Microscopic Methods in Metals

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642465734
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 2/25/2012
  • Series: Topics in Current Physics Series , #40
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 457
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.96 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Concerning Methods.- 1.1 Descriptive Methods.- 1.2 Abbreviated Methods.- 1.3 Name-Tag Methods.- 2. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy.- 2.1 Principle of Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM).- 2.2 The Image Contrast of Solids in the Reflection Scanning Acoustic Microscope; V(z)-Curves.- 2.3 Examples of Practical Applications of Reflection Scanning Acoustic Microscopy.- 2.3.1 Grain Structure.- 2.3.2 Diffusion Zones.- 2.3.3 Materials Defects.- 2.4 Outlook.- References27.- 3. High-Resolution Electron Microscopy.- 3.1 Background.- 3.1.1 Historical Development.- 3.1.2 Conventional vs. High-Resolution Electron Microscopy.- 3.2 Basic Principles of High-Resolution Electron Microscopy.- 3.2.1 Formation of Lattice Fringe Images.- 3.2.2 Formation of Many-Beam Lattice Images.- 3.2.3 Image Simulation by the Multislice Method.- 3.3 Applications.- 3.3.1 Defect and Defect Analysis.- 3.3.2 Amorphous Metals and Alloys.- 3.3.3 Ordered Alloys and Intermetallic Compounds.- 3.3.4 Phase Transformation.- 3.3.5 Surface, Grain Boundary and Interface.- 3.4 Outlook.- References.- 4. Field Ion Microscopy.- 4.1 Principles and Techniques.- 4.1.1 Magnification, Resolution, and Image Formation.- 4.1.2 Field Evaporation and Desorption.- 4.1.3 Specimen Preparation.- 4.1.4 Image Detection.- 4.1.5 Variants of the Field Ion Microscope.- 4.1.6 Field Emission Field Ion Microscopy.- 4.1.7 The Atom-Probe.- 4.2 Illustrative FIM Studies.- 4.2.1 Atomic Events on Solids.- 4.2.2 Field Evaporation and Desorption Measurements.- References.- 5. X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction.- 5.1 Diffraction of Neutrons and X-Rays by Poly- and Non-Crystalline Alloys.- 5.1.1 Neutron and X-Ray Scattering.- 5.1.2 General Scattering Theory for Solid and Liquid Solutions.- 5.1.3 Binary Alloys.- 5.1.4 Chemical Short-Range Order in Binary Alloys.- 5.1.5 Topological Order in Crystalline Solid Solutions.- 5.1.6 Integrated Intensity.- 5.2 Experimental Techniques.- 5.2.1 X-Ray and Neutron Sources.- 5.2.2 Instrumentation.- 5.3 Applications.- 5.3.1 Structure of Metallic Glasses and Liquids.- 5.3.2 Phase Analysis of Poly-Crystalline Mixtures.- 5.3.3 Small-Angle Scattering.- 5.3.4 Line Profile Analysis of Powder Pattern Peaks.- 5.3.5 Residual Stress Measurements.- 5.3.6 Grazing Incidence X-Ray Scattering.- References.- 6. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure.- 6.1 Theory.- 6.1.1 Overview.- 6.1.2 The Standard EXAFS Formula.- 6.1.3 Validity of the Theory.- 6.2 Experimental Techniques.- 6.3 Analysis.- 6.3.1 Basic Manipulations.- 6.3.2 Determination of Structural Parameters.- 6.3.3 Guidelines for Using EXAFS Spectroscopy.- 6.4 Experimental Applications.- 6.4.1 Local Environment Surrounding Solute Atoms.- 6.4.2 Comparison to Theoretical Models.- 6.4.3 Debye-Waller Factors — Mean-Square Displacements.- 6.4.4 Structure of Amorphous Metals.- References.- 7. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.- 7.1 Historical.- 7.2 Basic Principles.- 7.2.1 Photoemission.- 7.2.2 The Core-Electron Binding Energy in a Metal.- 7.2.3 Core-Electron Satellites.- 7.2.4 Plasmons, Electron Mean-Free Path, and Surface Aspects of XPS.- 7.2.5 Measurement of Core-Electron Binding Energy by XPS.- 7.3 Related Methods.- 7.3.1 Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES).- 7.3.2 Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPES).- 7.3.3 X-Ray Absorption Edge Spectroscopy (XAS).- 7.3.4 X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES).- 7.3.5 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES).- 7.3.6 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS).- 7.4 Applications.- 7.4.1 Chemical Analysis.- 7.4.2 Binding Energy Shifts.- 7.4.3 Valence Electron Density of States.- 7.4.4 Conduction-Electron Screening.- 7.5 Recent Developments.- 7.5.1 Surface Atoms.- 7.5.2 Metal Clusters.- References.- 8. Auger Electron Spectroscopy.- 8.1 History.- 8.2 Principles.- 8.2.1 The Auger Energies.- 8.2.2 The Auger Electron Emission Depth.- 8.2.3 Quantitative Analysis by AES.- 8.2.4 Composition Depth Profiling.- 8.2.5 Spatial Resolution in Auger Microscopy.- 8.3 The Instrument.- 8.4 Related Methods.- 8.5 Applications.- 8.5.1 Grain Boundary Segregation Studies.- 8.5.2 Surface Segregation.- 8.5.3 Grain Boundary Diffusion.- 8.5.4 Defect-Enhanced Diffusion.- 8.5.5 Other Studies.- 8.6 Future Developments.- References.- 9. Positron Annihilation.- 9.1 Background.- 9.2 Basic Principles.- 9.2.1 Positron Thermalization.- 9.2.2 Annihilation Process.- 9.3 Experimental Methods.- 9.3.1 Positron Sources.- 9.3.2 Angular Correlation of Annihilation Photons.- 9.3.3 Doppler Broadening of Annihilation Radiation.- 9.3.4 Lifetime Measurements of Positrons.- 9.3.5 Monoenergetic Positron Beams.- 9.4 Applications.- 9.4.1 Fermi Surfaces in Metals and Alloys.- 9.4.2 Metals at Various Temperatures.- 9.4.3 Radiation Induced Defects.- 9.4.4 Amorphous Alloys.- 9.4.5 Surfaces.- 9.5 Conclusions and Outlook.- References.- 10. Muon Spectroscopy.- 10.1 Basic Principles of the Experimental Techniques.- 10.2 The Depolarization Functions.- 10.2.1 Slow Dipole Fluctuations.- 10.2.2 Dipole Fluctuations and Correlation Functions.- 10.3 Diffusion Studies by—+ SR.- 10.3.1 Standard Theory of the Diffusion of a Light Interstitial in a Metal.- 10.3.2 Effects of Impurities and Defects on the—+ Damping Rate.- 10.3.3 Quantum—+ Diffusion in Metals.- 10.3.4 Classical—+ Diffusion in Metals.- 10.3.5—+ Diffusion in Hydrides.- 10.4 Magnetic Studies by—+ SR.- 10.4.1 Static Properties.- 10.4.2 Dynamic Properties.- 10.5 Conclusions.- References.- 11. Perturbed Angular Correlation.- 11.1 Background.- 11.2 Principles.- 11.2.1 Spin Alignment.- 11.2.2 Spin Precession.- 11.3 Detection of Hyperfine Fields.- 11.3.1 Magnetic Dipole Interaction.- 11.3.2 Electric Quadrupole Interaction.- 11.4 Radioactive Probes, Preparation and Techniques.- 11.4.1 Probe Atoms and Sample Preparation.- 11.4.2 Data Recording and Analysis.- 11.4.3 PAC and Mössbauer Spectroscopy.- 11.5 Applications.- 11.5.1 Hyperfine Fields at Impurities.- 11.5.2 Surface Studies.- 11.5.3 Diffusion of Light Gases in Tantalum.- 11.5.4 Defects and Impurities.- 11.6 Future Developments and Conclusions.- References.- 12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.- 12.1 Introductory Comments.- 12.2 Physical Background of an NMR Experiment — Hyperfine Interactions.- 12.2.1 Nuclear Paramagnetism.- 12.2.2 Thermal Equilibrium and Dynamic Properties of the Spin System.- 12.2.3 Electric Interaction — Nuclear Quadrupole Moment.- 12.2.4 Summary.- 12.3 Basic NMR Experiment — Principles and Setup.- 12.3.1 Spin Movement in a Magnetic Field.- 12.3.2 Free Induction Decay — Transverse Relaxation Time.- 12.3.3 Spin Echo — Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Broadenings.- 12.3.4 Spin-Lattice Relaxation Measurement.- 12.3.5 Spectrum Measurement.- 12.3.6 NMR Techniques and Instruments.- 12.3.7 Phase Coherent Pulsed NMR Spectrometer.- 12.3.8 Feasibility of an NMR Observation.- 12.4 NMR Outputs — Microscopic Origin.- 12.4.1 Hyperfine Fields.- 12.4.2 Frequency Shifts.- 12.4.3 Relaxation Times.- 12.4.4 Electric Field Gradient.- 12.4.5 Summary.- 12.5 Applications — Structural Investigations.- 12.5.1 Phase Analysis.- 12.5.2 Chemical Short-Range Order.- 12.5.3 Structure of Amorphous Metals.- 12.5.4 Atomic Motion in Metals.- 12.6 Applications — Electronic and Magnetic Properties.- 12.6.1 Local Magnetic Susceptibilities and Moments.- 12.6.2 Impurities in Metals.- 12.6.3 Magnetic Impurities — Occurrence of Magnetism.- 12.6.4 Concentrated Alloys — Local Environment Effects.- 12.6.5 Magnetic Structure and Phase Transition.- 12.6.6 Spin Fluctuations in Rare Earth Based Compounds.- 12.6.7 Electronic Phase Transitions.- 12.7 Conclusion and Outlook.- References.- 13. Mössbauer Spectroscopy.- 13.1 History.- 13.2 Principles.- 13.2.1 Line Width.- 13.2.2 Line Shape.- 13.2.3 Line Intensity (Recoil-Free Fraction).- 13.3 Mössbauer Isotopes.- 13.3.1 Sources.- 13.3.2 Absorbers.- 13.4 Methodology.- 13.4.1 Classical Setup.- 13.4.2 Scattering Geometry.- 13.5 Hyperfine Interactions.- 13.5.1 Isomer Shift.- 13.5.2 Magnetic Hyperfine Interaction.- 13.5.3 Electric Quadrupole Interaction.- 13.5.4 Mixed Interactions.- 13.5.5 Polarimetry.- 13.6 Relativistic Effects.- 13.7 Time-Dependent Effects.- 13.8 Applications.- 13.8.1 Iron.- 13.8.2 Phase Analysis.- 13.8.3 Texture.- 13.8.4 Defects.- 13.8.5 Amorphous.- 13.8.6 Relaxation Phenomena.- 13.9 Outlook.- References.- Additional References with Titles.

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