Microsoft Windows 2000 and IIS 5.0 Administrator's Pocket Consultant (Administrator's Companion Series)by William R. Stanek
This concise, easy-to-use reference to Internet Information Services 5.0 covers the fundamentals, administration, performance, optimization, and maintenance of these essential Internet services. Its easy-to-read tables, lists, and step-by-step instructions make it the portable, fast-answers guide that will consistently save time and energy. (Computer Books)See more details below
This concise, easy-to-use reference to Internet Information Services 5.0 covers the fundamentals, administration, performance, optimization, and maintenance of these essential Internet services. Its easy-to-read tables, lists, and step-by-step instructions make it the portable, fast-answers guide that will consistently save time and energy. (Computer Books)
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Chapter 3 Configuring Web Sites and ServersIn this chapter, you'll learn to configure World Wide Web sites and servers. Tasks for configuring Web sites and servers are broken down into several categories. You'll find sections on Web site naming and identification, managing master Web service properties, creating Web sites, and more.
Web site properties are a key part of Web site management and configuration. Web site properties identify the site, set its configuration values, and determine where and how documents are accessed. Web site properties can be set at several levels:
- As global defaults
- As site defaults
- As directory defaults
Global defaults are set through the master Web server properties and can be inherited by all Web sites created on the server. Individual defaults are set through the Web Site Properties dialog box and apply only to the selected Web site. Directory defaults are set through the Directory Properties dialog box and apply only to the selected directory.
Web Site Naming and IdentificationThis section discusses Web site naming and identification techniques. Each Web site deployed in the organization has unique characteristics. Different types of Web sites can have different characteristics. Intranet Web sites typically use computer names that resolve locally and have private Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. Internet Web sites typically use fully qualified domain names and public IP addresses. Intranet and Internet Web sites can also use host header names, allowing single IP address and port assignments to serve multiple Web sites.
Understanding IP Addresses and Name ResolutionWhether you are configuring an intranet or Internet site, your Web server must be assigned a unique IP address that identifies the computer on the network. An IP address is a numeric identifier for the computer. IP addressing schemes vary depending on how your network is configured, but they're normally assigned from a range of addresses for a particular network segment. For example, if you're working with a computer on the network segment 22.214.171.124, the address range you have available for computers is usually from 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52.
While numeric addresses are easy for machines to remember, they aren't easy for people to remember. Because of this, computers are assigned text names that are easy to remember. Text names have two basic forms:
- Standard computer names, which are used on private networks
- Internet names, which are used on public networks
Private networks are networks that are either indirectly connected to the Internet or completely disconnected from the Internet. Private networks use IP addresses that are reserved for private use and aren't accessible to the public Internet. Private network addresses are:
Private networks that use Internet technologies are called intranets. Information is delivered on intranets by mapping a computer's IP address to its text name, which is the NetBIOS name assigned to the computer. While Windows components use the NetBIOS naming convention for name resolution, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) components use the Domain Name System (DNS). Under Microsoft Windows, the DNS host name defaults to the same name as the NetBIOS computer name. For example, if you install a server with a computer name of CorpServer, this name is assigned as the NetBIOS computer name and the default DNS host name.
In contrast, public networks are networks that are connected directly to the Internet. Public networks use IP addresses that are purchased or leased for public use. Typically, you'll obtain IP address assignments for your public servers from the provider of your organization's Internet services. Internet service providers obtain blocks of IP addresses from the American Registry for Internet Numbers. Other types of organizations can purchase blocks of IP addresses as well.
On the Internet, the DNS is used to resolve text names to IP addresses. A hypothetical DNS name is www.microsoft.com. Here, www identifies a server name and microsoft.com identifies a domain name. As with public IP addresses, domain names must be leased or purchased. You purchase domain names from name registrars, such as Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC). When a client computer requests a connection to a site using a domain name, the request is transmitted to a DNS server. The DNS server returns the IP address that corresponds to the requested host name, and then the client request is routed to the appropriate site.
Don't confuse the public DNS naming system used on the Internet with the private naming system used on intranets. DNS names are configured on DNS servers and resolved to IP addresses before contacting a server. This fact makes it possible for a server to have multiple IP addresses; each with a different DNS name. For example, a server with an internal computer name of Gandolf could be configured with IP addresses of 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168. If these IP addresses are configured as www.microsoft.com, services.microsoft.com, and products.microsoft.com, respectively, in DNS server, the server can respond to requests for each of these domain names.
Understanding Web Site IdentifiersEach Web site deployed in your organization has a unique identity it uses to receive and to respond to requests. The identity includes the following:
- A computer or DNS name
- An IP address
- A port number
- An optional host header name
The way these identifiers are combined to identify a Web site depends on whether the host server is on a private or public network. On a private network, a computer called CorpIntranet could have an IP address of 10.0.0.52. If so, the Web site on the server could be accessed in the following ways:
- Using the Uniform Naming Convention (UNC) path name: \\CorpIntranet or \\10.0.0.52
- Using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL): http://CorpIntranet/ or http://10.0.0.52/
- Using a URL and port number: http://CorpIntranet:80/ or http://10.0.0.52:80/
On a public network, a computer called Dingo could be registered to use the DNS name www.microsoft.com and the IP address of 22.214.171.124. If so, the Web site on the server could be accessed:
- Using a URL: http://www.microsoft.com/ or http://126.96.36.199/
- Using a URL and port number: http://www.microsoft.com:80/ or http://188.8.131.52:80/
Hosting Multiple Sites on a Single ServerUsing different combinations of IP addresses, port numbers, and host header names, one can host multiple sites on a single computer. Hosting multiple sites on a single server has definite advantages. For example, rather than installing three different Web servers, one could host www.microsoft.com, support.microsoft.com, and service.microsoft.com on the same Web server.
Windows 2000 Professional can host only one Web site and one FTP site. You must upgrade to Windows 2000 Server to host multiple Web or FTP sites.
One of the most efficient ways to host multiple sites on the same server is to assign multiple IP addresses to the server. An example is shown as Figure 3-1. To use this technique, you must follow these steps:
- Configure the TCP/IP settings on the server so that there is one IP address for each site that you want to host.
- Configure the name resolution system so that the host names and corresponding IP addresses can be resolved.
- Configure each Web site so that it uses a specific IP address.
With this technique, users can access the sites individually by typing the unique domain name or IP address in a browser. Following the example shown in Figure 3-1, you can access the Sales intranet by typing http://SalesIntranet/ or by typing http://10.0.0.102/.
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Figure 3-1. Using multiple IP addresses to host multiple Web sites on a single server.
Another technique you can use to host multiple sites on a single server is to assign each site a unique port number while keeping the same IP address, as shown in Figure 3-2. Users will then be able to
- Access the main site by typing the text name or IP address in a browser, such as http://Intranet/ or http://10.0.0.52/.
- Access other virtual servers by typing the domain name and port assignment or IP address and port assignment, such as http://Intranet:88/ or http://10.0.0.52:88/.
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Figure 3-2. Using multiple port numbers to host multiple Web sites on a single server.
The final method you can use to host multiple sites on a single server is to use host header names. Host headers allow you to host multiple sites on the same IP address and port number. The key to host headers is a DNS name assignment that is configured in the name resolution system and assigned to the site in its configuration.
An example of host header assignment is shown in Figure 3-3. Here, a single server hosts the sites CorpIntranet, EngIntranet, and SalesIntranet. The three sites use the same IP address and port number assignment but have different DNS names. To use host headers, you must do the following:
- Configure the name resolution system so that the host header names and corresponding IP addresses can be resolved.
- Configure the primary Web site so that it responds to requests on the IP address and port number you've assigned.
- Configure additional Web sites so that they use the same IP address and port number, and also assign a host header name.
Host headers have specific drawbacks. Earlier versions of browsers that don't support HTTP 1.1 are unable to pass host header names back to Internet Information Services (IIS). Although Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0, Netscape Navigator 2.0, and later versions of these browsers support the use of host header names, earlier versions of these browsers do not. Visitors using earlier browsers will reach the default Web site for the IP address.
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Figure 3-3. Using host headers to support multiple Web sites on a single server.
Another drawback to host headers is that you cannot use host headers with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). With SSL, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests are encrypted, and the host header name within the encrypted request cannot be used to determine the correct site to which the request must be routed.
Checking the Computer Name and IP Address of ServersBefore you configure Web sites, you should check the computer name and IP address of the server. You can view the computer name by completing the following steps:
- On the Windows Desktop, right-click My Computer, and then select Properties. This displays the System Properties dialog box.
- Click the Network Identification tab. The tab displays the fully qualified domain name of the server and the domain membership. The fully qualified domain name is the DNS name of the computer.
- The DNS name is the name that you normally use to access the IIS resources on the server. For example, if the DNS name of the computer is www.microsoft.com and you've configured a Web site on port 80, the URL you use to access the computer from the Internet is http://www.microsoft.com/.
You can change the computer and domain information by clicking Properties and entering new values. If 0the computer is a domain controller, you won't be able to make these changes without demoting the server. Keep in mind these settings reflect what the computer knows its name as. You must still create entries on a DNS server for proper name resolution.
You can view the IP address and other TCP/IP settings for the computer by completing the follow steps:
- Access Network And Dial-Up Connections by clicking Start, then Settings, and then selecting Network And Dial-Up Connections.
- Right-click Local Area Connection, and then select Properties. This opens the Local Area Connection dialog box.
- Open the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box by double-clicking on Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Or you could select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and then click Properties.
- The IP Address and other TCP/IP settings for the computer are displayed, as shown in Figure 3-4.
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Figure 3-4. Use the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box to view and configure TCP/IP settings.
IIS servers should use static IP addresses. If the computer is obtaining an IP address automatically, you'll need to reconfigure the TCP/IP settings. See Chapter 15, "Managing TCP/IP Networking," in Microsoft Windows 2000 Administrator�s Pocket Consultant for details.
Managing Master Web Service PropertiesThe master Web service properties are used to set default property values for new Web sites created on a server. Anytime you change global properties, existing Web sites may inherit the changes as well. In some cases, you'll have the opportunity to specify which sites and directories within sites inherit changes. In other cases, the changes are applied automatically to all existing Web sites and you aren't prompted to either accept or decline.
To change the master Web service properties for a server, follow these steps:
- In the Internet Information Services snap-in, right-click the icon for the computer you want to work with and then select Properties. If the computer isn't shown, connect to it as discussed in the "Connecting To Other Servers" section of Chapter 2, "Core IIS Administration," and then perform these tasks.
- In the Properties dialog box, on the Master Properties panel, make sure WWW Service is selected and click Edit. This opens the WWW Service Master Properties dialog box for the computer.
- Use the tabs and fields of the WWW Service Master Properties dialog box to configure the default property values for new Web sites. When you are finished making changes, click OK.
- Before applying changes for permissions and authentications, IIS checks the existing settings in use for all child nodes of the selected resource (if any). If a Web site or directory within a Web site uses a different value, an Inheritance Overrides dialog box is displayed. Use this dialog box to select the site and directory nodes that should use the new setting, and then click OK....
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