Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan's Military Economy

Overview

Pakistan has emerged as a strategic ally of the United States in the "war on terror." It is the third largest recipient of U.S. aid in the world. But how stable is Pakistan? Ayesha Siddiqa shows how the military has gradually gained control of Pakistan's political, social, and economic resources. T his power has transformed Pakistani society, where the armed forces have become an independent class.

The military is entrenched in the corporate sector and controls the country's ...

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Overview

Pakistan has emerged as a strategic ally of the United States in the "war on terror." It is the third largest recipient of U.S. aid in the world. But how stable is Pakistan? Ayesha Siddiqa shows how the military has gradually gained control of Pakistan's political, social, and economic resources. T his power has transformed Pakistani society, where the armed forces have become an independent class.

The military is entrenched in the corporate sector and controls the country's largest companies and large tracts of real estate. So Pakistan's companies and its main assets are in the hands of a tiny minority of senior army officials. Siddiqa examines this military economy and the consequences of merging the military and corporate sectors. Does democracy have a future in the new Pakistan? Will the generals ever withdraw to the barracks. Military Inc. analyzes the internal and external dynamics of this gradual power-building and the impact that it is having on Pakistan's political and economic development.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780745325453
  • Publisher: Pluto Press
  • Publication date: 5/9/2007
  • Pages: 292
  • Product dimensions: 6.04 (w) x 8.97 (h) x 0.74 (d)

Table of Contents


Acknowledgements     ix
List of acronyms     x
Introduction     1
Defining Milbus     4
Literature survey     8
What drives Milbus?     10
Consequences of Milbus     13
Milbus and Pakistan     18
Outline of the book     24
Milbus: a theoretical concept     30
Civil-military relations framework     30
A typology of civil-military relations     33
The civil-military partnership type     36
The authoritarian-political-military partnership type     41
The ruler military type     43
The arbitrator military type     47
The parent-guardian military type     51
The warlord type     55
The Pakistan military: the development of praetorianism, 1947-77     58
The military institution     59
The military's primary role     62
The military's secondary role     64
The military in politics and governance     65
Initiation to power, 1947-58     69
The rise to power, 1958-71     72
Returning to democracy, 1971-7     77
Evolution of the military class, 1977-2005     83
The coercive military, 1977-88     84
A thorny partnership, 1988-99     91
Consolidation of power, 1999-2005     95
Evolving into a military class     106
The structure of Milbus     112
The economic empire     112
The organization     114
The subsidiaries     117
The members     126
Milbus: the formative years, 1954-77     129
Setting up the economic empire, 1954-69     129
The era of restraint, 1969-77     135
Expansion of Milbus, 1977-2005     139
Re-establishing financial autonomy, 1977-88     139
Civilian-military politico-economic integration, 1988-99     151
Consolidating the economic interests, 1999-2005     166
The new land barons     174
The military and land     174
Urban land acquisition     185
The sociology of military land     200
Providing for the men: military welfare     206
Military welfare     206
The Fauji Foundation model     209
The AWT model     210
Welfare for individuals     211
The political geography of military welfare     213
The cost of Milbus      219
The cost of economic inefficiency     219
Army Welfare Trust: a financial assessment     220
Fauji Foundation     227
Shaheen Foundation     232
Resource pilferage     233
Frontier Works Organization     234
Economic opportunity cost     235
Milbus and the future of Pakistan     243
Recapping Milbus     243
Milbus in Pakistan     244
Milbus and military professionalism     244
The politics of Pakistan     248
The impact of Milbus in the future     251
Notes     253
References     272
Index     287
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