Microsoft Windows Nt Server 4.0 Resource Kit (3 Vol. set) with CDROMby Microsoft Press, Microsoft Corporation Staff
Brought to you by the same team that produced the two previous bestselling editions of this kit, the newest version contains the most authoritative information available on Windows NTdirect from the source. This book is written by insiders with intimate knowledge about Microsoft Windows NT version 4which provides readers with unique insight into the
Brought to you by the same team that produced the two previous bestselling editions of this kit, the newest version contains the most authoritative information available on Windows NTdirect from the source. This book is written by insiders with intimate knowledge about Microsoft Windows NT version 4which provides readers with unique insight into the product from its creators.
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Chapter 10: Using LMHOSTS Files
Using LMHOSTS File to Find Computers and Services
Windows NT versions 4.0 and 3.5x provide name resolution services for both NetBIOS computer names and Domain Name System (DNS) host names on TCP/IP networks. For an overview of all the Windows NT name resolution services for TCP/IP networks, refer to the chapter "Implementation Considerations" in the Windows NT Server Networking Supplement.
The LMHOSTS file is one method of name resolution for NetBIOS name resolution for TCP/IP networks. The other NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) name resolution methods that are used, depending on the computer's configuration, are:
- NetBIOS name cache
- IP subnet broadcasts
- WINS NetBIOS name server
By installation default, a Windows NT-based computer not configured as a WINS client or WINS server, is a b-node computer. A b-node computer is one that uses IP broadcasts for NetBIOS name resolution.
IP broadcast name resolution can provide dynamic name resolution. However, the disadvantages of broadcast name queries include increased network traffic and ineffectiveness in routed networks. Resources located outside the local subnet do not receive IP broadcast name query requests because, by definition, IP-level broadcasts are not passed to remote subnets by the router (default gateway) on the local subnet.
As an alternate method to IP broadcasts, Windows NT enables you to manually provide NetBIOS name and IP address mappings for remote computers by using the LMHOSTS file. Selected mappings from the LMHOSTS file are maintained in a limited cache of NetBIOS computer names and IP address mappings. This memory cache is initialized when a computer is started. When the computer needs to resolve a name, the cache is examined first and, if there is no match in the cache, Windows NT uses b-node IP broadcasts to try to find the NetBIOS computer. If the IP broadcast name query fails, the complete LMHOSTS file (not just the cache) is parsed to find the NetBIOS name and the corresponding IP address. This strategy enables the LMHOSTS file to contain a large number of mappings, without requiring a large chunk of static memory to maintain an infrequently used cache.
The LMHOSTS file can be used to map computer names and IP addresses for computers outside the local subnet (an advantage over the b-node broadcast method). You can use the LMHOSTS file to find remote computers for network file, print, and remote procedure services and for domain services such as logons, browsing, replication, and so on.
The Windows NT-based LMHOSTS method of name resolution is compatible with Microsoft LAN Manager 2.x TCP/IP LMHOSTS files.
Locating Remote Computers
Computer names can be resolved outside the local broadcast subnet if the remote computer name and IP address mappings are specified in the LMHOSTS file. For example, suppose your computer, named ClientA, is configured without the WINS client service, but you want to use TCP/IP to connect to a computer, named ServerB, that is located on another TCP/IP subnet. By default, your computer is a b-node computer that uses NetBIOS cache and IP broadcasts, and is enabled for LMHOSTS file lookup, by using an LMHOSTS file provided by your network administrator.
At system startup, the name cache on ClientA is preloaded only with entries from the LMHOSTS file, defined as preloaded by a special keyword, the #PRE keyword. For this example, ServerB is on a remote subnet outside of your local subnet IP broadcast area and is not one of the entries in preloaded cache. A strict b-node IP broadcast (as defined in RFCs 1001 and 1002) fails by timing out when no response is received. In this example, ClientA's IP broadcast to locate ServerB will time out, because ServerB is located on a remote subnet and does not receive ClientA's broadcast requests.
This example is summarized in the following steps:
1. ClientA enters a Windows NT command, such as a print file command, using the NetBIOS name of ServerB.
2. The NetBIOS name cache on ClientA is checked for the IP address that corresponds to the NetBIOS name of ServerB.
3. Because ServerB was not preloaded, its NetBIOS name is not found in the name cache, and ClientA broadcasts a name request with the NetBIOS name of ServerB.
4. Because ServerB is on a remote network, ClientA does not receive a reply to its name request broadcast because IP broadcasts are not routed to remote subnets. (If ServerB were on the local network, ClientA would receive a response to its broadcast and the response would contain the IP address of ServerB.)
5. Because the LMHOSTS method has been enabled on ClientA, Windows NT continues to attempt to resolve the NetBIOS name to an IP address. The LMHOSTS file in the %systemroot%\System32\Drivers\Etc directory is examined to find the NetBIOS name, ServerB, and its corresponding IP address. If the NetBIOS name is not found in the LMHOSTS file, and no other name resolution method is configured on ClientA, an error message appears.
Specifying Domain Controllers
The most common use of the LMHOSTS file is to locate remote servers for file and print services. But the LMHOSTS file can also be used to find domain controllers providing domain services on routed TCP/IP networks. Examples of such domain controller activities include domain controller pulses (used for account database synchronization), logon authentication, password changes, master browser list synchronization, and other domain management activities.
Windows NT primary domain controllers (PDCs) and backup domain controllers (BDCs) maintain the user account security database and manage other networkrelated services. Because large Windows NT domains can span multiple IP subnets, it is possible that routers could separate the domain controllers from one another or separate other computers in the domain from the domain controllers. In a network that does not use WINS servers, LMHOSTS name resolution can be used to allow client computers to connect to domain controllers located across routers on different subnets.
Using Centralized LMHOSTS Files
The primary LMHOSTS file on each computer is always located in the %systemroot%\System32\Drivers\Etc directory. With Microsoft TCP/IP, you can include other LMHOSTS files from local and remote computers.
Network administrators can manage the LMHOSTS files used by computers on the network by providing one or more global LMHOSTS files on a central server. Windows NT-based computers on the network can be configured to import the correct and up-to-date computer name-to-IP-address mappings....
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