Minds and Computers: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

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Could a computer have a mind? What kind of machine would this be? Exactly what do we mean by 'mind' anyway?The notion of the 'intelligent' machine, whilst continuing to feature in numerous entertaining and frightening fictions, has also been the focus of a serious and dedicated research tradition. Reflecting on these fictions, and on the research tradition that pursues 'Artificial Intelligence', raises a number of vexing philosophical issues. Minds and Computers introduces readers to these issues by offering an engaging, coherent, and highly approachable interdisciplinary introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.Readers are presented with introductory material from each of the disciplines which constitute Cognitive Science: Philosophy, Neuroscience, Psychology, Computer Science, and Linguistics. Throughout, readers are encouraged to consider the implications of this disparate and wide-ranging material for the possibility of developing machines with minds. And they can expect to de
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780748620982
  • Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
  • Publication date: 8/21/2007
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Matt Carter is Lecturer in Philosophy at the Melbourne University

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements     ix
Introduction     1
Dualism     4
Substance Dualism     4
Cartesian Dualism     5
Positive Arguments for Cartesian Dualism     5
The Argument from Religion     6
The Argument from Introspective Appearance     7
The Argument from Essential Properties     8
Arguments against Cartesian Dualism     9
The Problem of Other Minds     9
Ockham's Razor     10
The Problem of Interaction     11
Other Dualisms     12
Parallelism     12
Occasionalism     13
Epiphenomenalism     13
Anomalous Monism     14
Behaviourism     15
Early Empirical Psychology     15
Physiological Psychology     16
Introspectionist Psychology     17
Psychological Behaviourism     20
Philosophical Behaviourism     23
Objections to Philosophical Behaviourism     24
Neuroanatomy     27
Macro-Neuroanatomy     27
Micro-Neuroanatomy     32
Australian Materialism     35
The Causal Theory of Mind     36
The Identity Theory     37
Arguments against Australian Materialism     38
What Mary Didn't Know     42
Functionalism     44
Functional Definition     44
A Black Box Theory     45
Qualia Objections     48
Formal Systems     52
Effectivity     53
States and Rules     57
Specification     58
Generation and Derivation     61
Generation Trees     64
Formality and Isomorphism     67
Computability     70
Register Machines     70
Programs     71
Running a Program     73
Computation     75
Computable Functions     76
Building Programs     79
Universal Machines     85
Church/Turing Thesis     86
Godel Coding     88
A Universal Machine     92
Computationalism     94
What Computationalism Isn't     95
Software and Wetware     99
Variation     101
Learning     103
Creativity     106
Attributing Mentality      108
Search     113
Top Down, Bottom Up     113
Breadth Versus Depth     115
Heuristic Search     117
Games     122
A Simple Game     122
Minimax     125
Pruning     127
Humans Versus Computers     128
Machine Reasoning     132
Logic and Deduction     132
Conditionality and Predication     134
Kinship     137
Expert Systems     141
Machines and Language     145
Interpreting Language     145
Generative Grammar     149
Phrase Structure Trees     150
Computing Language     152
Human Reasoning     154
Following Logically     156
Rational Performance     157
Mental Models     160
Explanatory Burden     161
Human Language     164
Obstruent Phonemes     165
Sonorant Phonemes     167
Allophones and Phonetic Realisation     170
First-Language Acquisition     172
Language and Rules     173
Meaning     175
The Chinese Room      175
Syntax and Semantics     177
Representation     181
Intentionality     181
Categories and Content     183
Symbols and Patterns     184
Cognitive Architecture     185
Artificial Neural Networks     187
Connectionist Architecture     187
Simple Artificial Neural Networks     189
Synthesising Speech     191
Learning     196
Pattern Recognition     198
Two Paradigms?     199
It's Only a Model     200
Minds and Computers     202
Consciousness     202
Personal Identity     203
Emotions     205
Computers with Minds     206
Suggestions for Further Reading     207
Glossary of Terms     211
Index     218
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