Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Administrator's Pocket Consultant

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MICROSOFT® SQL SERVER™ 2000 ADMINISTRATOR’S POCKET CONSULTANT is the ideal concise, immediate reference you’ll want with you at all times as you deal with the details of Microsoft SQL Server 2000 database administration. Whether you handle administration for 50 users or 5000, this hands-on, fast-answers guide focuses on what you need to do to get the job done quickly.

With extensive easy-to-read tables, lists, and step-by-step instructions, it’s the portable, readable guide that...

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Overview

MICROSOFT® SQL SERVER™ 2000 ADMINISTRATOR’S POCKET CONSULTANT is the ideal concise, immediate reference you’ll want with you at all times as you deal with the details of Microsoft SQL Server 2000 database administration. Whether you handle administration for 50 users or 5000, this hands-on, fast-answers guide focuses on what you need to do to get the job done quickly.

With extensive easy-to-read tables, lists, and step-by-step instructions, it’s the portable, readable guide that will consistently save you time and minimize system downtime by giving you the right information right now.

This hands-on guide gives you the fast answers you need to:

  • Grasp the fundamentals. Understand the SQL Server 2000 architecture; learn administration tools, techniques, and concepts; and discover how to modify configuration settings to optimize memory usage, take advantage of parallel processors, and more.
  • Complete core tasks. Perform basic tasks to create and manage databases, servers, and server groups; and create logons, configure logon permissions, assign roles, and conduct other essential security measures.
  • Administer databases. Manage tables, indexes, and views; query and manipulate data; import and export data; and integrate SQL Server data with other data sources.
  • Control distributed data. Administer linked servers and distributed transactions, configure data merging and replication, and supervise data publication and subscription.
  • Optimize and maintain databases. Profile and monitor SQL Server, conduct data backup and recovery, and take charge of automation and maintenance.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Reviews daily procedures and common tasks performed during Microsoft SQL Server 2000 database administration. The handbook covers SQL Server configuration, enterprise-wide server management, performance tuning, optimization, and maintenance. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780735611290
  • Publisher: Microsoft Press
  • Publication date: 9/1/2000
  • Series: Administrator's Companion Series
  • Edition description: 2000 ed.
  • Pages: 480
  • Product dimensions: 5.55 (w) x 7.99 (h) x 1.26 (d)

Meet the Author

William R. Stanek is a Microsoft MVP with 20+ years of experience in systems management and advanced programming. He is an award-winning author who’s written more than 100 books, including Windows Server 2012 Pocket Consultant and Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Pocket Consultant.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 4: Core Database Administration

Core database administration tasks involve creating, manipulating, and supporting databases. In Microsoft SQL Server 2000, a database is a collection of data and the objects that represent and interact with that data. Tables, views, stored procedures, triggers, and constraints are typical database objects.

A single database server instance can have up to 32,767 databases, and each database can have over 2 billion objects. These are theoretical limits, of course, but they demonstrate that SQL Server can handle just about any chore. To perform most administration tasks, you'll need to log in to the database using an account that has the Sysadmin role, such as the local sysadmin account (sa). Detailed information on roles and SQL Server security is found in Chapter 5.

Database Files and Logs

Each SQL Server database has a transaction log associated with it. A transaction log is a history of modifications to the database, and SQL Server uses it to ensure database integrity. All changes to the database are first written to the transaction log and then applied to the database. If the database update is successful, the transaction is completed and recorded as successful. If the database update fails, SQL Server uses the transaction log to restore the database to its original state (which is called rolling back the transaction). This two-phase commit process makes it possible for SQL Server to automatically restore a database in case of power failure, server outage, or other problems that occur when you enter a transaction.

SQL Server databases and transaction logs are contained inseparate database files. This means that each database always has at least two files associated with it— a data file and a log file. Databases also can have secondary data files. SQL Server uses three types of database files:

  • Primary data files   Every database has one primary data file. These files store data and maintain records of other files used in a database. By default, these files end with the .mdf extension.
  • Secondary data files   These files store additional data for a database. By default, these files end with the .ndf extension.
  • Transaction log files   Every database has at least one transaction log file. This file contains information necessary to restore the database. By default, log files end with the .ldf extension.

NOTE:
SQL Server also uses backup devices. Backup devices can be physical devices, such as tape drives, or files that are stored on a local drive or a network share. SQL Server data and log files can be stored on either FAT or NTFS partitions but can't be stored on any compressed file system.

Database files are set when you create or modify the database. By allowing for multiple database files, SQL Server can create databases that span multiple disk drives and that can grow in size as needed. Although the size of a SQL Server database is often measured in GBs, with all editions of SQL Server except the Personal Edition, databases can range in size from 1 MB to a theoretical limit of 1,048,516 TBs. With the Personal Edition, databases have a maximum size limit of 2 GB.

As you set out to work with databases, keep in mind that SQL Server is designed to expand databases automatically as necessary. This means that master, tempdb, msdb, and other critical databases won't run out of space under normal conditions—provided, of course, that there's file space on the configured drives and that you don't set a maximum database size manually. System databases are the most important ones on the server. You should never directly update tables in system databases. Instead, you should use the appropriate management tools or stored procedures to modify the databases if you need to. The only exception is the model database, which you can update with settings for new databases.

Database Administration Basics

You do most of your database administration work through Enterprise Manager. You'll use Enterprise Manager to perform many common database administration tasks, including
  • Viewing database information
  • Checking user and system databases
  • Examining database objects

The sections that follow examine each of these tasks.

Viewing Database Information in Enterprise Manager

SQL Server organizes information using a top-down hierarchy that goes from server groups to servers to databases to objects. Accordingly, you must work your way down to the database level in order to view the databases installed on a particular server instance. If you have registered a server instance and have connected to it previously, you can view its databases by completing the following steps:
  1. Start Enterprise Manager and then in the left pane (Console Root) click the plus sign (+) next to the server group you want to work with. If the SQL Server service is stopped, you'll need to restart it before accessing the server.
  2. Click the plus sign (+) next to the server you want to work with and then select the Databases folder.

  3. NOTE:
    If you haven't authenticated the server connection, you may need to provide a SQL logon account and password. You may also need to reestablish a connection with the server. In either case, enter any necessary information and then click OK/Yes to continue.

  4. You should see a list of the databases available on the server. Now select the database you want to work with in the left pane.
  5. With the Taskpad enabled (by choosing Taskpad from the View menu, if necessary), the right pane should provide access to three different views:
    • General  Displays database, maintenance, total size, and other important database information; also provides quick access links to start key administration tasks, such as backup database and restore database. Move the mouse pointer over a yellow category button to display a shortcut menu.
    • Table Info  Displays the available user tables and indexes in the databases. The user tables are listed alphabetically along with their associated indexes and clustered indexes. You'll find the total table size and the number of rows in a particular table as well.
    • Wizards  Provides quick access to the most commonly used database administration wizards. The wizards are organized into task-related categories, such as those used to manage SQL Server and those used to set up replication. Click a wizard title to start the wizard.
  6. To view database information, click any of the view links in the right pane, either General, Table Info, or Wizards. Figure 4-1 shows the General view....

  7. Click to view graphic

    ...Figure 4-1. The General view provides a summary of the selected database and also gives quick access to start key administration tasks. Move the mouse pointer over a category button to display a shortcut menu.

Viewing Database Information Using SQL

You can also use Transact-SQL to examine database information. Transact-SQL is an enhanced version of the standard structured query language that SQL Server uses. Start Query Analyzer and then use the following command:
sp_helpdb <dbname>
where dbname is the name of the database you want to examine.

When you view database information in this way, you get an overview of the database as well as a listing of current data and log files. Table 4-1 gives a summary of this information.

Table 4-1.   Database Properties Viewable Using T-SQL

Column Name Description
compatibility_level The current compatibility level of the database. 80 indicates SQL Server 2000 compatibility.
created The date the database was created.
db_size The total size of the database including all data and log files.
dbid The unique identifier for the database on thecurrent server.
filegroup The filegroup associated with the database file. Filegroups allow you to group sets of database files together.
fileid The unique identifier for the file in the current database.
filename The full filename and path.
growth The number of megabytes or percent the file grows by.
maxsize The maximum file size. Unlimited means there is no limit.
name The name of the database or file (without a file extension).
owner The database owner.
size The current size of a file.
status The database status.
usage The way the file is used, such as data only or log only.

Checking System and Sample Databases

A new SQL Server installation includes the system and sample databases listed in Table 4-2. System databases are critical to the proper operation of SQL Server, and backing up and maintaining these databases is a key part of administration. Sample databases, on the other hand, are meant only to provide examples and don't need regular maintenance. The sample databases take up only 6 MB of disk space, and rather than deleting them, you may want to keep them around for testing and for use in demonstrations.

Table 4-2.   Summary of System and Sample Databases

Database Name Database Type Description
Master System Maintains information on all databases installed on the server. This database is modified anytime you create databases, manage accounts, or change configuration settings. Back up the master regularly.
model System Provides a template for all new databases. If you want new databases to have certain properties or permissions, put these changes in the model database and then all new databases will inherit the changes.
tempdb System Provides a temporary workspace for processing queries and handling other tasks. This database is recreated each time SQL Server is started and is based on the model database.
pubs Sample Provides a sample database and is often used to demonstrate SQL/Transact-SQL commands.
Northwind Sample Provides a sample database with application programming interface (API) examples.
msdb System Used by the SQL Server Agent service when performing handling alerts, notifications, and scheduled tasks. You can access all the information in this database using Enterprise Manager options.

Examining Database Objects

The key elements of a SQL Server database are referred to as objects. The objects you can associate with a database are:
  • Constraints
  • Defaults
  • Indexes
  • Keys
  • Stored procedures
  • Extended stored procedures
  • Tables
  • Triggers
  • User-defined data types
  • User-defined functions
  • Views

You can also associate users, roles, rules, and full-text catalogs with databases.

To examine objects within a database, complete the following steps:

  1. Start Enterprise Manager and then in the left pane (Console Root) click the plus sign (+) next to the server group you want to work with.
  2. Click the plus sign (+) next to the server you want to work with again and then, if necessary, authenticate yourself or establish a connection, or both.
  3. Work your way down to the database level. Expand the Databases folder and then expand the entry for the database you want to work with.
  4. You should see a list of available database objects. In the left pane, click the element you want to view.

MORE INFO:
Each of these objects is covered in detail in the appropriate chapter. For example, you'll find more information on tables in Chapter 6.

Creating Databases

SQL Server uses the model database as the basis of new databases. If you want new databases to have the same setup, you should modify the model database and then create the necessary new databases. Otherwise, you'll need to man- ually modify the settings of each new database. The easiest way to create a new database is to use Enterprise Manager. You can also create databases using Transact-SQL....
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction
Pt. I Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Administration Fundamentals
1 Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Administration Overview 3
2 Configuring and Tuning Microsoft SQL Server 19
Pt. II Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Administration
3 Managing the Enterprise 65
4 Core Database Administration 95
5 Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Security 129
Pt. III Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Data Administration
6 Manipulating Tables, Indexes, and Views 161
7 Importing and Exporting Data with DTS and BCP 205
8 Linked Servers and Distributed Transactions 243
9 Configuring Snapshot, Merge, and Transactional Replication 261
Pt. IV Performance, Optimization, and Maintenance
10 Profiling and Monitoring Microsoft SQL Server 2000 307
11 Database Backup and Recovery 337
12 Database Automation and Maintenance 379
Index 433
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Sort by: Showing all of 2 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted July 10, 2001

    Great Book

    This book is great as a reference book. It's not filled with all the clutter that you might find in other SQL books. If you need detailed information then this book might not be for you, but if you need something that you can use as a daily reference book then this is it.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 19, 2000

    Best SQL Server 2000 guide anywhere in small package

    Hats off to author William Stanek for another fine Pocket Consultant. I have 5 of these books in my library now (Windows NT 4, Windows 2000, Exchange 2000, SQL Server 7 and SQL Server 2000.) Since I picked up the first Pockete Consultant a yaer ago I haven't found a daily administration question that wasn't answered. You'll find that SQL Server 2000 Pocket Consultant is more of the same. The attention to detail and the focus on day to day administration tasks is fantastic! <P>Mr. Stanek always starts with an overview of the subject of discussion and then digs right in. I've found that this book (and the rest in the series) answer 100% of my questions quickly and meanwhile the 1,000 page luggables used by my colleagues just get them frustrasted. I've made quite a few converts in the office. <P>The nice thing about these books is the day to day focus. You get what you need to accomplish your task spelled out clearly and concisely in a style that I've found that only Mr. Stanek can deliver. It is refreshing. Now I'm not saying the books are pefrect. If you need to learn from scratch this isn't the answer. Look elsewhere. If you need to brush up and extend your skills to new stuff (like going from SQL 6.5 or SQL 7 to SQL 2000), is a good choice. If you need a book to help with day to day, is a good choice. If you need a book to put in your backpack and carry with you, is a good choice. <P>Last I want to say thank you to Mr. Stanek. Thank you, I'm looking forward to more. --JW

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