential Pair
8.5.3 Differential Gain of the ActiveLoaded MOS Pair
8.5.4 CommonMode Gain and CMRR
8.5.5 The Bipolar Differential Pair with Active Load
8.6 Multistage Amplifiers
8.6.1 A TwoStage CMOS Op Amp
8.6.2 A Bipolar Op Amp
Summary
Problems
Chapter 9. Frequency Response
9.1 LowFrequency Response of the CS and CE Amplifiers
9.1.1 The CS Amplifier
9.1.2 The CE Amplifier
9.2 Internal Capacitive Effects and the HighFrequency Model of the MOSFET and the BJT
9.2.1 The MOSFET
9.2.2 The BJT
9.3 HighFrequency Response of the CS and CE Amplifiers
9.3.1 The CommonSource Amplifier
9.3.2 The CommonEmitter Amplifier
9.4 Useful Tools for the Analysis of the HighFrequency Response of Amplifiers
9.4.1 The HighFrequency Gain Function
9.4.2 Determining the 3dB Frequency fH
9.4.3 Using OpenCircuit Time Constants for the Approximate Determination of fH
9.4.4 Miller's Theorem
9.5 A Closer Look at the HighFrequency Response of the CS and CE Amplifiers
9.5.1 The Equivalent Circuit
9.5.2 Analysis Using Miller's Theorem
9.5.3 Analysis Using OpenCircuit Time Constants
9.5.4 Exact Analysis
9.5.5 Adapting the Formulas for the Case of the CE Amplifier
9.5.6 The Situation when Rsig is Low
9.6 HighFrequency Response of the CG and Cascode Amplifiers
9.6.1 HighFrequency Response of the CG Amplifier
9.6.2 HighFrequency Response of the MOS Cascode Amplifier
9.6.3 HighFrequency Response of the Bipolar Cascode Amplifier
9.7 HighFrequency Response of the Source and Emitter Followers
9.7.1 The Source Follower
9.7.2 The Emitter Follower
9.8 HighFrequency Response of Differential Amplifiers
9.8.1 Analysis of the Resistively Loaded MOS Amplifier
9.8.2 Analysis of the ActiveLoaded MOS Amplifier
9.9 Other Wideband Amplifier Configurations
9.9.1 Obtaining Wideband Amplification by Source and Emitter Degeneration
9.9.2 The CDCS, CCCE and CDCE Configurations
9.9.3 The CCCB and CDCG Configurations
9.10 HighFrequency Response of Multistage Amplifiers
9.10.1 Frequency Response of the TwoStage CMOS Op Amp
9.10.2 Frequency Response of the Bipolar Op Amp of Section 8.5.2.
Summary
Problems
Chapter 10. Feedback
10.1 The General Feedback Structure
10.2 Some Properties of Negative Feedback
10.2.1 Gain Desensitivity
10.2.2 Bandwidth Extension
10.2.3 Noise Reduction
10.2.4 Reduction in Nonlinear Distortion
10.3 The Four Basic Feedback Topologies
10.3.1 Voltage Amplifiers
10.3.2 Current Amplifiers
10.3.3 Transconductance Amplifiers
10.3.4 Transresistance Amplifiers
10.3.5 A Concluding Remark
10.4 The Feedback VoltageAmplifier (SeriesShunt)
10.4.1 The Ideal Case
10.4.2 The Practical Case
10.4.3 Summary
10.5 The Feedback TransconductanceAmplifier (SeriesSeries)
10.5.1 The Ideal Case
10.5.2 The Practical Case
10.5.3 Summary
10.6 The Feedback TransresistanceAmplifier (ShuntShunt)
10.6.1 The Ideal Case
10.6.2 The Practical Case
10.6.3 Summary
10.7 The Feedback CurrentAmplifier (ShuntSeries)
10.7.1 The Ideal Case
10.7.2 The Practical Case
10.8 Summary of the Feedback Analysis Method
10.9 Determining the Loop Gain
10.9.1 An Alternative Approach for Finding A?
10.9.2 Equivalence of Circuits from a FeedbackLoop Point of View
10.10 The Stability Problem
10.10.1 The Transfer Function of the Feedback Amplifier
10.10.2 The Nyquist Plot
10.11 Effect of Feedback on the Amplifier Poles
10.11.1 Stability and Pole Location
10.11.2 Poles of the Feedback Amplifier
10.11.3 Amplifier with a SinglePole Response
10.11.4 Amplifier with a TwoPole Response
10.11.5 Amplifier with Three or More Poles
10.12 Stability Study Using Bode Plots
10.12.1 Gain and Phase Margins
10.12.2 Effect of Phase Margin on ClosedLoop Response
10.12.3 An Alternative Approach for Investigating Stability
10.13 Frequency Compensation
10.13.1 Theory
10.13.2 Implementation
10.13.3 Miller Compensation and Pole Splitting
Summary
Problems
Chapter 11. Output Stages and Power Amplifiers
11.1 Classification of Output Stages
11.2 Class A Output Stage
11.2.1 Transfer Characteristic
11.2.2 Signal Waveforms
11.2.3 Power Dissipation
11.2.4 Power Conversion Efficiency
11.3 Class B Output Stage
11.3.1 Circuit Operation
11.3.2 Transfer Characteristic
11.3.3 PowerConversion Efficiency
11.3.4 Power Dissipation
11.3.5 Reducing Crossover Distortion
11.3.6 SingleSupply Operation
11.4 Class AB Output Stage
11.4.1 Circuit Operation
11.4.2 Output Resistance
11.5 Biasing the Class AB Circuit
11.5.1 Biasing Using Codes
11.5.2 Biasing Using the VBE Multiplier
11.6 CMOS Class AB Output Stages
11.6.1 The Classical Configuration
11.6.2 An Alternative Circuit Utilizing CommonSource Transistors
11.7 Power BJTs
11.7.1 Junction Temperature
11.7.2 Thermal Resistance
11.7.3 Power Dissipation versus Temperature
11.7.4 Transistor Case and Heat Sink
11.7.5 The BJT Safe Operating Area
11.7.6 Parameter Values of Power Transistors
11.8 Variations on the Class AB Configuration
11.8.1 Use of Input Emitter Followers
11.8.2 Use of Compound and Devices
11.8.3 ShortCircuit Protection
11.8.4 Thermal Shutdown
11.9 IC Power Amplifiers
11.9.1 A FixedGain IC Power Amplifier
11.9.2 Power Op Amps
11.9.3 The Bridge Amplifier
11.10 MOS Power Transistors
11.10.1 Structure of the Power MOSFET
11.10.2 Characteristics of Power MOSFETs
11.10.3 Temperature Effects
11.10.4 Comparison with BJTs
11.10.5 A Class AB Output Stage Utilizing Power MOSFETs
Summary
Problems
Chapter 12. Operational Amplifier Circuits
12.1 The Two Stage CMOS Op Amp
12.1.1 The Circuit
12.1.2 Input CommonMode Range and Output Swing
12.1.3 Voltage Gain
12.1.4 CommonMode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
12.1.5 Frequency Response
12.1.6 Slew Rate
12.1.7 PowerSupply Rejection Ratio (PSRR)
12.1.8 Design Tradeoffs
12.2 The Folded Cascode CMOS Op Amp
12.2.1 The Circuit
12.2.2 Input CommonMode Range and Output Swing
12.2.3 Voltage Gain
12.2.4 Frequency Response
12.2.5 Slew Rate
12.2.6 Increasing the Input CommonMode Range: RailtoRail Input Operation
12.2.7 Increasing the Output Voltage Range: The WideSwing Current Mirror
12.3 The 741 OpAmp Circuit
12.3.1 Bias Circuit
12.3.2 ShortCircuit Protection Circuitry
12.3.3 The Input Stage
12.3.4 The Second Stage
12.3.5 The Output Stage
12.3.6 Device Parameters
12.4 DC Analysis of the 741
12.4.1 Reference Bias Current
12.4.2 InputStage Bias
12.4.3 Input Bias and Offset Currents
12.4.4 Input Offset Voltage
12.4.5 Input CommonMode Range
12.4.6 SecondStage Bias
12.4.7 OutputStage Bias
12.5 SmallSignal Analysis of the 741
12.5.1 The Input Stage
12.5.2 The Second Stage
12.5.3 The Output Stage
12.6 Gain Frequency Response, Slew Rage of the 741
12.6.1 SmallSignal Gain
12.6.2 Frequency Response
12.6.3 A Simplified Model
12.6.4 Slew Rate
12.6.5 Relationship Between ft and SR
12.7 Modern Techniques for the Design of BJT Op Amps
12.7.1 Special Performance Requirements
12.7.2 Bias Design
12.7.3 Design of Input Stage to Obtain RailtoRail ?ICM
12.7.4 CommonMode Feedback to Control the DC Voltage at the Output of the Input Stage
12.7.5 OutputStage Design for Near RailtoRail Output Swing
Summary
Problems
Part III. Digital Integrated Circuits
Chapter 13. CMOS Digital Logic Circuits
13.1 Digital Logic Inverters
13.1.1 Function of the Inverter
13.1.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC)
13.1.3 Noise Margins
13.1.4 The Ideal VTC
13.1.5 Inverter Implementation
13.1.6 Power Dissipation
13.1.7 Propagation Delay
13.1.8 PowerDelay and EnergyDelay Products
13.1.9 Silicon Area
13.1.10 Digital IC Technologies and LogicCircuit Families
13.1.11 Styles for Digital System Design
13.1.12 Design Abstraction and Computer Aids
13.2 The CMOS Inverter
13.2.1 Circuit Operation
13.2.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic
13.2.3 The Situation When QN and QP are Not Matched
13.3 Dynamic Operation of the CMOS Inverter
13.3.1 Determining the Propagation Delay
13.3.2 Determining the Equivalent Load Capacitance C
13.3.3 Inverter Sizing
13.3.4 Dynamic Power Dissipation
13.4 CMOS LogicGate Circuits
13.4.1 Basic Structure
13.4.2 The TwoInput NOR Gate
13.4.3 The TwoInput NAND Gate
13.4.4 A Complex Gate
13.4.5 Obtaining the PUN from the PDN and Vice Versa
13.4.6 The ExclusiveOR Function
13.4.7 Summary of the Synthesis Method
13.4.8 Transistor Sizing
13.4.9 Effects of FanIn and FanOut on Propagation Delay
13.5 Implications of Technology Scaling: Issues in DeepSubmicron Design
13.5.1 Scaling Implications
13.5.2 Velocity Saturation
13.5.3 Subthreshold Conduction
13.5.4 WiringThe Interconnect
Summary
Problems
Chapter 14. Advanced MOS and Bipolar Logic Circuits
14.1 PseudoNMOS Logic Circuits
14.1.1 The PseudoNMOS Inverter
14.1.2 Static Characteristics
14.1.3 Derivation of the VTC
14.1.4 Dynamic Operation
14.1.5 Design
14.1.6 Gate Circuits
14.1.7 Concluding Remarks
14.2 PassTransistor Logic Circuits
14.2.1 An Essential Design Requirement
14.2.2 Operation with NMOS Transistors as Switches
14.2.3 Restoring the Value of VOH to VDD
14.2.4 The Use of CMOS Transmission Gates as Switches
14.2.5 PassTransistor Logic Circuit Examples
14.2.6 A Final Remark
14.3 Dynamic MOS Logic Circuits
14.3.1 The Basic Principle
14.3.2 Nonideal Effects
14.3.3 Domino CMOS Logic
14.3.4 Concluding Remarks
14.4 EmitterCoupled Logic (ECL)
14.4.1 The Basic Principle
14.4.2 ECL Families
14.4.3 The Basic Gate Circuit
14.4.4 Voltage Transfer Characteristics
14.4.5 FanOut
14.4.6 Speed of Operation and Signal Transmission
14.4.7 Power Dissipation
14.4.8 Thermal Effects
14.4.9 The WiredOR Capability
14.4.10 Final Remarks
14.5 BiCMOS Digital Circuits
14.5.1 The BiCMOS Inverter
14.5.2 Dynamic Operation
14.5.3 BiCMOS Logic Gates
Summary
Problems
Chapter 15. Memory Circuits
15.1 Latches and FlipFlops
15.1.1 The Latch
15.1.2 The SR FlipFlop
15.1.3 CMOS Implementation of SR FlipFlops
15.1.4 A Simpler CMOS Implementation of the Clocked SR FlipFlop
15.1.5 D FlipFlop Circuits
15.2 Semiconductor Memories: Types and Architectures
15.2.1 MemoryChip Organization
15.2.2 MemoryChip Timing
15.3 RandomAccess Memory (RAM) Cells
15.3.1 Static Memory (SRAM) Cell
15.3.2 Dynamic Memory (DRAM) Cell
15.4 Sense Amplifiers and Address Decoders
15.4.1 The Sense Amplifier
15.4.2 The RowAddress Decoder
15.4.3 The ColumnAddress Decoder
15.4.4 PulseGeneration Circuits
15.5 ReadOnly Memory (ROM)
15.5.1 A MOS ROM
15.5.2 MaskProgrammable ROMs
15.5.3 Programmable ROMs (PROMs and EPROMs)
Summary
Problems
Part IV. Filters and Oscillators
Chapter 16. Filters and Tuned Amplifiers
16.1 Filter Transmission, Types, and Specification
16.1.1 Filter Transmission
16.1.2 Filter Types
16.1.3 Filter Specification
16.2 The Filter Transfer Function
16.3 Butterworth and Chebyshev Filters
16.3.1 The Butterworth Filter
16.3.2 The Chebyshev Filter
16.4 FirstOrder and SecondOrder Filter Functions
16.4.1 FirstOrder Filters
16.4.2 SecondOrder Filter Functions
16.5 The SecondOrder LCR Resonator
16.5.1 The Resonator Natural Modes
16.5.2 Realization of Transmission Zeros
16.5.3 Realization of the LowPass Function
16.5.4 Realization of the HighPass Function
16.5.5 Realization of the Bandpass Function
16.5.6 Realization of the Notch Functions
16.5.7 Realization of the AllPass Function
16.6 SecondOrder Active Filters Based on Inductor Replacement
16.6.1 The Antoniou InductanceSimulation Circuit
16.6.2 The Op AmpRC Resonator
16.6.3 Realization of the Various Filter Types
16.6.4 The AllPass Circuit
16.7 SecondOrder Active Filters Based on the TwoIntegratorLoop Topology
16.7.1 Derivation of the TwoIntegratorLoop Biquad
16.7.2 Circuit Implementation
16.7.3 An Alternative TwoIntegratorLoop Biquad Circuit
16.7.4 Final Remarks
16.8 SingleAmplifier Biquadratic Active Filters
16.8.1 Synthesis of the Feedback Loop
16.8.2 Injecting the Input Signal
16.8.3 Generation of Equivalent Feedback Loops
16.9 Sensitivity
16.9.1 A Concluding Remark
16.10 SwitchedCapacitor Filters
16.10.1 The Basic Principle
16.10.2 Practical Circuits
16.10.3 A Final Remark
16.11 Tuned Amplifiers
16.11.1 The Basic Principle
16.11.2 Inductor Losses
16.11.3 Use of Transformers
16.11.4 Amplifiers with Multiple Tuned Circuits
16.11.5 The Cascode and the CCCB Cascade
16.11.6 Synchronous Tuning
16.11.7 Staggertuning
Summary
Problems
Chapter 17. Signal Generators and WaveformShaping Circuits
17.1 Basic Principles of Sinusoidal Oscillators
17.1.1 The Oscillator Feedback Loop
17.1.2 The Oscillation Criterion
17.1.3 Nonlinear Amplitude Control
17.1.4 A Popular Limiter Circuit for Amplitude Control
17.2 OpAmpRC Oscillator Circuits
17.2.1 The WienBridge Oscillator
17.2.2 The PhaseShift Oscillator
17.2.3 The Quadrature Oscillator
17.2.4 The ActiveFilterTuned Oscillator
17.2.5 A Final Remark
17.3 LC and Crystal Oscillators
17.3.1 LCTuned Oscillators
17.3.2 Crystal Oscillators
17.4 Bistable Multivibrators
17.4.1 The Feedback Loop
17.4.2 Transfer Characteristics of the Bistable Circuit
17.4.3 Triggering the Bistable Circuit
17.4.4 The Bistable Circuit as a Memory Element
17.4.5 A Bistable Circuit with Noninverting Transfer Characteristics
17.4.6 Application of the Bistable Circuit as a Comparator
17.4.7 Making the Output Levels More Precise
17.5 Generation of Square and Triangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators
17.5.1 Operation of the Astable Multivibrator
17.5.2 Generation of Triangular Waveforms
17.6 Generation of a Standardized PulseThe Monostable Multivibrator
17.7 IntegratedCircuit Timers
17.7.1 The 555 Circuit
17.7.2 Implementing a Monostable Multivibrator Using the 555 IC
17.7.3 An Astable Multivibrator Using the 555 IC
17.8 Nonlinear WaveformShaping Circuits
17.8.1 The Breakpoint Method
17.8.2 The NonlinearAmplification Method
17.9 Precision Rectifier Circuits
17.9.1 Precision HalfWave RectifierThe "Superdiode"
17.9.2 An Alternative Circuit
17.9.3 An Application: Measuring AC Voltages
17.9.4 Precision FullWave Rectifier
17.9.5 A Precision Bridge Rectifier for Instrumentation Applications
17.9.6 Precision Peak Rectifiers
17.9.7 A Buffered Precision Peak Detector
17.9.8 A Precision Clamping Circuit
Summary
Problems