Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques / Edition 2

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Overview

The ultimate handbook on microwave circuit design with CAD. Full of tips and insights from seasoned industry veterans, Microwave Circuit Design offers practical, proven advice on improving the design quality of microwave passive and active circuits-while cutting costs and time. Covering all levels of microwave circuit design from the elementary to the very advanced, the book systematically presents computer-aided methods for linear and nonlinear designs used in the design and manufacture of microwave amplifiers, oscillators, and mixers. Using the newest CAD tools, the book shows how to design transistor and diode circuits, and also details CAD's usefulness in microwave integrated circuit (MIC) and monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Applications of nonlinear SPICE programs, now available for microwave CAD, are described. State-of-the-art coverage includes microwave transistors (HEMTs, MODFETs, MESFETs, HBTs, and more), high-power amplifier design, oscillator design including feedback topologies, phase noise and examples, and more. The techniques presented are illustrated with several MMIC designs, including a wideband amplifier, a low-noise amplifier, and an MMIC mixer. This unique, one-stop handbook also features a major case study of an actual anticollision radar transceiver, which is compared in detail against CAD predictions; examples of actual circuit designs with photographs of completed circuits; and tables of design formulae.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"I would like to have this book for my graduate study…the book is definitely for graduate students or practicing engineers." (IEEE Circuits & Devices Magazine, September/October 2006)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471414797
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/28/2005
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1080
  • Product dimensions: 7.34 (w) x 10.14 (h) x 2.43 (d)

Meet the Author

GEORGE D. VENDELIN, ENGEE, is a technical consultant with more than forty years of microwave engineering design and teaching experience. His clients include Texas Instruments, Anritsu, Ford Aerospace/Loral Space & Communications/Lockheed Martin, Litton/Filtronics, and many others through his consulting firm, Vendelin Engineering. He is the author of Design of Amplifiers and Oscillators by the S-Parameter Method (Wiley). He is an adjunct professor at Stanford University, Santa Clara University, San Jose State University, and the University of California, Berkeley–Extension.

ANTHONY M. PAVIO, PHD, is the Manager of the Phoenix Design Center for Rockwell Collins, which is focused on the development of advanced high-density military products. He was previously the manager of Integrated RF Ceramics Center for Motorola Labs, specializing in the development of highly integrated LTCC modules. Dr. Pavio was also a technical director of the microwave products division of Texas Instruments.

ULRICH L. ROHDE, PHD, Dr.-ING, is Chairman of Synergy Microwave Corporation; a partner of Rohde & Schwarz, a firm specializing in test equipment and advanced communications systems; and Professor of Microwave and RF Technology at the Technische Universität Cottbus, Germany.

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Table of Contents

FOREWORD xv
ROBERT A. PUCEL

PREFACE xix

1 RF MICROWAVE SYSTEMS 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Maxwell’s Equations 10

1.3 RF Wireless Microwave Millimeter-Wave Applications 12

1.4 Frequency Bands, Modes, and Waveforms of Operation 17

1.5 Analog and Digital Requirements 18

1.6 Elementary Definitions 20

1.7 Basic RF Transmitters and Receivers 26

1.8 Modern CAD for Nonlinear Circuit Analysis 29

1.9 Dynamic Load Line 30

References 31

Bibliography 32

Problems 33

2 LUMPED AND DISTRIBUTED ELEMENTS 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Transition from RF to Microwave Circuits 35

2.3 Parasitic Effects on Lumped Elements 38

2.4 Distributed Elements 45

2.5 Hybrid Element: Helical Coil 46

References 47

Bibliography 49

Problems 50

3 ACTIVE DEVICES 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Diodes 53

3.3 Microwave Transistors 103

3.4 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor 144

3.5 Microwave FET 150

References 183

Bibliography 187

Problems 190

4 TWO-PORT NETWORKS 192

4.1 Introduction 192

4.2 Two-Port Parameters 193

4.3 S Parameters 197

4.4 S Parameters from SPICE Analysis 198

4.5 Stability 199

4.6 Power Gains, Voltage Gain, and Current Gain 202

4.7 Three-Ports 210

4.8 Derivation of Transducer Power Gain 213

4.9 Differential S Parameters 215

4.10 Twisted-Wire Pair Lines 218

4.11 Low-Noise and High-Power Amplifier Design 221

4.12 Low-Noise Amplifier Design Examples 224

References 233

Bibliography 234

Problems 234

5 IMPEDANCE MATCHING 241

5.1 Introduction 241

5.2 Smith Charts and Matching 241

5.3 Impedance Matching Networks 249

5.4 Single-Element Matching 250

5.5 Two-Element Matching 251

5.6 Matching Networks Using Lumped Elements 252

5.7 Matching Networks Using Distributed Elements 253

5.8 Bandwidth Constraints for Matching Networks 257

References 267

Bibliography 268

Problems 268

6 MICROWAVE FILTERS 273

6.1 Introduction 273

6.2 Low-Pass Prototype Filter Design 274

6.3 Transformations 279

6.4 Transmission Line Filters 291

6.5 Exact Designs and CAD Tools 305

6.6 Real-Life Filters 305

References 309

Bibliography 309

Problems 310

7 NOISE IN LINEAR TWO-PORTS 311

7.1 Introduction 311

7.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratio 313

7.3 Noise Figure Measurements 315

7.4 Noise Parameters and Noise Correlation Matrix 317

7.5 Noisy Two-Port Description 326

7.6 Noise Figure of Cascaded Networks 332

7.7 Influence of External Parasitic Elements 334

7.8 Noise Circles 338

7.9 Noise Correlation in Linear Two-Ports Using Correlation Matrices 340

7.10 Noise Figure Test Equipment 343

7.11 How to Determine Noise Parameters 345

7.12 Calculation of Noise Properties of Bipolar and FETs 346

7.13 Bipolar Transistor Noise Model in T Configuration 359

7.14 The GaAs FET Noise Model 367

References 381

Bibliography 383

Problems 385

8 SMALL- AND LARGE-SIGNAL AMPLIFIER DESIGN 388

8.1 Introduction 388

8.2 Single-Stage Amplifier Design 390

8.3 Frequency Multipliers 416

8.4 Design Example of 1.9-GHz PCS and 2.1-GHz W-CDMA Amplifiers 420

8.5 Stability Analysis and Limitations 422

References 426

Bibliography 429

Problems 431

9 POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN 433

9.1 Introduction 433

9.2 Device Modeling and Characterization 434

9.3 Optimum Loading 464

9.4 Single-Stage Power Amplifier Design 466

9.5 Multistage Design 472

9.6 Power-Distributed Amplifiers 480

9.7 Class of Operation 500

9.8 Power Amplifier Stability 509

9.9 Amplifier Linearization Methods 512

References 514

Bibliography 518

Problems 519

10 OSCILLATOR DESIGN 520

10.1 Introduction 520

10.2 Compressed Smith Chart 525

10.3 Series or Parallel Resonance 526

10.4 Resonators 528

10.5 Two-Port Oscillator Design 544

10.6 Negative Resistance from Transistor Model 550

10.7 Oscillator Q and Output Power 559

10.8 Noise in Oscillators: Linear Approach 563

10.9 Analytic Approach to Optimum Oscillator Design Using S Parameters 591

10.10 Nonlinear Active Models for Oscillators 605

10.11 Oscillator Design Using Nonlinear Cad Tools 617

10.12 Microwave Oscillators Performance 631

10.13 Design of an Oscillator Using Large-Signal Y Parameters 634

10.14 Example for Large-Signal Design Based on Bessel Functions 637

10.15 Design Example for Best Phase Noise and Good Output Power 641

10.16 CAD Solution for Calculating Phase Noise in Oscillators 650

10.17 Validation Circuits 666

10.18 Analytical Approach for Designing Efficient Microwave FET and Bipolar Oscillators (Optimum Power) 674

References 703

Bibliography 707

Problems 718

11 MICROWAVE MIXER DESIGN 724

11.1 Introduction 724

11.2 Diode Mixer Theory 728

11.3 Single-Diode Mixers 743

11.4 Single-Balanced Mixers 753

11.5 Double-Balanced Mixers 769

11.6 FET Mixer Theory 794

11.7 Balanced FET Mixers 818

11.8 Special Mixer Circuits 832

11.9 Using Modern CAD Tools 843

11.10 Mixer Noise 850

References 863

Bibliography 866

Problems 867

12 RF SWITCHES AND ATTENUATORS 869

12.1 pin Diodes 869

12.2 pin Diode Switches 872

12.3 pin Diode Attenuators 881

12.4 FET Switches 886

References 889

Bibliography 890

13 MICROWAVE COMPUTER-AIDED WORKSTATIONS FOR MMIC REQUIREMENTS 891

13.1 Introduction 891

13.2 Gallium Arsenide MMIC Foundries: Role of CAD 897

13.3 Yield-Driven Design 901

13.4 Designing Nonlinear Circuits Using the Harmonic Balance Method 905

13.5 Programmable Microwave Tuning System 914

13.6 Introduction to MMIC Considering Layout Effects 920

13.7 GaAs MMIC Layout Software 927

13.8 Practical Design Example 930

13.9 CAD Applications 935

Bibliography 956

Appendix A BIP: GUMMEL–POON BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR MODEL 959

Appendix B LEVEL 3 MOSFET 966

Appendix C NOISE PARAMETERS OF GaAs MESFETs 969

Appendix D DERIVATIONS FOR UNILATERAL GAIN SECTION 982

Appendix E VECTOR REPRESENTATION OF TWO-TONE

INTERMODULATION PRODUCTS 985

Appendix F PASSIVE MICROWAVE ELEMENTS 1005

INDEX 1027

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