Mixed Blessing

Overview

Invidious distinctions on the basis of race and overt racism were central features in American colonial policy in the Philippines from 1898 to 1947, as America transported its domestic racial policy to the island colony. This collection by young Filipino scholars analyzes American colonialism and its impact on administration and attitudes in the Philippines through the prism of American racial tradition, a structural concept which refers to beliefs, attitudes, images, classifications, laws, and social customs ...

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Overview

Invidious distinctions on the basis of race and overt racism were central features in American colonial policy in the Philippines from 1898 to 1947, as America transported its domestic racial policy to the island colony. This collection by young Filipino scholars analyzes American colonialism and its impact on administration and attitudes in the Philippines through the prism of American racial tradition, a structural concept which refers to beliefs, attitudes, images, classifications, laws, and social customs that shape race relations and racial formation in multiracial and colonial societies. The dominance of this tradition was manifested in the wanton prerogatives of the U.S. Congress and others who helped to carry out colonial policy in the region.

The Spanish flexible racial tradition had resulted in a system based on ethnicity and class as determinants of social and economic structure, while the rigid U.S. racial tradition assigned race the more dominant role. The cultural affinity between the early individual American administrators and the Filipino elite, however, meant that class-based distinctions in the islands were not broken up. Thus, the extreme elitist character of the Philippines' economy and society persisted and became impervious to the influences which in other Asian countries led to a progressive weakening of elite structures as the 20th century advanced.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

HAZEL M. MCFERSON is Associate Professor of International Studies, Department of Public and International Affairs, and Associate at the Institute of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia.

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Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface and Acknowledgments
1 Introduction 1
Pt. I Culture and Identity
2 Filipino Identity and Self-Image in Historical Perspective 13
3 Race and Culture in Spanish and American Colonial Policies 43
4 "Benevolent Assimilation" and Filipino Responses 75
5 The Role of Education in Americanizing Filipinos 89
6 Kayumanggi versus Maputi: 100 Years of America's White Aesthetics in Philippine Literature 99
Pt. II Society and Politics
7 The American Influence on Philippine Political and Constitutional Tradition 135
8 Shaping the Filipino Nation: The Role of Civil Society 145
9 Women in Philippine Politics and Society 159
10 American Rule in the Muslim South and the Philippine Hinterlands 191
11 Cacique Democracy and Future Prospects in the Philippines 209
App. 1 Annotated Chronology of Selected Events in Philippine-American Relations 241
App. 2 Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain, December 10, 1898 261
App. 3 Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation by President William McKinley, December 21, 1898 267
App. 4 Philippine Exhibitions at U.S. World's Fairs and Expositions 269
App. 5 The Land Tenancy Issue 273
Index 277
About the Editor and Contributors 285
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