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Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Technologies Training Kit: Hands On Self Paced Training for Supporting Version 4.0
     

Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Technologies Training Kit: Hands On Self Paced Training for Supporting Version 4.0

by Microsoft Press, Microsoft Corporation
 

The goal of this course is to equip support professionals—who have prior experience supporting a Windows NT Server-based network—to design, implement, and support the Windows NT Server operating system in a multi-domain enterprise environment. Based on the Microsoft Official Curriculum, this training kit is a valuable resource to prepare for MCSE exams.

Overview

The goal of this course is to equip support professionals—who have prior experience supporting a Windows NT Server-based network—to design, implement, and support the Windows NT Server operating system in a multi-domain enterprise environment. Based on the Microsoft Official Curriculum, this training kit is a valuable resource to prepare for MCSE exams.

Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Provides complete, self-paced training for support professionals preparing for the Windows NT 4.0 certification exam. Step-by-step lessons, lab exercises, goals and objectives, and review material cover topics such as how to design and implement an optimization and performance strategy; increase network performance; create a measurement database; plan and deploy a Directory Services structure; identify files used in the load sequence; troubleshoot (repair damaged files; interpret error messages; use Kernel Debugger; and trace system dependencies, among other topics. Includes a CD-ROM with course materials, and a CD-ROM evaluation edition of the program. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781572317109
Publisher:
Microsoft Press
Publication date:
12/31/1997
Series:
Microsoft Training Kits Series
Edition description:
BK&CD-ROM
Pages:
908
Product dimensions:
7.59(w) x 9.50(h) x 3.07(d)

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 5: Server Monitoring and Optimization

Lesson 3: Performance Analysis, Forecasting, and Record Keeping

Once the measurement baseline has been implemented, system performance analysis and future resources allocation forecasting can begin. This lesson looks at the different Windows NT Server environments on which to determine workload performance, set expectations of system usage and availability, forecast future resources allocation, and establish and implement a plan for longterm record keeping.

After this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Define performance analysis.
  • Identify the various server environments.
  • Determine workload characterization.
  • Set expectations of system usage and availability.
  • Forecast future resources allocation.
  • Establish a plan for long-term record keeping.

Estimated lesson time: 25 minutes

Performance Analysis

Performance analysis focuses on determining workload characterization, setting expectations of system use and availability (responsiveness), forecasting future resource allocation, and establishing and implementing a long-term record keeping and long-term trend analysis.

Performance Analysis accomplishes many tasks such as:

  • Determining what is normal for the system, and how to deal with abnormalities.
  • Setting expectations of how the system or resource should respond, given a specific set of conditions.
  • Helping plan for system or resource upgrades and additions.
  • Facilitating better input into system budgeting requirements.

By properly analyzing and optimizing Windows NT Server, the overall system will perform in a satisfactory manner,and users are likely to be satisfied with server performance.

Windows NT Server Environments

Before analysis and optimization on a Windows NT Server can begin, determine the type of environment being analyzed. Windows NT Server environments generally fit into one of three categories: file and print server, application server, and domain server. Each of these involves different monitoring considerations and considerations on how to set expectations when performing server analysis and optimization. Chapter 2, lesson 2 defines the server roles in greater detail.

File and Print Server
A file and print server is usually accessed by users for data retrieval and document storage, and occasionally for loading application software over the network.

Application Server
An application server is accessed by users in a client/server environment. The server runs an applications engine that users access using a front-end application.

Domain Server
A domain server is a server that generates data transfer between itself and other servers. A primary domain controller (PDC), for example, synchronizes the accounts database with backup domain controllers (BDCs), or a windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) Server replicates its database with its replication partner. Domain servers also validate user logon requests.

Determining Workload Characterization

Before expectations can be set for a system, it is necessary to know what is being requested of the system. This process is called workload characterization. A workload unit is a list of service requests made on the system, or made on a specific resource on the system. Examples of workload units are the number of disk access attempts per second, the number of bytes transferred per second, or the process of receiving data from a server (the client sending a request over the net- work to the server, the server responding over the network to the client).

Determining workload characterization requires understanding what is happening in a specific environment. In a file and print server environment, the area of most concern is disk I/0 or the number of users accessing a server, whereas in an application server, the area of most concern is how much memory an application is using. That is not to say that memory usage is not important on a file and print server; rather, concentrate on the device that has the best chance of becoming a system bottleneck.

In a Windows NT Server environment, the two most common workload characteristics are the number of users the system can support, and the expected response time for a specific transaction or task (such as copying a file from the server) given a certain number of users on a specific set of hardware.

Determine what is important to each system by the type of work being performed. This is essential to proper server analysis and optimization.

System Bottlenecks

The data collected for a system sometimes indicates that a problem exists, as indicated in the graphic below....

During the process of determining workload characterization, it is possible to encounter a resource that is not performing properly. The response to file access requests, for example, may be much too long for the number of users accessing the server. In this case, a symptom of a bottleneck has been detected.

A bottleneck is the part of the system that is currently restricting work flow. Generally, it is the over-consumption of a specific resource. It may be that the disk controller or drive is extremely slow accessing data, or that the processor is running at 100 percent utilization, or that too many active processes need access to random access memory (RAM). Whatever is causing system responsiveness to suffer is the bottleneck.

It is very common that once one bottleneck has been identified and solved, another bottleneck appears. This new bottleneck was either unnoticed because of the severity of the previous bottleneck, or the new bottleneck was caused by solving the initial bottleneck. If the new bottleneck was caused by solving the initial bottleneck, the new bottleneck may have created more demand on another resource, causing it to become the restriction to work flow. Bottleneck detection is the process of isolating the hardware components that restrict the flow of your work.

System bottlenecks generally appear within the four major server analysis and optimization resources: memory, processor, the disk subsystem, and the network subsystem. Within a Windows NT environment, use Performance Monitor to monitor current activity to determine if any system bottlenecks are present....

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