Microsoft Encyclopedia of Networking


Network administrators get A-to-Z detail about Microsoft networking technologies — straight from the source. This encyclopedia delivers essential coverage of Microsoft Windows NT, Windows 2000, and the BackOffice "RM" family, as well as third-party products and general networking terminology — providing comprehensive information for real-world network administration. Entries span the gamut from hardware to software, from theory to practice, and from current products to legacy systems. Practical examples, plus ...

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Network administrators get A-to-Z detail about Microsoft networking technologies — straight from the source. This encyclopedia delivers essential coverage of Microsoft Windows NT, Windows 2000, and the BackOffice "RM" family, as well as third-party products and general networking terminology — providing comprehensive information for real-world network administration. Entries span the gamut from hardware to software, from theory to practice, and from current products to legacy systems. Practical examples, plus ample illustrations and screen shots, help illuminate the concepts under discussion.

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Editorial Reviews

A reference of networking technology terms and concepts intended for Microsoft certified professionals and those studying for the Microsoft certified systems engineer exam. The 2000 plus entries are arranged alphabetically, and range from short entries of a few lines to several pages long. The main categories surveyed are networking software and hardware, Internet standards and architecture, Windows NT and Windows 2000 network operating systems, and BackOffice network applications. The CD-ROM contains a searchable electronic version of the book. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780735605732
  • Publisher: Microsoft Press
  • Publication date: 5/1/2000
  • Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
  • Pages: 1470
  • Product dimensions: 7.58 (w) x 9.57 (h) x 2.81 (d)

Meet the Author

Tulloch is a Microsoft Certified Trainer and MCSE who trains and consults for Productivity Point, Inc.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments Page xxxiii
Introduction Page xxxvii
 What Is Networking? Page xxxvii
 The History of Networking Page xlii
 The Scope of This Encyclopedia Page lvii
 Who This Work Is For Page lvii
 About the Entries Page lviii
Alphabetical Reference of Terms Numbers and Symbols Page  
> Page 1
| Page 2
%SystemRoot% Page 2
3.1 kHz bearer service Page 3
5-4-3 rule Page 3
8.3 filename Page 4
10Base2 Page 5
10Base5 Page 6
10BaseF Page 7
10BaseT Page 9
24 x 7 Page 10
100BaseFX Page 11
100BaseT Page 12
100BaseT4 Page 12
100BaseTX Page 13
100BaseVG Page 14
100BaseX Page 14
100VG-AnyLan Page 14
1000BaseCX Page 16
1000BaseLX Page 17
1000BaseSX Page 19
1000BaseT Page 20
3270 Page 21
A Page  
A+ Certification Page 23
absolute path Page 24
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) Page 24
acceptable use policy Page 25
access Page 26
access control Page 27
access control entry (ACE) Page 28
access control list (ACL) Page 29
Accessibility Options Page 29
Accessibility Wizard Page 31
access mask Page 32
access method Page 32
access mode Page 32
access point Page 34
access provider Page 34
access token Page 34
account Page 35
account domain Page 36
account lockout Page 37
account operator Page 38
Account Operators group Page 38
Account policy Page 39
account template Page 40
ACE Page 41
ACK Page 41
ACL Page 41
ACM Page 41
ACPI Page 41
Active Channel Multicaster Page 41
Active Channel Server Page 42
Active Desktop Page 43
Active Directory Page 44
Active Directory Client Page 48
Active Directory Domains and Trusts Page 48
Active Directory Installation Wizard Page 49
Active Directory schema Page 50
Active Directory Schema Page 52
Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI) Page 52
Active Directory Sites and Services Page 53
Active Directory Users and Computers Page 54
The Active Group Page 55
active hub Page 55
active partition Page 55
Active Platform Page 56
active scripting Page 56
Active Server Pages (ASP) Page 57
Active Setup Page 58
active volume Page 59
active window Page 59
ActiveX Page 59
ActiveX component Page 60
ActiveX controls Page 60
ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) Page 61
adapter Page 62
Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (ADPCM) Page 62
ADC Page 62
Add New Hardware Page 63
Add Printer Page 63
Add/Remove Programs Page 64
address book view Page 65
address record Page 65
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Page 66
address space Page 67
ADMD Page 67
ADMIN$ Page 67
administrative alert Page 67
Administrative Management Domain (ADMD) Page 68
administrative share Page 68
administrative tools (Windows 2000) Page 69
administrative tools (Windows NT) Page 70
administrative wizards Page 71
administrator Page 71
Administrators group Page 72
ADO Page 72
ADPCM Page 72
ADSI Page 73
ADSL Page 73
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) Page 73
Advanced Infrared (AIr) Page 73
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) Page 74
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN) Page 75
Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC) protocol Page 76
Advanced Streaming Format (ASF) Page 76
AFTP Page 77
agent Page 77
AGLP Page 78
AIr Page 79
AIX Page 79
Alerter service Page 79
alias Page 80
All Users folder Page 80
Alpha platform Page 80
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Page 81
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) Page 81
AMP Page 82
AMPS Page 82
analog Page 82
analog modem Page 82
analog-to-digital converter (ADC) Page 83
analog transmission Page 83
anchor Page 84
announcement Page 84
Announcement Manager Page 85
anonymous access Page 85
anonymous user Page 86
anonymous user account Page 86
ANSI Page 86
ANSI C/C++ Page 86
ANSI character set Page 87
answer file Page 87
AOP Page 88
API Page 88
APPC Page 88
APPC File Transfer Protocol (AFTP) Page 88
Apple Open Transport Page 89
AppleShare Page 89
AppleShare IP Page 90
applet Page 90
AppleTalk Page 90
application gateway Page 92
application layer Page 92
application layer proxy Page 93
application log Page 93
application programming interface (API) Page 94
application service provider (ASP) Page 95
APPN Page 95
archive attribute Page 96
archiving Page 96
ARCNET Page 96
ARC path Page 97
A record Page 97
ARIN Page 98
ARP Page 98
arp command Page 98
AS Page 99
AS/400 Page 99
ASCII Page 99
ASCII file Page 104
ASD Page 105
ASF Page 105
ASN.1 Page 105
ASP Page 105
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Page 105
Association of Online Professionals (AOP) Page 106
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Page 106
asymmetric multiprocessing (AMP) Page 109
async Page 109
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Page 109
asynchronous transmission Page 112
at command Page 113
ATM Page 113
attenuation Page 113
attenuation to crosstalk ratio (ACR) Page 114
attrib command Page 115
attribute marker Page 115
attribute property Page 115
auditing Page 117
Audit policy Page 118
AUI connector Page 119
Authenticated Users group Page 119
authentication Page 120
authentication provider Page 120
Authenticode Page 121
Authorized Academic Training Program (AATP) Page 121
auto-application Page 122
autochk.exe Page 122
AutoComplete Page 122
autodial Page 123
autoexec.bat Page 123
autoexec.nt Page 124
automatic logon Page 124
Automatic Skip Driver Agent (ASD) Page 125
Automatic System Recovery (ASR) Page 125
Automatic Version Synchronization (AVS) Page 126
Automation Page 126
Automation client Page 127
Automation controller Page 127
Automation server Page 127
auto naming Page 128
autonomous system (AS) Page 128
autosensing Page 129
availability Page 129
AVS Page 130
AWG Page 130
AXFR request Page 130
B Page  
backbone Page 131
backbone router Page 133
backboning Page 134
background program Page 136
BackOffice Page 136
backup Page 137
Backup Page 138
backup agent Page 138
backup browser Page 139
backup catalog Page 140
backup domain controller (BDC) Page 140
Backup Operator Page 142
Backup Operators built-in group Page 142
backup set Page 143
backup site controller (BSC) Page 144
backup strategy Page 144
backup type Page 145
Backup Wizard Page 147
balanced line Page 148
balun Page 148
bandwidth Page 149
Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) Page 149
bandwidth on demand Page 150
bandwidth throttling Page 150
Banyan VINES Page 151
BAP Page 152
baseband transmission Page 153
baseline Page 153
Basic Authentication Page 154
basic disk Page 155
Basic Rate Interface ISDN (BRI-ISDN) Page 155
basic volume Page 156
batch commands Page 156
batch file Page 157
B channel Page 157
bcp utility Page 158
BDC Page 159
beaconing Page 159
BeOS Page 159
BGP Page 160
BIND Page 160
bindery Page 160
binding Page 161
B-ISDN Page 162
bits per second (bps) Page 162
black hole Page 162
blue screen Page 162
Bluetooth Page 163
BNC connector Page 164
B-node Page 165
bonding Page 166
boot Page 166
boot files Page 167
boot.ini Page 168
boot loader menu Page 168
BOOTP Page 169
boot partition Page 169
bootsect.dos Page 169
boot sequence Page 170
bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) Page 170
boot volume Page 171
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Page 171
bottleneck Page 172
bounce Page 173
bps Page 173
breakout box Page 173
bridge Page 174
bridgehead server Page 175
Briefcase Page 176
BRI-ISDN Page 176
broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) Page 176
broadband transmission Page 177
broadcast Page 177
broadcast frame Page 178
broadcast packet Page 178
broadcast storm Page 178
brouter Page 179
browse list Page 179
browser election Page 180
browsing Page 180
BSC Page 181
BSD UNIX Page 181
built-in account Page 181
built-in global group Page 182
built-in group Page 182
built-in identities Page 183
built-in local group Page 183
built-in user account Page 185
burst Page 185
bus Page 185
business logic Page 186
bus topology Page 186
C Page  
C++ Page 189
C2 Page 190
CA Page 190
cabinet Page 191
cabinet files Page 191
cable modem Page 192
cable run Page 194
cable tester Page 195
cabling Page 197
CA certificate Page 198
cache server Page 199
caching Page 201
Caching Array Routing Protocol (CARP) Page 201
caching-only name server Page 202
caching service provider (CSP) Page 203
cacls command Page 204
CAL Page 204
callback Page 204
Callback Control Protocol (CBCP) Page 205
CAP Page 206
capture Page 206
capture window Page 207
CARP Page 207
carrier for telephone or telecommunications Page 208
carrierless amplitude and phasemodulation (CAP) Page 208
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) Page 209
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Page 210
carrier signal Page 211
cascaded star topology Page 211
cascading style sheets (CSS) Page 211
CAT5 cabling Page 212
catalog Page 212
category 1 cabling Page 213
category 2 cabling Page 213
category 3 cabling Page 214
category 4 cabling Page 215
category 5 cabling Page 215
CBCP Page 216
CDDI Page 216
CDE Page 217
CDF Page 217
CDF file Page 217
CD file system (CDFS) Page 218
CDFS Page 219
CDMA Page 219
CDMA2000 Page 219
CDO Page 220
CDPD Page 220
CDSL Page 220
cell in ATM Page 221
cell in wireless communication Page 222
Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) Page 223
cellular phone technology Page 224
central office (CO) Page 226
Centrex Page 227
certificate Page 228
Certificate Administration Log Utility Page 228
Certificate Administration Queue Utility Page 228
certificate authority (CA) Page 229
Certificate Manager Page 230
certificate mapping Page 231
certificate request Page 232
certificate revocation list (CRL) Page 233
Certificate Services Page 233
Certified Technical Education Center (CTEC) Page 233
CGI Page 234
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Page 234
channel bank Page 235
channel bar Page 235
Channel Definition Format (CDF) Page 236
channel in Active Channel Page 237
channel in Microsoft NetShow Page 237
channel screen saver Page 238
Channel Service Unit (CSU) Page 238
Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU) Page 240
CHAP Page 241
Chat Page 241
Check Disk Page 242
child domain Page 242
chkdsk command Page 243
CIDR Page 243
CIFS Page 243
CIM Page 243
circuit Page 244
circuit layer proxy Page 244
circuit-level gateway Page 245
circuit-switched services Page 246
circular logging Page 247
class Page 248
classic desktop Page 248
classless interdomain routing (CIDR) Page 249
clear-text Page 250
client Page 251
client access license (CAL) Page 251
client certificate Page 252
Client for Microsoft Networks Page 253
Client for NetWare Networks Page 254
client installation point Page 254
client/server application Page 255
Client Services for NetWare (CSNW) Page 255
cloud Page 256
cluster Page 257
Cluster Administrator Page 259
cluster-aware application Page 259
clustering Page 260
Cluster service Page 260
CM Page 261
CMAK Page 261
CMP cabling Page 261
CN Page 261
CNAME record Page 262
CO Page 262
coax Page 262
coaxial cabling Page 262
codec Page 264
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Page 264
code-operated switch Page 265
cold boot Page 266
Collaboration Data Objects (CDO) Page 266
collapsed backbone Page 267
collision domain Page 267
collision in computer networking Page 268
collision in Windows 2000 Page 268
COM Page 268
COM+ Page 269
COM component Page 269
command Page 270
command interpreter Page 271
command line Page 271
command prompt Page 272
commercial service provider (CSP) Page 272
Common Desktop Environment (CDE) Page 272
Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Page 273
Common Information Model (CIM) Page 274
Common Internet File System (CIFS) Page 275
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Page 275
community Page 276
COM object Page 277
compact command Page 277
comp command Page 277
complete trust model Page 278
Component Object Model (COM) Page 279
Component Services Page 280
Compression Agent Page 280
CompTIA Page 280
computer account Page 280
Computer Browser service Page 281
Computer Management Page 283
computer name Page 284
computer-telephony integration (CTI) Page 285
Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) Page 285
COMTI Page 286
COM Transaction Integrator (COMTI) Page 286
concurrency Page 286
config.sys Page 287
connected network (CN) Page 287
connection Page 287
connectionless protocol Page 288
Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK) Page 289
connection-oriented protocol Page 289
Connection Point Services (CPS) Page 289
connection pooling Page 290
connectivity server Page 291
connector (device) Page 291
Connector for Lotus cc:Mail Page 293
Connector for Lotus Notes Page 293
connector in Microsoft Exchange Server Page 294
container in Microsoft Exchange Server Page 294
container in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Page 295
container in Windows 2000 Page 295
container in Windows NT Page 295
Content Advisor Page 296
Content Analyzer Page 296
content caching Page 296
content filter Page 297
contention Page 298
content rating Page 298
control message Page 298
Control Panel Page 299
control set Page 302
convert command Page 303
cookie Page 303
copper cabling Page 304
Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI) Page 304
copy backup Page 305
copy command Page 305
copying files Page 305
CORBA Page 306
counter Page 306
country code Page 306
coupler Page 311
CPE Page 311
CPS Page 311
CRC Page 311
Creator Owner Page 311
credentials Page 312
crimper Page 312
CRL Page 313
crossover cable Page 313
crosstalk Page 313
CryptoAPI Page 314
Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard (PKCS-7) Page 314
cryptographic service provider (CSP) Page 314
cryptography Page 314
Crystal Reports Page 315
CSMA/CA Page 316
CSMA/CD Page 316
CSNW Page 316
CSP Page 316
CSS Page 316
CSU Page 316
CSU/DSU Page 316
.csv file Page 317
CTEC Page 317
CTI Page 317
Ctrl+Alt+Delete Page 317
custom authentication Page 318
customer premises Page 318
customer premises equipment (CPE) Page 318
custom recipient Page 319
cyclical redundancy check (CRC) Page 319
D Page  
DACL Page 321
daemon Page 321
daily copy backup Page 322
D-AMPS Page 322
DAO Page 322
DAP Page 322
dark fiber Page 322
Data Access Objects (DAO) Page 323
data alarm Page 324
database Page 324
Database Maintenance Plan Wizard Page 325
Database Manager Page 326
database owner (DBO) Page 326
data communications equipment (DCE) Page 326
Data Encryption Standard (DES) Page 327
datagram Page 327
data integrity Page 328
data isolator Page 328
data line protector Page 329
Data Link Control (DLC) Page 330
data-link layer Page 331
Data Provider Page 332
Data Service Unit (DSU) Page 332
data source name (DSN) Page 333
data tap Page 334
data terminal equipment (DTE) Page 334
DAWS Page 335
DB connector Page 335
DBO Page 336
DCE Page 336
D channel Page 336
DCOM Page 337
DCOM Configuration Tool Page 338
DDS Page 338
dead spot Page 339
decibel Page 339
DECnet Page 340
dedicated line Page 340
default gateway Page 341
Defense Messaging System (DMS) Page 342
delegation Page 342
Delegation of Control Wizard Page 343
demand priority Page 344
denial of service attack Page 345
dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) Page 346
DES Page 347
desktop Page 347
Desktop Management Interface (DMI) Page 347
destination address Page 349
device Page 349
Device Manager Page 350
Dfs Page 350
DHCP Page 351
DHCP client Page 351
DHCP client reservation Page 352
DHCP Client service Page 352
DHCP console Page 352
DHCP lease Page 353
DHCP Manager Page 354
DHCP options Page 355
DHCP relay agent Page 355
DHCP scope Page 357
DHCP server Page 357
DHCP Server service Page 358
dial-up line Page 359
Dial-Up Networking Page 359
Dial-Up Networking Monitor Page 359
DID Page 360
differential backup Page 360
digital Page 360
Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS) Page 360
Digital Advanced Wireless System (DAWS) Page 361
digital certificate Page 362
digital data service (DDS) Page 363
digital line Page 364
digital modem Page 365
digital nervous system Page 365
Digital Signal Zero Page 366
digital signature Page 366
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Page 366
digital transmission Page 367
direct burial fiber-optic cabling Page 368
Direct Cable Connection Page 369
directed frame Page 369
directed packet Page 369
direct inward dialing (DID) Page 370
directory Page 370
Directory Access Protocol (DAP) Page 370
directory database Page 371
directory export Page 371
directory hierarchy Page 372
directory import Page 372
directory replication in Microsoft Exchange Server Page 373
directory replication in Windows 2000 Page 373
directory replication in Windows NT Page 374
Directory Replicator Service Page 376
directory service Page 376
directory service log Page 377
Directory Service Manager for NetWare (DSMN) Page 378
Directory Service Markup Language (DSML) Page 378
directory synchronization in a Windows NT domain Page 379
directory synchronization in Microsoft Mail Page 379
directory synchronization process Page 379
direct sequencing Page 380
discretionary access control list (DACL) Page 380
Disk Administrator Page 381
Disk Cleanup Page 382
Disk Defragmenter Page 382
disk duplexing Page 383
diskperf command Page 383
disk quotas Page 384
disk status Page 385
distance vector routing algorithm Page 386
distinguished name Page 387
distributed application Page 389
Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) Page 389
Distributed file system (Dfs) Page 390
distribution box Page 391
distribution group Page 391
distribution list Page 392
distribution server Page 392
DLC Page 392
DLL Page 392
DMI Page 392
DMS Page 392
DN Page 393
DNA Page 393
DNS Page 393
DNS client Page 393
DNS console Page 393
DNS database Page 394
DNS Manager Page 395
DNS namespace Page 395
DNS query Page 396
DNS server Page 396
DNS zone Page 397
Domain Admins Page 397
domain blocking Page 397
domain controller Page 398
domain forest Page 400
Domain Guests Page 401
domain in DNS Page 401
domain in Windows NT and Windows 2000 Page 402
domain local group Page 403
domain master browser Page 404
domain model Page 404
domain modes Page 405
domain name Page 406
Domain Name System (DNS) Page 406
domain tree Page 408
domain user account Page 409
Domain Users Page 410
DOS Page 410
down Page 410
drain wire Page 411
DriveSpace Page 411
drop Page 412
drop cable Page 412
Dr. Watson Page 412
DS0 Page 413
DSL Page 413
DSML Page 413
DSMN Page 414
DSN Page 414
DSU Page 414
DTE Page 414
DTMF Page 414
dual boot Page 414
Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (DTMF) Page 415
duplex Page 415
DWDM Page 415
dynamic disk Page 416
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Page 416
Dynamic HTML Page 418
dynamic-link library (DLL) Page 418
dynamic packet filtering Page 419
Dynamic RAS Connector Page 419
dynamic routing Page 420
dynamic update Page 421
dynamic volume Page 422
E Page  
E-carrier Page 423
edbutil Page 424
EDGE Page 424
edge router Page 425
EDI Page 425
effective permissions Page 425
EFS Page 426
EGP Page 427
EIA Page 427
EIA/TIA wiring standards Page 427
election Page 428
electromagnetic interference (EMI) Page 428
electronic data interchange (EDI) Page 428
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) Page 429
e-mail Page 430
e-mail address Page 430
emergency repair disk (ERD) Page 431
emergency startup disk Page 432
EMI Page 432
encapsulation Page 432
Encrypting File System (EFS) Page 433
encryption Page 434
encryption algorithm Page 436
End-User License Agreement (EULA) Page 436
enhanced category 5 cabling Page 436
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) Page 437
enterprise Page 438
Enterprise Admins Page 438
enterprise resource planning (ERP) Page 439
enterprise server Page 439
environmental subsystems Page 440
environment variables Page 440
ERD Page 441
ERP Page 441
eseutil Page 441
ESMTP Page 442
Ethernet Page 442
Ethernet address Page 445
Ethernet switch Page 446
EULA Page 448
events Page 448
Event Viewer Page 449
Everyone group Page 450
Exchange Administrator Page 450
Exchange directory service Page 451
Exchange event service Page 451
Exchange permissions Page 452
Exchange Scripting Agent Page 453
Exchange Server Page 453
executive Page 453
expand command Page 454
export server Page 454
extended partition Page 455
extender Page 455
extension cable Page 456
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) Page 456
extract command Page 457
extranet Page 457
F Page  
failback Page 459
failover Page 459
fallback switch Page 461
FAQ Page 462
Fast Ethernet Page 462
FAT Page 465
FAT32 Page 465
FAT32 conversion utility Page 466
FAT volume Page 466
fault tolerance Page 467
fault tolerant boot disk Page 467
Fax Service Page 468
FCC Page 468
FDDI Page 468
FDDI token passing Page 469
FDM Page 469
FDMA Page 469
Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC) Page 469
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Page 470
fiber exhaust Page 473
fiber-optic cabling Page 474
Fibre Channel Page 477
file Page 479
file allocation table (FAT) Page 479
File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks Page 481
File and Printer Sharing for NetWare Networks Page 481
File and Print Services for Macintosh (FSM) Page 482
File and Print Services for NetWare (FPNW) Page 482
file extension Page 484
File Manager Page 485
file permissions (Windows 2000) Page 485
file system Page 487
File-Transfer Access and Management (FTAM) Page 488
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Page 489
Find Page 490
finger Page 491
FIPS Page 492
firewall Page 492
FireWire Page 494
flapping Page 496
flow control Page 496
folder permissions (Windows 2000) Page 497
foreign host Page 499
foreign mail system Page 499
forest Page 500
form (Exchange) Page 500
form (HTML) Page 500
format command Page 500
forwarder Page 501
FPNW Page 502
FQDN Page 502
fractional T1 Page 502
FRAD Page 502
frame Page 502
frame relay Page 503
frame relay access device (FRAD) Page 506
frame relay cloud Page 507
frame type Page 508
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Page 508
frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) Page 509
frequency hopping Page 510
frequently asked questions (FAQ) Page 511
FSM Page 511
FTAM Page 511
FTP Page 511
FTP service Page 511
FTP utility Page 512
full backup Page 512
full-duplex Page 513
full-duplex Ethernet Page 513
fully qualified domain name (FQDN) Page 515
Fusion Page 515
G Page  
G.703 Page 517
GAL Page 517
gateway Page 517
Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) Page 518
gender changer Page 520
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Page 520
Gigabit Ethernet Page 522
G.Lite Page 524
Global Address List (GAL) Page 525
global.asa Page 526
global catalog Page 526
global catalog server Page 527
global group Page 528
global load balancer Page 528
globally unique identifier (GUID) Page 530
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Page 531
global user account Page 533
Gopher Page 534
GPRS Page 535
grep Page 535
ground loop Page 535
group Page 536
group account Page 539
group policy Page 540
Group Policy Page 541
GSM Page 542
GSNW Page 542
Guest account Page 542
Guests group Page 543
GUID Page 543
H Page  
H.323 Page 545
H.323 gateway Page 546
hacking Page 546
HAL Page 547
half-duplex Page 547
HAN Page 548
Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) Page 548
handshaking Page 549
hardware abstraction layer (HAL) Page 549
hardware address Page 550
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) Page 550
hardware profile Page 551
hashing algorithm Page 551
H channel Page 552
HCL Page 552
HDLC Page 552
HDML Page 552
HDSL Page 553
header Page 553
heartbeat Page 553
Help Page 553
helper server Page 554
heterogeneous network Page 554
hidden share Page 555
High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) Page 555
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) Page 557
High Performance File System (HPFS) Page 558
High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) Page 559
History Page 560
hive Page 560
H-node Page 561
home area network (HAN) Page 562
home folder Page 563
home server Page 564
homogeneous network Page 564
hood Page 565
hop Page 566
horizontal cabling Page 567
host Page 569
Host Data Replicator Page 569
host header names Page 569
host ID Page 570
host name Page 571
host name resolution Page 571
host record Page 572
host routing Page 573
hosts file Page 573
hot Page 574
HPFS Page 575
HSCSD Page 575
HTML Page 575
HTMLA Page 575
HTML-based administration (HTMLA) Page 575
HTML Extension (HTX) Page 575
HTTP Page 576
HTTP Keep-Alives Page 576
HTTPS Page 576
HTTP status codes Page 577
HTX Page 578
hub Page 578
HyperTerminal Page 581
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Page 581
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Page 582
I Page  
I2O Page 585
IAB Page 585
IANA Page 585
IAS Page 585
ICA Page 585
ICANN Page 585
ICMP Page 585
ICP Page 586
ICQ Page 586
IDC Page 586
IDQ Page 586
IE Page 586
IEAK Page 587
IEEE Page 587
IEEE 488 Page 587
IEEE 802 standards Page 587
IEEE 1284 Page 588
IEEE 1394 Page 589
IETF Page 589
IGMP Page 589
IGP Page 589
IIS Page 589
IIS Object Cache Page 590
ILS Page 590
IMAP4 Page 590
impedance Page 590
impersonation Page 591
import computer Page 592
IMT-2000 Page 592
IMUX Page 592 Page 592
in-band signaling Page 593
Inbox Repair Tool Page 593
incremental backup Page 594
incremental zone transfer Page 594
Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) Page 595
index Page 596
Indexing Service Page 596
Index Tuning Wizard Page 597
information store Page 598
Infrared Data Association (IrDA) Page 599
Infrared Monitor Page 599
infrared transmission Page 600
inheritance Page 600
INI files Page 601
instance Page 601
instant messaging Page 602
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Page 603
integrated communications provider (ICP) Page 603
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Page 604
Integrated Windows Authentication Page 607
Intel-based platform Page 607
intelligent hub Page 608
Intelligent Input/Output (I2O) Page 608
IntelliMirror Page 609
Interactive Page 609
interactive logon Page 609
inter-exchange carrier (IXC) Page 610
interface Page 611
interface card Page 612
interface converter Page 613
interference Page 614
Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Page 614
intermediary device Page 615
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) Page 615
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Page 617
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Page 618
Internet Page 618
Internet2 Page 619
Internet Architecture Board (IAB) Page 620
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Page 621
Internet Authentication Service (IAS) Page 622
Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) Page 623
Internet Connection Services for Microsoft Remote Access Service (RAS) Page 623
Internet Connection Wizard Page 624
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Page 625
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Page 626
Internet Database Connector (IDC) Page 626
Internet Data Query (IDQ) Page 627
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Page 628
Internet Explorer Page 628
Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK) Page 628
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Page 629
Internet guest account Page 630
Internet Information Services (IIS) Page 630
Internet Locator Service (ILS) Page 631
Internet Mail Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) Page 632
Internet Mail Service Page 633
Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) Page 633
Internet News Service Page 634
Internet Protocol (IP) Page 634
Internet protocols Page 635
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) Page 637
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Page 638
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) Page 638
Internet Server API (ISAPI) Page 639
Internet service provider (ISP) Page 640
Internet services Page 640
Internet Services Manager Page 640
Internet Society (ISOC) Page 641
internetwork Page 641
Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Page 642
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) Page 644
InterNIC Page 645
interprocess communication (IPC) Page 645
intranet Page 646
inverse multiplexer (IMUX) Page 646
inverse multiplexing Page 647
inverse query Page 648
I/O Manager Page 649
IOS Page 650
IP Page 650
IP address Page 650
IPC Page 651
ipconfig Page 651
IPng Page 652
IPSec Page 652
IP telephony Page 652
IPv4 Page 653
IPv6 Page 653
IPX Page 654
ipxroute Page 654
IPX/SPX-Compatible Protocol Page 654
IRC Page 655
IrDA Page 655
IrDA Control Page 655
IrDA Data Page 655
IRTF Page 656
ISAPI Page 656
ISAPI extension Page 656
ISAPI filter Page 657
ISDN Page 657
ISDN fallback adapter Page 658
ISDN router Page 658
ISDN terminal adapter Page 659
isinteg Page 660
ISO Page 660
ISOC Page 660
ISP Page 660
ISQL Page 661
ISQL/w Page 661
iterative query Page 661
ITU Page 662
IUSR_ComputerName Page 662
IXC Page 662
J Page  
jabber Page 663
jack Page 663
jacket Page 664
jam signal Page 665
Java Page 665
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Page 667
JavaScript Page 668
JBOD Page 668
JDBC Page 669
Jet Page 669
jetpack Page 669
Jini Page 670
jitter Page 670
job Page 671
join Page 671
Joint Engine Technology (Jet) Page 672
JScript Page 672
K Page  
KCC Page 675
keepalives Page 675
Kerberos v5 security protocol Page 675
kernel Page 677
kernel mode Page 679
keyboard emulator Page 680
key in a relational database Page 680
key in cryptography Page 680
key in Microsoft Windows registry Page 681
Key Management Server (KMS) Page 681
Key Manager Page 682
key pair Page 683
KMS Page 683
Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) Page 683
Knowledge Manager Page 684
KVM switch Page 685
L Page  
L2F Page 687
L2TP Page 687
LADC Page 687
LAN Page 687
LANE Page 687
LAN emulation (LANE) Page 687
LAN-host integration Page 688
LanmanServer Page 689
LanmanWorkstation Page 689
LAN security switch Page 690
LAN segment Page 690
Last Known Good configuration Page 691
LAT Page 691
late collision Page 692
latency Page 692
Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) Page 693
Layer 2 switch Page 694
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) Page 694
Layer 3 switch Page 696
Layer 4 switch Page 697
LCP Page 698
LDAP Page 698
leaf object Page 698
leased line Page 698
LEC Page 699
LFN Page 699
license Page 700
License Logging Service Page 700
License Manager Page 701
licensing mode Page 701
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Page 702
line booster Page 703
line coding Page 703
line conditioner Page 705
line driver Page 706
line filter Page 707
Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Page 707
Line Printer Queue (LPQ) Page 708
Line Printer Remote (LPR) Page 709
line sharer Page 710
Link Control Protocol (LCP) Page 711
Link Monitor Page 711
link state routing algorithm Page 712
Linux Page 713
list server Page 713
LLC layer Page 714
lmhosts file Page 714
load balancing Page 715
local address Page 716
Local Address Table (LAT) Page 716
Local Area Data Channel (LADC) Page 717
local area network (LAN) Page 718
local exchange carrier (LEC) Page 718
local group Page 719
localhost Page 720
local loop Page 720
local network Page 721
Local Procedure Call Facility (LPC Facility) Page 721
Local Security Authority (LSA) Page 721
local security database Page 722
local user account Page 723
local user profile Page 723
Local Users and Groups Page 724
locking Page 725
Lock Workstation Page 726
log Page 726
logical link control (LLC) layer Page 727
logoff Page 728
logon Page 728
logon hours Page 729
logon script Page 730
long filename (LFN) Page 730
loopback Page 731
loopback address Page 732
LPC Facility Page 732
LPD Page 732
LPQ Page 732
LPR Page 733
LSA Page 733
M Page  
MAC address Page 735
machine group Page 736
Macintosh Page 736
MAC layer Page 737
mailbox Page 737
mail client Page 738
mailslot Page 738
mail system Page 739
mainframe Page 740
Maintenance Wizard Page 741
makepipe Page 741
MAN Page 742
Management console Page 742
Management Information Base (MIB) Page 742
Management Information Format (MIF) Page 744
Manchester coding Page 745
mandatory user profile Page 746
manual switch Page 746
MAPI Page 748
mapped network drive Page 748
master browser Page 748
master database Page 749
master domain Page 750
master index Page 751
master name server Page 751
master station Page 752
matrix switch Page 752
MAU Page 753
MBone Page 753
MBS Page 753
MCDBA Page 754
MCIS Page 754
MCP Page 754
MCSD Page 754
MCSE Page 754
MCSP Page 754
MCT Page 754
MDA Page 754
MDAC Page 755
MDHCP Page 755
media Page 755
media access control (MAC) layer Page 755
media access control method Page 756
media converter Page 756
media-dependent adapter (MDA) Page 758
member server Page 758
memory.dmp Page 759
merge Page 759
mesh topology Page 760
message Page 761
message digest (MD) algorithms Page 761
Message Tracking Center Page 762
Message Transfer Agent (MTA) Page 762
Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI) Page 762
Messenger service Page 763
metabase Page 763
metropolitan area network (MAN) Page 764
MFC Page 764
MIB Page 764
microkernel Page 764
Microsoft BackOffice Page 765
Microsoft BackOffice Server Page 766
Microsoft BackOffice Small Business Server Page 767
Microsoft Backup Page 768
Microsoft Certificate Server Page 769
Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDBA) Page 770
Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) Page 770
Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD) Page 771
Microsoft Certified Solution Provider (MCSP) Page 772
Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) Page 772
Microsoft Certified Technical Education Center Page 772
Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT) Page 773
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP) Page 773
Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) Page 774
Microsoft Commercial Internet System (MCIS) Page 775
Microsoft Connection Manager (CM) Page 776
Microsoft Data Access Components (MDAC) Page 777
Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) Page 777
Microsoft Direct Access (MSDA) Page 778
Microsoft DNS Service Page 778
Microsoft Exchange Server Page 779
Microsoft Fax Service Page 781
Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) Page 781
Microsoft FrontPage Page 782
Microsoft Index Server Page 783
Microsoft Internet Explorer Page 783
Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) Page 784
Microsoft Magnifier Page 785
Microsoft Mail Page 785
Microsoft Mail Connector Page 786
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Page 786
Microsoft Message Queue (MSMQ) Server Page 787
Microsoft Modem Sharing Server Page 789
Microsoft NetMeeting Page 789
Microsoft NetShow Page 790
Microsoft NetShow Server Page 791
Microsoft Office User Specialist (MOUS) Page 792
Microsoft Official Curriculum (MOC) Page 792
Microsoft Open License Program (MOLP) Page 792
Microsoft Outlook Page 793
Microsoft Outlook Express Page 794
Microsoft Personal Web Server (PWS) Page 795
Microsoft Proxy Server Page 796
Microsoft RAS Protocol Page 797
Microsoft Sales Specialist Page 797
Microsoft Schedule+ Page 798
Microsoft Schedule+ Free/Busy Connector Page 798
Microsoft Script Debugger Page 798
Microsoft Seminar Online Page 799
Microsoft Site Server Page 799
Microsoft Site Server, Commerce Edition Page 801
Microsoft Site Server Express Page 802
Microsoft SNA Server Page 802
Microsoft SQL Server Page 804
Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) Page 805
Microsoft TechNet Page 808
Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS) Page 809
Microsoft Windows Page 810
Microsoft Windows Distributed interNet Applications (DNA) Architecture Page 811
MIF Page 812
MIF Form Generator Page 812
Migration Wizard Page 812
MIME Page 813
mirrored volume Page 813
mirror set Page 814
mixed mode Page 814
MLP Page 815
MMC Page 815
MMC console Page 815
M-node Page 816
Mobile Broadband System (MBS) Page 817
MOC Page 817
modem Page 817
modem eliminator Page 818
modulation Page 819
MOLP Page 821
MOUS Page 821
moving files Page 821
MP Page 822
MPLS Page 822
MPPP Page 822
MPR Page 822
MQIS Page 822
MSAU Page 822
MS-CHAP Page 822
MSCS Page 822
MSDA Page 823
MSDN Page 823
MS-DOS Page 823
MS-DOS mode Page 825
MS-DOS prompt Page 825
MSMQ Page 825
MSMQ Enterprise Page 825
MSMQ Information Store (MQIS) Page 826
MSMQ Routing Server Page 826
MSMQ site Page 826
MTA Page 827
mtacheck Page 827
MTS Page 827
multicast DHCP (MDHCP) Page 827
multicasting Page 828
multihoming Page 829
Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MPPP) Page 830
multimaster replication Page 832
multimode fiber-optic cabling Page 833
multiple master domain model Page 834
multiple provider router (MPR) Page 835
Multiple UNC Provider (MUP) Page 835
Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS) Page 836
multiplexer (MUX) Page 836
multiplexing Page 838
multipoint Page 838
multiport repeater Page 838
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Page 839
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Page 839
Multistation Access Unit (MAU) Page 840
multitasking Page 842
MUP Page 842
MUX Page 842
MVS Page 843
MX record Page 843
My Computer Page 843
My Documents Page 844
My Network Places Page 844
N Page  
Nagle’s algorithm Page 847
named pipe Page 848
name lookup Page 848
name resolution Page 849
name server Page 849
name server (NS) record Page 851
namespace Page 851
naming context in Active Directory Page 853
naming context in Exchange Server Page 854
naming convention Page 854
NAP Page 855
NAS Page 855
NAT Page 855
National Electric Code (NEC) Page 855
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Page 855
native mode Page 856
NBF Page 857
NBNS Page 857
nbtstat Page 857
NDIS Page 857
NDS Page 857
near-end crosstalk (NEXT) Page 858
NEC Page 859
NetBEUI Page 859
NetBEUI Frame (NBF) Page 860
NetBIOS Page 860
NetBIOS name Page 861
NetBIOS name resolution Page 862
NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS) Page 864
NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) Page 864
NetBIOS over TCP/IP node types Page 865
NetBIOS scope ID Page 866
NetBT Page 867
net commands Page 867
Net-Library Page 869
NetLogon service Page 870
NetLogon Share Page 870
netstat Page 870
NetWare Page 871
NetWare Directory Services Page 872
NetWare protocols Page 872
Net Watcher Page 873
Network Access Point (NAP) Page 873
network access server (NAS) Page 874
network adapter card Page 874
network address translation (NAT) Page 874
Network and Dial-up Connections Page 876
network architecture Page 876
network client Page 877
Network Client 3.0 for MS-DOS Page 877
Network Client Administrator Page 878
network driver interface specification (NDIS) Page 878
Network File System (NFS) Page 879
network ID Page 880
Network Information System (NIS) Page 880
network interface card (NIC) Page 881
network layer Page 882
Network Monitor Page 882
Network Monitor Agent Page 883
Network Neighborhood Page 883
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) Page 884
network numbers Page 884
network of computers Page 885
network operating system (NOS) Page 886
network protocol Page 886
network resources Page 887
networks file Page 887
Network system group Page 888
Network Termination Unit (NTU) Page 888
network utilization Page 889
newsfeed Page 889
newsgroup Page 890
NEXT Page 890
Next Generation I/O (NGIO) Page 890
NFS Page 891
NGIO Page 891
NIC Page 891
NIS Page 891
NIST Page 891
NNTP Page 892
NNTP service Page 892
node Page 892
noise Page 893
normal backup Page 893
NOS Page 894
Novell Directory Services (NDS) Page 894
nslookup command Page 894
NS record Page 895
NTFS file system Page 895
NTFS permissions (Windows 2000) Page 897
NTFS permissions (Windows NT) Page 900
NTFS special permissions (Windows 2000) Page 902
NTFS special permissions (Windows NT) Page 904
NTLM protocol Page 905
NTU Page 905
NTVDM Page 906
NT Virtual DOS Machine (NTVDM) Page 906
null modem cable Page 906
NWLink Page 907
NWLink IPX/SPX-Compatible Transport Page 907
O Page  
object identifier Page 909
object in Active Directory Page 909
object in C and C++ programming Page 911
object in Performance Monitor Page 912
object in Windows NT and Windows 2000 Page 912
object linking and embedding (OLE) Page 912
Object Manager Page 913
OBM Page 913
OC-x Page 913
ODBC Page 913
ODBC logging Page 913
ODI Page 914
offline browsing Page 914
Offline Files in Windows 2000 Page 914
offline folders in Microsoft Outlook Page 915
OLAP Page 916
OLE Page 916
OLE DB Page 917
OLE DB for OLAP Page 918
online analytical processing (OLAP) Page 919
OnNow Page 919
OpenBSD Page 920
open database connectivity (ODBC) Page 920
Open Data-link Interface (ODI) Page 921
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol Page 922
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model Page 923
optical carrier (OC-x) levels Page 925
opto isolator Page 926
Orange Book Page 926
organizational unit (OU) Page 927
organization in Microsoft Exchange Server Page 931
OS/2 Page 932
OS/2 subsystem Page 932
OSI model Page 932
OSPF Page 932
OU Page 932
Outlook Web Access Page 932
out-of-band management (OBM) Page 933
out-of-band signaling Page 934
owner Page 935
P Page  
package Page 937
packet Page 937
packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) Page 938
packet filtering Page 939
packet forwarding Page 942
packet switching Page 942
packet-switching services Page 944
PAD Page 946
page fault Page 946
pagefile Page 946
paging file Page 946
PAP Page 947
parallel transmission Page 947
parent domain Page 947
parity information Page 948
partition in Active Directory Page 948
partition of a disk Page 948
passfilt.dll Page 949
passive hub Page 950
passive termination Page 950
pass-through authentication Page 950
password Page 951
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) Page 952
PASTE Page 953
patch cable Page 953
patch panel Page 954
path Page 955
PBX Page 956
PCM Page 956
PCS Page 956
PDA Page 956
PDC Page 956
PEC Page 957
peer server Page 957
peer-to-peer network Page 957
Performance Page 958
Performance Monitor Page 958
Performance Optimizer Page 959
Perl Page 959
permanent virtual circuit (PVC) Page 960
permissions Page 961
Per Seat licensing Page 962
Per Server licensing Page 962
persistent connection Page 963
persistent index Page 964
Personal Communications Services (PCS) Page 964
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Page 965
personal folders Page 966
Personalization and Membership servers Page 966
Personal Web Server (PWS) Page 967
PGP Page 967
physical address Page 968
physical layer Page 968
ping Page 968
PKCS Page 969
PKCS #7 Page 970
PKCS #12 Page 971
PKI Page 971
Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) Page 972
plenum cabling Page 972
Plug and Play Page 972
P-node Page 974
pointer (PTR) record Page 975
point of presence (POP) Page 975
point-to-multipoint Page 975
point-to-point Page 976
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Page 977
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Page 979
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cabling Page 980
POP Page 980
POP3 Page 980
port Page 980
portal Page 981
port number Page 981
POSIX Page 982
POST Page 983
postoffice Page 983
Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) Page 983
potential browser Page 984
POTS Page 985
power-on self test (POST) Page 985
Power Users group Page 985
PPP Page 986
PPP Multilink Page 986
PPTP Page 986
premise cabling Page 986
presentation layer Page 987
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) Page 987
PRI-ISDN Page 988
primary domain controller (PDC) Page 988
primary enterprise controller (PEC) Page 989
primary group Page 989
primary name server Page 989
primary partition Page 989
Primary Rate Interface ISDN (PRI-ISDN) Page 990
primary ring Page 990
primary site controller (PSC) Page 991
printing pool Page 991
printing terminology Page 992
Print Operators group Page 992
print permissions Page 993
print server Page 994
print sharer Page 994
Private Branch Exchange (PBX) Page 995
private information store Page 997
process isolation Page 997
Profile Manager Page 998
Project 802 Page 998
promiscuous mode Page 999
property sheet Page 999
protocol Page 1000
protocol converter Page 1001
protocol file Page 1002
protocol suite Page 1002
Provider Architecture for Differentiated Services and Traffic Engineering (PASTE) Page 1003
provisioning Page 1003
proxy cache server Page 1004
proxy server Page 1004
PSC Page 1006
P-series protocols Page 1006
PSTN Page 1006
PTR Page 1007
public folder Page 1007
public folder replica Page 1007
public information store Page 1007
public key cryptography Page 1008
public key infrastructure (PKI) Page 1009
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Page 1010
publishing Page 1010
pulse code modulation (PCM) Page 1011
PVC Page 1011
PVC cabling Page 1012
PWS Page 1012
Q Page  
QoS Page 1013
QoS ACS Page 1013
QoS Admission Control Service (QoS ACS) Page 1013
Q-series protocols Page 1014
quality of service (QoS) Page 1014
quartet signaling Page 1017
queue Page 1018
quorum resource Page 1019
R Page  
RA Page 1021
rack Page 1021
RADIUS Page 1022
RAID Page 1022
RAID-5 volume Page 1024
RAS Page 1024
RBOC Page 1024
rcp Page 1025
rdisk Page 1025
RDP Page 1025
recipient Page 1025
recovery Page 1026
Recreational Software Advisory Council(RSAC) Page 1026
recursive query Page 1027
redirection Page 1027
redirection symbol Page 1028
redirector Page 1028
Regional Bell Operating Company (RBOC) Page 1029
registration authority (RA) Page 1029
registry Page 1030
Registry Checker Page 1030
registry editor Page 1031
relative path Page 1032
remailer Page 1033
remote access Page 1033
Remote Access Admin Page 1035
Remote Access Service (RAS) Page 1036
remote administration Page 1037
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) Page 1038
Remoteboot service Page 1039
remote bridge Page 1040
remote client impersonation Page 1040
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) Page 1041
Remote Network Monitoring (RMON) Page 1041
remote procedure call (RPC) Page 1044
Remote Registry service Page 1044
repeater Page 1045
replay attack Page 1046
replica domain controller Page 1046
replication Page 1047
Replicator Page 1047
Report Writer Page 1048
Request for Comments (RFC) Page 1048
reservation Page 1050
resolver Page 1051
resource domain Page 1051
resource for a cluster Page 1052
resource on a network Page 1053
resource record Page 1053
reverse hosting Page 1054
reverse name lookup Page 1054
reverse proxy Page 1055
rexec Page 1055
RFC Page 1056
RG Page 1056
rights Page 1056
ring topology Page 1058
RIP Page 1058
RIPE Page 1058
RJ connectors Page 1059
RMON Page 1061
RMON2 Page 1061
roaming user profile Page 1061
roles Page 1062
root Page 1063
root certificate Page 1063
root domain Page 1063
RootDSE Page 1064
routable protocol Page 1065
route Page 1066
router Page 1066
routing Page 1069
routing algorithm Page 1071
Routing and Remote Access Page 1073
Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) Page 1074
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Page 1075
routing interface Page 1077
routing metric Page 1078
routing protocol Page 1079
routing table Page 1081
RPC Page 1082
RPC Ping Page 1082
RRAS Page 1083
RS-232 Page 1083
RS-422 Page 1085
RSAC Page 1085
rsh Page 1085
run command box Page 1086
S Page  
SA Page 1087
SACL Page 1088
safe mode Page 1088
SAM database Page 1088
SAN Page 1089
SAP Page 1089
SAS Page 1089
SATAN Page 1089
scan Page 1089
scandisk Page 1090
SC and ST connectors Page 1090
Schedule service Page 1091
schema Page 1092
scope Page 1093
SCSI Page 1093
SDLC Page 1093
SDSL Page 1093
secondary name server Page 1093
secondary ring Page 1094
secure attention sequence (SAS) Page 1095
Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP) Page 1095
Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Page 1096
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Page 1096
Security Account Manager (SAM) database Page 1097
Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks (SATAN) Page 1098
security descriptor Page 1098
security group Page 1099
security identifier (SID) Page 1099
security log Page 1100
security principal Page 1100
security provider Page 1101
Security Reference Monitor Page 1101
security subsystem Page 1102
security zone Page 1102
segmentation Page 1103
separator page Page 1103
serial interface Page 1105
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) Page 1105
serial transmission Page 1105
Series Q protocols Page 1107
server Page 1107
server-based network Page 1107
server certificate Page 1108
Server Manager Page 1108
Server Message Block (SMB) Page 1109
server monitor Page 1110
server operating system Page 1111
Server Operators built-in group Page 1111
server proxying Page 1111
Server service Page 1111
service Page 1113
service account Page 1118
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) Page 1119
Service for NetWare Directory Services Page 1119
service-level agreement (SLA) Page 1120
service pack Page 1120
services file Page 1121
Services for Macintosh Page 1122
session layer Page 1123
Set Up Computer Wizard Page 1123
share Page 1125
shared folder Page 1125
shared folder permissions Page 1126
Shared Folders Page 1130
shared SCSI bus Page 1131
share-level security Page 1132
shell Page 1132
shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling Page 1133
shielding Page 1134
short Page 1134
Shortest Path First (SPF) Page 1135
Short Message Service (SMS) Page 1135
S-HTTP Page 1136
shut down Page 1136
SID Page 1136
signal Page 1136
signaling Page 1137
signal loss Page 1137
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Page 1138
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Page 1139
simple volume Page 1142
simplex Page 1142
single domain model Page 1142
single master domain model Page 1143
single-mode fiber-optic cabling Page 1144
site administrator Page 1145
Site Connector Page 1145
site group Page 1145
site in Microsoft Exchange Server Page 1146
site in Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) Page 1146
site in Windows 2000 Page 1147
Site Server Express Page 1148
SLA Page 1148
SLIP Page 1148
Small Business Server Page 1148
Small Business Server Console Page 1149
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Page 1149
smart host Page 1151
SMB Page 1151
SMDS Page 1151
S/MIME Page 1151
SMS Page 1152
SMS Service Manager Page 1152
SMTP Page 1152
SMTP service Page 1152
SNA Page 1152
SNADS Page 1152
snap-in Page 1153
SNMP Page 1154
SNMP service Page 1154
SOA record Page 1155
socket Page 1155
SOCKS v5 Page 1156
solid conductor wire Page 1157
SONET Page 1158
source address Page 1158
source files Page 1159
spam Page 1159
spanned volume Page 1160
spanning tree algorithm (STA) Page 1160
special identity Page 1160
SPF Page 1161
spoofing Page 1161
spooling Page 1162
spread spectrum Page 1162
SQL Page 1163
SQL Client Network utility Page 1163
SQL Enterprise Manager Page 1164
SQL Executive Page 1164
SQL Mail Page 1164
SQL Security Manager Page 1165
SQL Server Agent Page 1165
SQL Server Enterprise Manager Page 1166
SQL Server Profiler Page 1166
SQL Server Query Analyzer Page 1167
SQL Server Service Manager Page 1167
SQL Server tools Page 1168
SQL Service Manager Page 1169
SQL Trace Page 1169
SSL Page 1169
STA Page 1169
stackable hubs Page 1169
stand-alone server Page 1170
standard Ethernet Page 1170
star bus topology Page 1170
start of authority (SOA) record Page 1171
star topology Page 1172
Startup menu Page 1173
static address Page 1174
static mapping Page 1174
static routing Page 1174
statistical multiplexing Page 1175
ST connector Page 1176
Stop screen Page 1176
storage area network (SAN) Page 1178
stored procedure Page 1180
STP cabling Page 1181
straight tip connector Page 1181
stranded conductor wire Page 1181
streaming Page 1182
striped volume Page 1182
stripe set Page 1183
stripe set with parity Page 1183
Structured Query Language (SQL) Page 1183
subnet Page 1184
subnet mask Page 1184
subnetting Page 1186
subscriber connector Page 1186
subtree Page 1187
supernetting Page 1187
surge protector Page 1188
SVC Page 1188
switch Page 1189
switched 56 Page 1189
Switched Multimegabit Data Services (SMDS) Page 1191
switched virtual circuit (SVC) Page 1192
Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) Page 1192
SYN attack Page 1193
sync Page 1194
Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) Page 1194
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Page 1195
synchronous transmission Page 1196
system access control list (SACL) Page 1197
System Attendant Page 1198
System Configuration utility Page 1198
System File Checker Page 1199
system group Page 1199
System Information utility Page 1199
system log Page 1200
System Monitor Page 1200
system partition Page 1201
system policy Page 1202
System Policy Editor Page 1202
Systems Management Server (SMS) Page 1203
Systems Management Server Administrator Page 1203
Systems Management Server Database Manager Page 1205
Systems Management Server MIF Form Generator Page 1205
Systems Management Server Security Manager Page 1205
Systems Management Server Sender Manager Page 1206
Systems Management Server Service Manager Page 1206
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Page 1206
SYSVOL share Page 1208
T Page  
T1 channel bank Page 1209
T1 line Page 1210
T.120 standard Page 1210
taking ownership Page 1212
tape backup Page 1213
TAPI Page 1213
Task Manager Page 1214
Task Scheduler Page 1214
T-carrier Page 1215
TCP Page 1218
TCP/IP Page 1219
TCP/IP-32 for Windows for Workgroups Page 1220
TCP three-way handshake Page 1221
TDI Page 1222
TDM Page 1222
TDMA Page 1222
TDR Page 1222
TechNet Page 1222
telco Page 1222
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) Page 1223
telecommunications services Page 1224
Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) Page 1224
telnet Page 1225
terminal Page 1225
terminal emulator Page 1227
terminal server Page 1227
Terminal Services Page 1229
terminator Page 1230
Terrestrial Trunked Radio (Tetra) Page 1232
test equipment Page 1233
Tetra Page 1235
text file Page 1235
TFTP Page 1235
thicknet Page 1236
thin coax Page 1236
thinnet Page 1236
TIA Page 1237
ticket Page 1237
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Page 1237
time-division multiplexing (TDM) Page 1238
time domain reflectometry (TDR) Page 1239
TN3270 Page 1239
TN5250 Page 1240
Token Ring Page 1240
top-level domain Page 1244
topology Page 1245
tracert Page 1246
transaction Page 1247
transaction log Page 1247
transceiver Page 1248
transceiver cable Page 1248
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Page 1248
Transport Driver Interface (TDI) Page 1249
transport layer Page 1249
tree Page 1249
trunking Page 1249
trust Page 1251
trust relationship Page 1252
T-SHARE Page 1253
tunneling Page 1253
twinax cabling Page 1254
twisted-pair cabling Page 1254
two-way transitive trust Page 1255
U Page  
UDF Page 1257
UDP Page 1257
ULS Page 1257
UMTS Page 1257
unattended installation Page 1257
unattend.txt Page 1259
unbalanced line Page 1259
UNC Page 1260
unicasting Page 1260
Unicode Page 1261
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Page 1262
uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Page 1263
Uniqueness Database File (UDF) Page 1264
Universal DSL Page 1264
universal group Page 1264
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Page 1265
Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Page 1265
universal serial bus (USB) Page 1266
Universal Wireless Communications (UWC-136) Page 1268
UNIX Page 1268
UNIX commands Page 1270
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling Page 1273
update sequence number (USN) Page 1274
uplink port Page 1275
UPS Page 1275
URL Page 1275
URL switching Page 1275
Usage Import Page 1276
USB Page 1276
Usenet Page 1276
user Page 1278
user account Page 1279
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Page 1279
user-level security Page 1280
User Locator Service (ULS) Page 1281
User Manager for Domains Page 1281
user mode Page 1282
username Page 1283
user principal name Page 1283
user profile Page 1284
Users group Page 1285
USN Page 1285
UTP cabling P age 1285
UUCP Page 1286
uuencoding Page 1286
UWC-136 Page 1287
V Page  
V.35 Page 1289
V.90 Page 1289
value entry Page 1290
VBScript Page 1292
vCalendar Page 1293
vCard Page 1293
virtual circuit Page 1294
virtual directory Page 1294
virtual hosting Page 1295
virtual LAN (VLAN) Page 1295
virtual memory Page 1297
virtual private network (VPN) Page 1297
virtual server Page 1299
virus Page 1300
VLAN Page 1302
Voice over IP (VoIP) Page 1302
voice profile for Internet mail (VPIM) Page 1303
VoIP Page 1303
VoIP gateway Page 1304
volume Page 1306
volume set Page 1306
VPIM Page 1306
VPN Page 1306
V series Page 1307
W Page  
W3C Page 1309
wall plate Page 1309
WAN Page 1310
WAN link Page 1310
WAP Page 1311
wave division multiplexing (WDM) Page 1311
WBEM Page 1311
W-CDMA Page 1311
WDM Page 1312
Web Page 1312
Web application Page 1312
Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) Page 1312
Web browser Page 1313
webcasting Page 1315
Web hosting Page 1315
Web map Page 1316
Web page Page 1316
Web server Page 1317
well-known port numbers Page 1318
wide area network (WAN) Page 1329
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access(W-CDMA) Page 1330
Windows Page 1330
Windows 3.1 Page 1331
Windows 3.11 Page 1334
Windows 3.x Page 1334
Windows 95 Page 1334
Windows 98 Page 1337
Windows 2000 Page 1338
Windows 2000 command Page 1342
Windows Backup Page 1342
Windows CE Page 1343
Windows Clustering Page 1344
Windows DNA Page 1345
Windows Explorer Page 1346
Windows for Workgroups 3.11 Page 1346
Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) Page 1348
Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Page 1349
Windows Messaging Profile Page 1351
Windows NT Page 1351
Windows NT Backup Page 1354
Windows NT Challenge/Response Authentication Page 1354
Windows NT command Page 1355
Windows NT Diagnostics Page 1358
Windows NT Directory Services (NTDS) Page 1359
Windows NT Distributed File System Page 1360
Windows NT executive Page 1360
Windows NT Explorer Page 1360
Windows NT LAN Manager Security Protocol Page 1360
Windows NT Option Pack Page 1361
Windows NT Server Page 1361
Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition Page 1361
Windows NT Server, Terminal Server Edition Page 1362
Windows NT Workstation Page 1363
Windows Script Host (WSH) Page 1363
Windows Sockets Page 1364
Windows Update Page 1364
winnt.exe Page 1365
WINS Page 1365
WINS client Page 1366
Winsock Page 1366
WINS proxy agent Page 1366
WINS record Page 1367
WINS server Page 1368
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Page 1369
wireless networking Page 1371
wiring closet Page 1374
WMI Page 1375
word list Page 1375
workgroup Page 1375
working set Page 1376
Workstation service Page 1376
World Wide Web (WWW) Page 1377
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Page 1377
World Wide Web Publishing Service Page 1378
WOW Page 1378
WSH Page 1379
WWW Page 1379
X Page  
X.25 Page 1381
x86 platform Page 1383
X.121 address Page 1384
X.400 Page 1384
X.400 Connector Page 1387
X.500 Page 1388
X.509 digital certificate Page 1390
Xerox Network Systems (XNS) Page 1390
XHTML Page 1391
XML Page 1391
XNS Page 1393
X-series protocols Page 1393
X Window System Page 1394
Y Page  
Y2K Page 1395
Y-connector Page 1396
Y-splitter Page 1397
Z Page  
ZAK Page 1399
Zero Administration Kit (ZAK) Page 1399
zone Page 1400
zone file Page 1402
zone of authority Page 1403
zone transfer Page 1403
INDEX Page 1407
Read More Show Less

First Chapter

Chapter .G
  • G.703
  • GAL
  • gateway
  • Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW)
  • gender changer
  • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • G.Lite
  • Global Address List (GAL)
  • global.asa
  • global catalog
  • global catalog server
  • global group
  • global load balancer
  • globally unique identifier (GUID)
  • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
  • global user account
  • Gopher
  • GPRS
  • grep
  • ground loop
  • group
  • group account
  • group policy
  • GSM
  • GSNW
  • Guest account
  • Guests group
  • GUID



An encoding standard developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for interfacing data communications equipment (DCE) with digital high-speed synchronous communication services. G.703 is not used in North America but is widely used in Europe, and it covers specifications for digital transmission from rates of 64 Kbps to 2.048 Mbps. Private Branch Exchange (PBX) systems often use 64-Kbps leased lines utilizing the G.703 standard, as do E-carrier services such as E1 communication links. Some U.S. vendors sell converters for connecting synchronous V.35, RS-449, or X.21 interfaces to G.703 in order to sell their switching equipment in Europe.

G.703. (Image unavailable)

G.703 has been updated to include support for U.S. standard T-carrier service speeds, such as T1 transmission at 1.544 Mbps.



Global Address List (GAL)


A term for a broad category of network components that allow communication between different networking architectures and different protocols. Gateways generally operate at the higher levels of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model for networking. They are commonly used to provide connectivity between two different protocol stacks that might be running on different systems. Examples include the following:

  • E-mail gateways—for example, a gateway that receives Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) e-mail, translates it into a standard X.400 format, and forwards it to its destination
  • Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW), which enables a machine running Microsoft Windows NT Server or Windows 2000 Server to be a gateway for Windows clients so that they can access file and print resources on a NetWare server
  • Gateways between a Systems Network Architecture (SNA) host and computers on a TCP/IP network, such as the one provided by Microsoft SNA Server
  • A packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) that provides connectivity between a local area network (LAN) and an X.25 packet-switching network

A gateway is usually a dedicated device or a set of services running on a dedicated computer. Gateways are essentially devices that direct network traffic in some fashion and translate that information.

Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW)

A service for servers running Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows NT (called Gateway Services for NetWare in Windows NT) that can be installed on these servers to enable them to directly access file and print resources on Novell NetWare servers. Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW) can also enable a Windows-based server to act as a gateway for other Microsoft clients, such as Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT Workstation, or Windows 2000 Professional, allowing them to access the resources on the NetWare server.

GSNW can connect to NetWare 2.x, 3.x, or 4.x servers. The 4.x servers can run either bindery emulation or Novell Directory Services (NDS). Using GSNW, Microsoft clients can access the resources on the NetWare server by connecting to a share on the server running Windows NT or Windows 2000. The process is totally transparent to users—to the client, the resource appears to be located on the Windows-based server.

How it Works

A server that has GSNW installed also must have the NWLink protocol loaded. This protocol, which is an IPX/SPX-Compatible Transport, makes it possible for the Windows server to communicate with the NetWare server. If it is not already installed, NWLink will install automatically on the server when you install GSNW.

To prepare the NetWare server for the gateway, you must create a group and a user account as follows:

  • Create a group called Ntgateway on the NetWare server, and give it the necessary rights for accessing the resources you want to make available on the server.
  • Create a user account on the NetWare server, and give it the necessary rights for accessing the resources you want to make available on the server. Make this user account a member of the Ntgateway group.

GSNW will use this user account for creating a connection to the NetWare server. The connection will appear on the server running Windows NT or Windows 2000 as a redirected drive that can be shared, as if it were a resource located on the Windows-based server. Windows clients can then connect to the shared resource by browsing Network Neighborhood, by mapping a drive using Windows Explorer, or by using the net use command.

From the perspective of the Windows clients on the network, the shared resources they access appear to reside on the Windows-based server. In actuality, the GSNW service on the server is performing protocol conversion between the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, which the Windows clients understand, and the NetWare Core Protocol (NCP), which the NetWare file server uses.

Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW)(Image unavailable)

After GSNW is installed, the first time you log on to the server for connectivity to a NetWare 4.x server using NDS, you are prompted to specify a default tree and context for connecting to the NetWare server. If the NetWare server is running in bindery-emulation mode or is an earlier 2.x or 3.x server, you must specify a preferred server when you log on. You can also configure these settings using the GSNW utility in Control Panel.

Because GSNW must process all requests directed through the gateway and perform protocol conversion between SMB and NCP, access is slower than if the clients actually had NetWare client software installed and could directly access the NetWare server. You should use GSNW only for occasional or temporary access to NetWare servers by Windows clients. Install Client Services for NetWare (CSNW) on machines running Windows 95 or Windows 98 for better performance.

See Also

Client Services for NetWare (CSNW), File and Print Services for NetWare (FPNW),NetWare protocols

gender changer

A type of adapter with two connectors of the same type and gender, making it possible to change the gender of the connector to which it is joined from male (with pins) to female (with sockets) or vice versa.

This allows two male or two female cable ends to be joined. Gender changers come in a wide variety of types and are specified by connector type and gender. An example is a V.35 to V.35 male/male gender changer, which can be used to connect two V.35 serial cables (or one cable and a CSU/DSU) that terminate with female connectors

Gender changer. Examples of V.35 gender changers. (Image unavailable)

Some gender changers can also act as adapters for different data interfaces. For example, a V.35 to RS-232 male/male gender changer can be used to connect a V.35 connection on a CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) to a router, using an RS-232 serial cable. Be sure that the pinning for such a gender changer is suitable for the type of equipment you want to connect because different pinnings might exist when different serial interfaces are connected.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

An upgrade to the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) cellular phone system. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) uses packet switching instead of the existing circuit-switching technologies of TDMA systems to provide more efficient use of available bandwidth. GPRS provides subscribers with up to eight separate 14.4-Kbps communication channels. In theory, GPRS has a maximum data transmission rate of 171.2 Kbps, but in practice the maximum rate is only about 44 Kbps downstream and 22 Kbps upstream because of the overhead of combining channels and the power limitations on the subscriber end. Implementation of GPRS requires that existing TDMA hardware be upgraded accordingly.

Some limited trials of GPRS began in 1999, with widespread trials set to begin in the summer of 2000. A number of European and Asian countries are piloting GPRS systems and have an edge over the United States in the arena of wireless communication systems running at more than 20 Kbps.

With its higher data rates, GPRS makes possible the kinds of wireless applications and services that have simply not been feasible on the existing Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) circuit-switched data services, which are limited to 9.6 Kbps, or by using the existing Short Message Service (SMS), which is limited to a maximum of 160 characters of transmitted information. Possible uses for GPRS include services such as wireless mobile Web browsing, discussion groups, chat services, mobile commerce, and home automation through wireless remote control.

It is probable that GPRS upgrades will be easiest for carriers whose networks operate in the 1800-MHz or 1900-MHz frequency bands, because they usually have sufficient unused capacity to implement channel aggregation without having to upgrade their bearer equipment. Upgrading to GPRS is more expensive for carriers operating in the 800-MHz or 900-MHz bands because of the near-full capacity of those bands.

Another cost involved in the GPRS upgrade process is that of replacing the circuit-switched core network connecting existing base stations with an IP-based backbone network for interfacing between the wireless system and the Internet. You create an interface between a GPRS network and an Internet Protocol (IP) network by using a gateway GPRS support node (GGSN). You can also use GGSNs to connect GPRS networks with legacy X.25 packet-switching networks.

GPRS might have a short implementation lifetime if the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) initiative from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) gathers steam, because IMT-2000 upgrades will support data throughput speeds of up to 2 Mbps—much greater than what GPRS can provide.

See Also

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Gigabit Ethernet

A type of Ethernet that allows the transmission of data at 1 Gbps (or 1000 Mbps) over both fiber-optic cabling and copper twisted-pair cabling. Gigabit Ethernet competes with Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technologies as an alternative for high-speed network backbones. Gigabit Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3z and 802.3ab specifications.

Gigabit Ethernet. (Image unavailable)

How it Works

Gigabit Ethernet supports a modified Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) media access method similar to those supported by previous versions of 10-Mbps Ethernet and 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet. Modifications to CSMA/CD for Gigabit Ethernet include extending the length of the carrier and slot times to pack out all frames to a minimum carrier length of 512 bytes. From the point of view of the MAC (media access control) interface, the minimum packet size still appears as 64 bytes. These modifications are performed to maintain a 200-meter-diameter topology for Gigabit Ethernet networks when a shared-media topology is used in half-duplex communications. The modifications can affect the performance of traffic involving smaller packets, but this is accommodated for by building a packet-bursting feature into Gigabit Ethernet that allows a station to take temporary control of the wire to send out a number of small packets. Note that these changes to CSMA/ CD occur only during half-duplex communication. When using switched full-duplex connections, these changes do not apply.

Because CSMA/CD is used, Gigabit Ethernet can be viewed as a relatively easy upgrade path for network administrators familiar with 10BaseT and Fast Ethernet technologies. Gigabit Ethernet uses the same standard 802.3 framing structure of standard Ethernet, with frames between 64 and 1514 bytes in length. In standard half-duplex mode, Gigabit Ethernet supports speeds of 1 Gbps using CSMA/CD, but full-duplex versions support speeds of 2 Gbps for high-speed network backbones.

Gigabit Ethernet can be implemented in four different cabling or physical layer (PHY) options:

  • 1000BaseCX: Uses 150-ohm balanced twinax cabling or shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling over a maximum distance of 25 meters. This version is used primarily for connecting switches and routers in wiring closets. It uses Fibre Channel– based 8B/10B coding at a serial line rate of 1.25 Gbps.
  • 1000BaseLX: Uses long wavelength transmissions over single-mode fiber-optic cabling. This version is used mainly for long cable runs of up to 5 kilometers.
  • 1000BaseSX: Uses short wavelength transmissions over multimode fiber-optic cabling. This version is used mainly for short cable runs of up to 300 meters (over 50-micron fiber) and up to 550 meters (over 62.5-micron fiber).
  • 1000BaseT: Uses twisted-pair category 5 cabling (four pairs of wires) over a maximum distance of 100 meters (maximum network diameter of 200 meters) and is intended mainly for connecting high-speed workstations to concentrators in nearby wiring closets.

Gigabit Ethernet networks can function as shared-media half-duplex networks using 1000-Mbps hubs, but they are usually implemented as switched full-duplex networks using 1000-Mbps Ethernet switches. Engineers currently envision two main uses for Gigabit Ethernet in corporate networking environments:

  • High-speed switch-switch connections for network backbones. Typically you might connect several 100/1000-Mbps switches to provide Fast Ethernet islands joined by Gigabit Ethernet backbones. An alternative would be to connect several 10/100 switches to one 100/1000 switch.
  • High-speed server-switch connections for server farms connected to server backbones. This configuration can provide users with 1-Gbps access to application or file servers.

Gigabit Ethernet might eventually be used for direct connections to high-speed user workstations, but at present this is a costly scenario to implement, and most applications can achieve sufficient bandwidth using only Fast Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet is defined by the IEEE 802.3z specification. The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance is an open forum for promoting cooperation and standards in industry implementations of Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet standards were developed only recently and are now beginning to be widely implemented in high-speed networks.
Upgrading a Fast Ethernet backbone switch to a Gigabit Ethernet 100/1000-Mbps switch is straightforward and will enable you to connect high-speed server farms using Gigabit Ethernet network interface cards (NICs). Benefits include increased throughput and performance, more network segments, more bandwidth per segment, and a greater number of nodes per segment.

On the Web

Gigabit Ethernet Alliance


A variation of Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) that is targeted for home Internet access. G.Lite typically has a downstream rate of up to 1.5 Mbps and an upstream rate of up to 384 Kbps, depending on the implementation. G.Lite is also called DSL Lite or Universal ADSL. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has endorsed the term "G.Lite" as a standard.

How It Works

G.Lite is sometimes referred to as "splitterless ADSL" because a voice-data splitter is not required at the customer premises to split the voice and data signals being carried over the line. This is different from normal ADSL, which uses a Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) splitter at both the customer premises and the telco’s central office (CO) to separate the voice and DSL bands for transmission over the phone line to prevent them from causing interference with each other. Instead, the customer’s computer simply connects to a G.Lite ADSL modem and from the modem to the phone line. No rewiring of the customer premises is required, because G.Lite uses the installed local loop connection to the customer premises. Customers can make phone calls or send faxes while connected to the Internet over their G.Lite connection. G.Lite connections are "always on"; in other words, once you turn your computer on, the connection is active and you can send or receive e-mail without having to dial up a connection. Because of the elimination of the need to install splitters, G.Lite services should be less expensive for customers than ordinary ADSL services and should become widespread in the near future.

The quality of an ADSL connection to your home can suffer if you have a large number of RJ-11 phone jacks installed. This is because each phone jack acts as a bridged tap that is run off the main phone line as a parallel connection. Signals traveling along your phone line can reflect off these jacks and affect the overall reliability of your ADSL connection.

Also, the farther your home is from the telco CO, the less bandwidth might be available for your ADSL connection.

Global Address List (GAL)

A list of all recipients in a Microsoft Exchange Server organization. The Exchange directory service maintains the Global Address List (GAL) in the Exchange directory database. The GAL typically contains

  • Mailboxes
  • Custom recipients
  • Distribution lists

The GAL can be accessed by

  • The Exchange Administrator program
  • Microsoft-based messaging clients using Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI), such as Microsoft Outlook
  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) clients using TCP/IP, such as Microsoft Outlook Express
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) clients such as Web browsers using Outlook Web Access

Public folders are the only form of Exchange recipient not contained within the GAL.


A file used in Active Server Pages (ASP) applications running on Microsoft Internet Information Server or Internet Information Services that contains information global to all pages in the application. Global.asa does not generate content visible to the client Web browser—any Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) in the global.asa file is ignored by the server. The global.asa file can contain object declarations using <OBJECT> tags, type library declarations for COM components that your application uses, and application and session events. You can have only one global.asa file per ASP application.

If your global.asa file generates an error, you should ensure that any object declarations within the file have application-level or session-level scope, that any script in the file is enclosed within <SCRIPT> tags, and that any <OBJECT> tags are placed outside of <SCRIPT> tags.

global catalog

A Microsoft Windows 2000 service and store that contains a partial replica of Active Directory information from all domains in your enterprise forest. The global catalog enables users to easily locate objects in any domain with maximum speed and minimum network traffic. In effect, the global catalog acts as a kind of index for looking up objects stored in Active Directory anywhere on your network. You can search the global catalog for Active Directory objects by using the Find dialog box in Active Directory Users and Computers.

How It Works

The global catalog resides on a selected group of the domain controllers in your Windows 2000 enterprise called global catalog servers. The administrative tool Active Directory Sites and Services is used to specify which domain controllers will host the global catalog—that is, which will be configured as global catalog servers. The global catalog is automatically created the first time you run the Active Directory Installation Wizard, and it is installed on the first domain controller in your root domain by default. The directory replication process controlled by Active Directory creates and maintains the contents of each global catalog server.

Every directory object in the entire enterprise is represented in the global catalog, but only a subset of the properties of each object is stored in the catalog. The properties represented are those most likely to be used as search attributes, such as the user’s first or last name. However, administrators can specify storing additional object attributes in the catalog if desired. Having the global catalog store only a subset of an object’s attributes in Active Directory improves the response time for performing search queries on Active Directory.

You can modify which attributes are represented for objects in the global catalog by editing the schema of Active Directory, but you must do so with care. The global catalog also includes the access permissions for directory objects, so if you search for an object and it doesn’t show up, you probably do not have permission to access the object.
In a geographically distributed enterprise, each physical site should have at least one domain controller to speed network traffic. Most Active Directory–related traffic is the result of queries on Active Directory, so the domain controller for small sites should also be configured as a global catalog server. This will reduce traffic over WAN links to other sites by allowing the global catalog server to locally resolve queries for information on directory objects from other domains.

See Also

global catalog server

global catalog server

A Microsoft Windows 2000 domain controller that stores a copy of the global catalog. Administrators and users can utilize global catalog servers on a Windows 2000–based network to locate objects that are stored in Active Directory. Information stored on global catalog servers is updated each time Active Directory undergoes directory replication.

You must locate your global catalog servers appropriately so that queries on Active Directory perform effectively. Ideally, you should have at least one global catalog server at each site within the enterprise. However, in a multidomain environment, the replication traffic generated by maintaining these servers can be a burden on overall network traffic, especially if slow WAN links are involved. Consider placing your global catalog servers as follows:
  • Place several global catalog servers in each major site where large numbers of users and resources can be found.
  • Place a global catalog server at each small site where there are significant numbers of users and resources or where the wide area network (WAN) connection to major sites is slow.

See Also

global catalog

global group

A group that exists only in the Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database on a Microsoft Windows NT–based network. Global groups are created on domain controllers and are used within an enterprise-level Windows NT network to organize users by function (for example, Accountants global group), location (for example, Third-Floor global group), or some other criteria, to simplify account administration. Global groups contrast local groups, whose primary function is to provide users with permissions for accessing network resources and rights for performing system tasks. Note that global groups can contain only global user accounts from their own domain. They cannot contain global user accounts from other domains, and they cannot contain other groups.

Global groups are a little different in Windows 2000. Global groups can contain only members from the domain in which they are created, and they can be granted permissions on resources in any domain in the current forest. Users from one forest cannot be members of groups from another forest, and groups from one forest cannot be granted permissions on resources in another forest.

If the Windows 2000 domain is in native mode, global groups can contain both user accounts and global groups from the same domain; however, in mixed mode, global groups can contain only user accounts.

See Also

AGLP, built-in global group, built-in group group, local group

global load balancer

A hardware-based or software-based solution that can direct requests for Web content to multiple geographical locations where the content is stored. For example, if an electronic business has several data centers around the world, it can use global load balancers to direct Web customers’ traffic to centers that can provide the fastest response time for each customer’s location. If a data center goes down as a result of a power outage or some other condition, traffic to that site can be transparently redirected to other sites. The overall effect of implementing global load balancers in an e-business enterprise is an increase in reliability and performance from the customer’s point of view.

How It Works

Global load balancers essentially act as intelligent Domain Name System (DNS) name servers, performing name lookups for Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and directing requests to the most appropriate IP addresses. The following five criteria are typically used to determine which address to forward a request to. (Not all global load balancers support all five criteria.)

  • Proximity of the site to the client, usually measured in router hops and established by using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), or User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Latency (the overall response time of the site), which is usually determined by pinging the site and calculating the delay
  • Server load (how busy the site is and how much capacity the server has for responding to clients)
  • Server health (whether the site is up and what its CPU and connection load are)
  • Packet loss (the average quality of the Transmission Control Protocol connection to the site), which is established by using ping

Of course, the DNS standard itself has built-in load balancing in the form of round-robin DNS. If multiple IP addresses are mapped to the same domain name, clients requesting the domain are directed to each IP address in a round-robin fashion. However, this rudimentary load-balancing scheme does not take into account such factors as which IP address belongs to the nearest host, the relative capability of the hosts to respond to requests, the availability of hosts, and so on. This is where global load balancers come in—they take over the role of authoritative name server for a company’s domain.

Global load balancers come in three varieties:

  • Layer 4 switches or routers with built-in support for global load balancing. Many Layer 4 switches and routers support some form of local load balancing, and software upgrades might be available that add such support. These switches tend to perform faster than appliances or software because they use hardware for packet forwarding and use software for routing purposes only. However, they also tend to be the most expensive solution.
  • Network appliances, which are essentially self-contained, stripped-down servers running global load-balancing software on top of operating systems optimized for this particular function.
  • Software that can run on standard servers running Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows NT, or UNIX that enables the servers to function as global load balancers. If you use this solution, be sure that your server is dedicated to running this software and does not run any other applications.

Global load balancers talk only to the local DNS server configured for the client, not to the client itself. This works well, except when mobile users travel to other cities and use their laptops to try to access the site. In this situation, if the client is still using a preconfigured DNS server at the home location, the global load balancer thinks that the client is still there as well. Also, once a DNS-based global load balancer has directed a client to the appropriate site or server, it is no longer involved in the client’s session and cannot tell whether the server goes down or whether some problem occurs with the connection.

For this reason, some global load balancers also use Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) redirects to masquerade as the target site and redirect HTTP requests to different servers. The client actually talks to the load balancer itself, and performance is faster than using DNS because fewer Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connections are required. If the client’s connection to the server is interrupted, the global load balancer can redirect the client to a different server with minimal interruption. The downside of using HTTP redirects is that they work only with HTTP and not with other Internet protocols, such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP), or with streaming multimedia. This can be a limitation if your e-business delivers this type of content to the customer.

Other mechanisms can be used to perform global load balancing, including cookie-based and proprietary schemes. Windows NT 4, Enterprise Edition, provides a load-balancing service called Windows NT Load Balancing Service (WLBS). This IP load-balancing service employs a fully distributed clustering design that is ideal for creating highly available and scalable IP-based services such as Web, virtual private networking (VPN), streaming media, and proxy services.

globally unique identifier (GUID)

A 128-bit value based on time and space that can be used to uniquely identify an item. Globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) are used in the Component Object Model (COM) to uniquely identify classes and interfaces so that naming conflicts will not occur. A GUID is virtually guaranteed to be unique across all systems at any time. You can generate GUIDs using the console-based uuidgen utility or using the Microsoft Windows–based guidgen utility in Microsoft Visual C++.

In Windows 2000, each object, object class, or object attribute in Active Directory is assigned a unique GUID when it is created. The GUID of an entity in Active Directory never changes, even if the entity itself is renamed or moved to another location. The GUID acts as a kind of permanent name for the entity within the directory to ensure that it can be positively identified when needed.

Microsoft BackOffice products such as Microsoft Exchange Server and Microsoft SQL Server also use GUIDs to uniquely tag objects. For example, the information store in Exchange Server has a base GUID that is used to generate individual GUIDs for all messages, attachments, and folder contents kept in the store. If you restore the information store from a backup, you need to run the command isinteg -patch before restarting the information store to change the base GUID. Running this patch ensures that new objects created in the information store do not accidentally end up with GUIDs that are identical to those of objects already existing in the information store. This could cause inconsistencies in the information store database.

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

A digital cellular phone technology popular in Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) supports voice, data, Group 3 fax, and paging services for both vehicle-mounted and handheld mobile use. In addition, its speech quality equals that of the analog Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) and can interface with packet-switched networks.

How It Works

The GSM Phase 1 implementation uses a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) media access control methods to provide full-duplex communication over two frequency bands within the 862-to-960-MHz World Association of Radio Communications (WARC) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These two frequency bands are

  • The 890-to-915-MHz band for mobile-to-base (uplink) communication
  • The 935-to-960-MHz band for base-to-mobile (downlink) communication

Carrier signals are spaced 200 kHz apart within these bands to provide 124 pairs of superchannels based on frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), each of which is then subdivided into eight traffic channels using time-division multiplexing (TDM). Each channel carries voice communication at 13 Kbps (or 9.6 Kbps for data transmission). GSM thus provides 992 full-duplex channels for voice communication. Power classes for GSM mobile units range from 0.8 through 2.0 watts transmission power for handsets to 8 through 20 watts for vehicle-mounted units. Approximately half of a GSM transmission consists of overhead for signaling, such as synchronization and error handling. Such high overhead is typical in cellular phone systems, and is necessary—not so much because of external interference of buildings and other structures, but because of internal interference due to crosstalk between channels and across cell boundaries.

GSM is a secure system that uses key-based encryption for authentication and, optionally, for data transfer. The diagram shows the process that occurs when a mobile user wants to place a call. When the user dials a number, the mobile unit connects with the base station requesting authorization. The base station generates a random number and transmits it to the mobile unit, which then combines the random number with the owner’s secret key stored in the phone’s standard Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card by using a ciphering algorithm called A3. The result of this process is transmitted to the base station. Meanwhile, the base station, which has the private keys for all its subscribers stored in a database, follows the same steps, using the A3 algorithm to combine the generated random number with the caller’s private key. The result is compared with the result transmitted by the user. If the two results agree, the user is logged on to the system.

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). The authentication process for GSM. (Image unavailable)

GSM Phase 1 supports call forwarding, global roaming, call barring, and other features. GSM Phase 2 adds additional features such as the following:

  • Short message service for sending and receiving short text messages using phones
  • Call holding, call waiting, and caller ID
  • Multiparty calling supporting up to five parties per call
  • Mobile fax and data services

GSM Phase 2+ (just being implemented at the time of this writing) includes support for data transmission at 64 Kbps and higher, packet radio, virtual private networks, enhancements to the SIM card, higher spectral efficiency, integration with satellite links, and even GSM services in the local loop.

GSM has a counterpart service called Digital Communication Service (DCS) that works in essentially the same way as GSM, except at a higher 1.8-GHz frequency band. DCS provides a total of 2992 channels for voice communication. One advantage DCS has over GSM is that it uses much lower power levels for mobile units, ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 watts transmission power.

The SIM card is a small device about the size of a stamp that is issued when a user subscribes to the GSM service. It contains the user’s phone number, private key, billing information, and other information. When users visit a locale at which the GSM system is different, they can simply remove the SIM card from their phone and install it in a rented phone that can function in that locale.

Encryption of messages is similar to the encrypted authentication process, except that each transmitted frame is encrypted using a different random number. This makes encrypted GSM messages extremely difficult to crack, so much so that some countries prohibit GSM providers from encrypting user messages!

See Also

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

global user account

A type of user account in Microsoft Windows NT that has a domain-wide scope. (These accounts are called domain user accounts in Windows 2000.) In Windows NT, global user accounts are created using User Manager for Domains and are stored in the directory database on Windows NT domain controllers. In Windows 2000, domain user accounts are managed through the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in. Global accounts allow users to take full advantage of the Windows NT Directory Services (NTDS). Users who have global accounts can access resources anywhere in the domain, provided they have appropriate permissions for those resources.

User Manager for Domains creates global accounts by default. The other type of user account in Windows, the local user account, exists only within the directory database of the machine on which it is created. Use only global accounts for users when implementing Windows NT domains as your security model.

See Also

local user account


An Internet protocol used for distributed storage of documents.

How It Works

Gopher is similar to another Internet protocol, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), because it remotely accesses files over a TCP/IP internetwork such as the Internet. But while an FTP site exists on only one server and there can be many different FTP sites, there is really only one distributed Gopher file system. The Gopher file system is a single collection of all Gopher servers in the world (although private Gopher subnetworks also exist).

Gopher. (Image unavailable)

Each Gopher server can act as the root of the hierarchical distributed file system. To access a file or document, a person using a Gopher client (a standard Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer will do) types the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) of an accessible Gopher server. For example, gopher:// takes the user to a Gopher server for the University of Minnesota (where Gopher originated). The Gopher file system is presented as a series of folders, each of which can contain

  • More folders
  • Individual documents
  • Links to other Gopher servers (displayed as folders)

Users then work their way down the "gopher hole" (to use the metaphor) until they locate the document they want, and then they display or download it. They can also use a search tool developed at the University of Nevada called Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives) to perform keyword searches to locate documents on the worldwide Gopher network.

Gopher was popular in the late 1980s as a mechanism for storing and disseminating information, especially for libraries and universities, but it has fallen out of favor because of the rising popularity of the World Wide Web (WWW). Not many Gopher servers still work, and most of them are not regularly updated with new information.


See Also

General Packet Radio Service (GRPS)


Stands for global regular expression print, a command in the UNIX operating system. Grep lets you search a file or multiple files for a specific pattern or string of characters and, if desired, replace it with a different string. The output of grep is a display of each line of the file that contains the desired character string. You can use wildcards and other meta-characters to perform complex search and replace operations with grep. Grep is useful for searching for specific entries in text files such as log files, UNIX system error logs, or C program code files.


Typing grep 'a[b-f]' log.txt searches the text file called log.txt for any lines that contain the character a immediately followed by b, c, d, e, or f.

Shareware versions of the grep utility are available from third-party vendors for Microsoft Windows platforms. Grep can also be combined with other UNIX commands in scripts that can perform more complex search functions. For example, you can pipe the output of a verbose command into grep to display a more selective form of output.

ground loop

A condition created when two or more parts of a network are grounded at separate points, causing a voltage difference between connected networking components. These voltage differences typically occur because of nonuniformities in the electrical characteristics of the grounding at different locations.

How It Works

For example, consider two computers that are located some distance apart and are connected by coaxial cabling. Each device is also connected to the earth by the ground wire of its AC power cable, but the two devices are plugged into different power outlets. These power outlets are connected to different parts of your building’s electrical distribution system, and these different parts are under different loads (have different currents being drawn from them by different configurations of devices). Thus they provide slightly different voltages. You might also find slight differences in the ground potential at the two locations. These voltage differences can cause currents to be induced through the shielding of the network cabling, and these currents can be large because of the cable’s low resistance. Large pulses of current can occur when other devices on the power circuits are switched on or off abruptly. This situation can be potentially damaging to sensitive networking components and might cause them to reset or lock up.

Ground loops can be prevented by

  • Using nonconducting fiber-optic cabling instead of copper cabling, especially for longer cable runs
  • Utilizing opto isolators or isolation transformers to break electrical connections between networking components

Ground loops are especially problematic with serial connections such as RS-232 because cables using this interface have a second signal ground path between the devices. Ground loops can also be a problem with shielded cabling such as shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling or coaxial cabling. These loops will occur if the cable’s shielding is grounded by a direct connection to the chassis of the devices, because this provides a second ground path between the devices in addition to that produced by the ground portion of the AC power connection. The resulting current loops can build up until they are potentially damaging to the connected equipment. To prevent such damage, the shielding in a shielded cable should be grounded only at one end of its connection. Finally, when grounding a metal rack or cabinet that houses networking equipment, you should ground it using the same AC power cable ground connection that you used for the equipment itself. Note that ground loops are not a significant problem with unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling because the wiring is transformer-isolated in the hub and network interface card (NIC) connections.


A collection of user accounts. Groups simplify the task of network administration by allowing administrators to group similar user accounts together in order to grant them the same rights and permissions.

The scope of a group is the portion of the network where the group can be granted rights and permissions. For example, a group whose scope is global can be granted permissions to resources in its own domain and to resources in trusting domains. On the other hand, a group whose scope is local can be granted permissions to resources only on the machine where it was created.

On Microsoft Windows NT–based networks, groups are created using User Manager for Domains. Windows NT groups have two levels of scope:

  • Global groups: A global group can be granted permissions to resources in its own domain and to resources in trusting domains. A global group can contain user accounts only from its own domain. Global groups are created on Windows NT domain controllers and exist in the domain directory database.
  • Local groups: A local group created with Windows NT Workstation can be granted permissions only to resources on the machine where it was created. A local group created with Windows NT Server (on a domain controller) can be granted permissions only to resources on the domain controllers of its own domain. A local group can contain user accounts and global groups both from its own domain and from trusted domains. Network administrators of enterprise-level Windows NT networks can use a resource-access strategy called AGLP (Accounts are organized by placing them in Global groups, which are then placed in Local groups that have appropriate Permissions and rights assigned to them) to plan and implement local groups in their network.

The situation in Windows 2000 is a little different. First, you create Windows 2000 groups using Active Directory Users and Computers. Groups are stored as group objects within Active Directory. Also, there are two types of groups in Windows 2000–based networks:

  • Security groups: Can contain members and can be granted permissions in order to control user access to network resources. Windows 2000 security groups are similar in function to the Windows NT groups just described. However, in Windows 2000, these groups have three different levels of scope, rather than two. Also, security groups in Windows 2000 can contain users, other groups, and even computers.
  • Distribution groups: Used for nonsecurity functions such as grouping users together to send e-mail. Unlike security groups, these groups cannot be used to control user access to network resources.

These two types of groups are stored in Active Directory. There are three levels of scope for security groups in Windows 2000–based networks:

  • Universal groups: Can contain members from any domain and can be granted permissions to resources in any domain in the current domain forest. Universal groups can contain user accounts, global groups, and universal groups from any domain in the current forest. Note that you can create universal groups only when the domain is in native mode, and not in mixed mode.
  • Global groups: Can contain members only from their own domain, but can be granted permissions to resources in any trusting domain. When the domain is in native mode, global groups can contain user accounts and global groups from the same domain. When the domain is in mixed mode, these groups can contain only user accounts.
  • Domain local groups: Can contain members from any domain, but can be granted permissions only to resources in their own domain. However, unlike the local groups of Windows NT, a domain local group can be granted permissions to resources on all servers (both the domain controllers and member servers) in its domain. When the domain is in mixed mode, domain local groups can contain user accounts and global groups from any domain in the forest. When the domain is in native mode, they can also contain domain local groups from their own domain and universal groups from any domain in the forest.

Users can belong to multiple groups at the same time. A group does not actually contain its member user accounts; it is merely a list of user accounts. Nesting of groups (adding groups to other groups) is allowed, with certain restrictions. For example, in Windows NT a local group can contain global groups (but not other local groups) as members, while a global group can contain only users as members, not other global or local groups.

Group. Nesting of groups in Windows NT and in Windows 2000. (Image unavailable)

With Windows 2000, the nesting of groups is more complicated, as shown in the diagram. Furthermore, you can nest groups inside groups to any level, although nesting to one level is the recommended practice for effective administration.

Note that on Windows 2000–based networks, universal groups are available only when your domain controllers are running in native mode, not when they are running in mixed mode. Also, repeated nesting of groups is allowed only in native mode.

On member servers and computers running Windows 2000 Professional, you can also create a fourth type of group called a local group, one that exists only within the local security database of the machine on which it is created. Local groups in Windows 2000 are similar to local groups in Windows NT. They can contain user accounts that are local to the machine, and user accounts and global groups from their own domain. A local group can be granted permissions only to resources on the machine where it was created. You use Local Users and Groups, a snap-in for Microsoft Management Console (MMC), to create local groups on a machine.

On high-speed Windows 2000 networks, using only universal groups simplifies network administration. But if you have slower WAN links within your enterprise, using global and domain local groups can reduce the size of the global catalog at each site and significantly reduce the wide area network (WAN) traffic required to keep the global catalog current. Using global and domain local groups further reduces WAN traffic by reducing the size of users’ security tokens.

If your Windows 2000 network has only a single domain, use global groups and domain local groups for granting permissions to network resources. Create global groups according to function, add users to the global groups, create domain local groups according to groups of common resources, assign permissions to the domain local groups, and finally, place the global groups in the appropriate domain local groups. If you have a domain tree, use global and universal groups instead in a similar administrative approach.

In Windows 2000, you can change the scope of a group if desired. For example,

  • Global groups that are not members of other global groups can be converted to universal groups.
  • Domain local groups that do not contain other domain local groups can be converted to universal groups. Do this if you want to enable users in other domains to access resources that have been made accessible to the domain local group under consideration.

group account



group policy

A group of settings that are applied to a subset of Active Directory objects in Microsoft Windows 2000. Group policies are created and assigned using Group Policy, a snap-in for the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). Group policies are typically used to simultaneously configure the desktop working environments of a group of users, but they have many other uses as well. Group policies can be used to

  • Manage applications—for example, by configuring policies to allow users to install applications published in Active Directory, or to automatically install or upgrade applications on their machines
  • Redirect folders from the Documents and Settings folder on a user’s local machine to a share on the network
  • Assign scripts for startup, shutdown, logon, and logoff events
  • Manage security—for example, to control users’ access to files and folders, control user logon rights, and configure account lockout restrictions
  • Manage software—for example, to configure user profiles such as desktop settings, Start menu, and other common settings

Group policies can be assigned to domains, sites, or organizational units (OUs). To create and configure a group policy, use Group Policy to create a new Group Policy object (GPO). Group policies are applied to users when they log on and to computers when they boot up. If two policies apply to a user or computer, and they do not conflict, they are applied in a cumulative fashion. Users are subject to group policies that apply to them as users and to group policies that apply to the computer at which they are working.

Every Windows 2000 domain has a default group policy that applies to all users and computers in the domain. Computers that are moved to a different domain lose the GPO of their original domain and have the GPO of their new domain applied to them. The default GPO for a domain is the only GPO on which you can configure password restrictions, lockout restrictions, Kerberos, the Encrypting File System (EFS), and Internet Protocol (IP) security settings.
Group policies set for machines running Windows 2000 do not apply to downlevel Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 clients.
A typical use for group policies is to enforce a written company policy across all users in a specific site or domain.

Group Policy

An administrative tool in Microsoft Windows 2000 that is used for configuring group policies; that is, user and computer settings for groups of users and computers. Group Policy is the successor to the Windows NT administrative tool called System Policy Editor.

How It Works

System Policy Editor for Windows NT stores system policy information in an ntconfig.pol file that modifies a portion of the Windows NT registry. Group Policy stores its settings in an Active Directory object called a Group Policy object (GPO) that contains the collection of settings for a group of users or computers created using Group Policy. A GPO is normally associated with a selected site, domain, or organizational unit (OU) object in Active Directory. Group policy information is also stored in a folder structure called the Group Policy Template on the SYSVOL volume on domain controllers. Group policies can also be configured for computers that are not domain members. Group Policy can be used to specify the following:

  • Scripts that should be run at startup, shutdown, logon, or logoff
  • Files to be placed on users’ computers
  • Software registry settings to customize users’ desktops, configure applications, and control services (similar to System Policy Editor)
  • Audit policies for auditing account logons, account management, directory service access, object access, and other functions

In addition, by using the Security Settings extension, you can configure users’ security settings, and by using the Software Installation extension, you can publish, update, or repair applications on user’s computers.

To configure a group policy for a specific site in Active Directory, open the administrative tool called Active Directory Sites and Services, select the specific site you want to configure, click the Action button on the toolbar, choose Properties from the drop-down menu, and select the Group Policy tab. Alternatively, you can install the Group Policy snap-in in a new Microsoft Management Console (MMC) (see screen capture).

To configure a group policy for a directory object in Active Directory, you need access to a domain controller, read and write permissions on SYSVOL, and modify permissions on the selected directory object.

Group Policy for Windows 2000 cannot be used to configure group policies for downlevel Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 clients. Use System Policy Editor instead.

Group Policy. (Image unavailable)



Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)



Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW)

Guest account

In Microsoft Windows NT, a built-in account with a null password created during installation. The Guest user account is a member of the Domain Guests global group on the domain controller or member server on which it is defined.

The Guest account is intended for occasional users who need temporary access to resources on the network. It is disabled by default and can be enabled using User Manager for Domains. The Guest account is also created by default on machines running Windows 2000 during installation.

On a Windows NT domain controller, the Guest account is a global user account; a member server or Windows NT workstation has a separate Guest local user account. To control guest access to your network, you can assign these Guest accounts one, both, or neither of the following rights:
  • Access this computer from the network.
  • Log on locally.

Do not enable the Guest account unless you are sure you will need it; unless you are sure that all your shared resources have correct permissions assigned to them, enabling the Guest account could pose a security risk.

See Also

Guests group

Guests group

A Microsoft Windows NT built-in group existing on all Windows NT–based servers and workstations. The Guests group is a local group whose initial membership is the built-in Guest user account. If a member server or workstation joins a domain, the global group called Domain Guests is added to the local Guests group.

The Guests group has no preassigned rights or permissions on Windows NT domain controllers and has a single right, Log On Locally, on the Windows NT member server or workstation on which it exists. You can assign any network resource permissions to this group in order to grant temporary or guest users the access they require.

Members of the Guests group do not have the right to make permanent changes to their desktop settings. The Guests group is also a built-in local group on machines running Windows 2000 that are not part of a domain.

See Also

built-in group



globally unique identifier (GUID)

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