Mixed Crystals

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642816741
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 3/23/2012
  • Series: Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences , #33
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 408
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.84 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 1.1 The Early History.- 1.2 Developments of the Twentieth Century.- 1.3 Outline of the Book.- 2. Phase Diagrams.- 2.1 Fundamentals.- 2.2 Conditions of Stability in Mixed Crystals.- 2.3 Types of Phase Diagrams.- 2.3.1 Crystallization of Two Pure Components from the Liquid Phase.- 2.3.2 Unlimited Solubility.- 2.3.3 Limited Solubility.- 2.3.4 Component Forming a Complex.- 2.3.5 Intermediate Phases.- 2.3.6 Transformations in the Solid State.- 2.3.7 Phase Diagrams of Optical Enantiomers.- 2.4 Determination of Phase Diagrams.- 2.4.1 Differential Thermal Analysis.- 2.4.2 X-Ray Phase Analysis of Polycrystalline Specimens.- 2.4.3 Growth of Mixed Single Crystals.- 2.4.4 Method of Contacting Specimens.- 3. Particle Packing in a Crystal.- 3.1 Elements of the Theory of Space Lattices.- 3.2 Geometric Model.- 3.2.1 Close-Packed Spheres.- 3.2.2 Representation of Atoms by Spheres.- 3.2.3 Representation of Atoms by Truncated Spheres.- 3.2.4 Hexagonal Packing.- 3.2.5 Body-Centered Cubic Structure.- 3.2.6 Ionic Crystals.- 3.2.7 Molecular Crystals.- 3.3 Structure of Single-Phase Mixed Crystals.- 3.3.1 Ordered Crystals.- 3.3.2 Disordered Crystals.- 3.3.3 Degree of Long-Range Order.- 3.3.4 Static Concentration Waves.- 3.3.5 Short-Range Order.- 3.3.6 Size and Shape Factors.- 4. Free Energy of a Solid Solution.- 4.1 General Formula for the Free Energy.- 4.2 Solid Solution Characterized by One Interaction Parameter.- 4.2.1 Free Energy of Mixing.- 4.2.2 The Ordering Model.- 4.3 Limited Solubility.- 4.3.1 Relationship Between the Energy of Mixing and Solubility.- 4.3.2 The Calculation of Solubility by a Given Substitution Scheme.- 4.4 Permutation of Particles in a Rigid Lattice.- 4.5 Lattice Distortions.- 4.6 Thermal Vibrations.- 5. Heterophase Systems.- 5.1 Eutectic Crystallization.- 5.1.1 Mechanism of Uncontrolled Crystallization.- 5.1.2 Unidirectional Crystallization.- 5.2 Decomposition of Solid Solutions.- 6. X-Ray Scattering.- 6.1 X-Ray Scattering by a Single Crystal.- 6.2 Scattering by One- and Two-Dimensional Systems.- 6.3 Thermal Vibrations.- 6.4 X-Ray Diffraction by Solid Solutions.- 6.4.1 Lattice Distortions.- 6.4.2 Structure of the Average Unit Cell.- 6.5 X-Ray Diffuse Scattering by Solid Solutions.- 6.5.1 Short-Range Order.- 6.5.2 Energy of Mixing.- 6.6 X-Ray Structure Analysis.- 7. Intermetallic Compounds.- 7.1 Classification Schemes for Intermetallic Compounds.- 7.2 Geometrical Analysis.- 7.3 AB Compounds.- 7.3.1 AuCu Type.- 7.3.2 CsCl Type.- 7.3.3 NaTl Type.- 7.3.4 Zinc Blende (ZnS) Type.- 7.3.5 NiAs Type.- 7.3.6 NaC1 Type.- 7.4 Compounds AB2.- 7.4.1 MgCu2 Type.- 7.4.2 AlB2 Type.- 7.4.3 CuAl2 Type.- 7.4.4 MgZn2 Type.- 7.5 Compounds AB3.- 7.5.1 SiCr3 Type.- 7.5.2 Type BiF3.- 7.5.3 AuCu3 Type.- 7.6 Number 13.- 7.6.1 Compounds AB13.- 7.6.2 Compounds AmBn with m = 1 and n=12.- 7.6.3 Compounds AmBn with m = 2 and n=11.- 7.6.4 Compounds AmBn with m = 3 and n=10.- 7.6.5 Compounds AmBn with m = 4 and n= 9.- 7.6.6 Compounds AmBn with m = 5 and n= 8.- 7.6.7 Compounds AmBn with m = 7 and n= 6.- 7.7 Close-Packing Principle for Intermetallic Compounds.- 8. Solid Solutions of Metals.- 8.1 Unlimited Solubility.- 8.1.1 Elements with the fcc Lattice.- 8.1.2 Elements with the HCP Lattice.- 8.1.3 Elements with the bcc Lattice.- 8.2 Terminal Solid Solutions.- 8.3 Solid Solutions on the Basis of Intermetallic Compounds.- 8.4 Ordering.- 8.4.1 Investigation of the Order-Disorder Transition by X-Ray Diffuse Scattering.- 8.4.2 Disorder in Cu3Au.- 8.4.3 Fe-Al Phase Diagram.- 8.4.4 Determination of the Degree of Long-Range Order by X-Ray Diffraction.- 8.4.5 Short-Range Order.- 9. Inorganic Solid Solutions.- 9.1 Isomorphous Substitutions in Alkali Halide Salts.- 9.2 Effect of the Difference in Ionic Size on the Solubility Limits in Systems of Inorganic Compounds.- 9.3 Theory of Ionic Substitutional Solid Solutions.- 9.3.1 General Remarks.- 9.3.2 Review of Suggested Theories.- 9.4 Interstitial Solid Solutions.- 10. Conditions of Formation of Substitutional Organic Solid Solutions.- 10.1 Geometrical Analysis of Substitution.- 10.1.1 Major Rule of Solubility.- 10.1.2 Exceptions to the Basic Rule of Solubility.- 10.2 Conditions of Continuous Solubility.- 10.2.1 Crystals of the Components Belonging to the Same Structure Type.- 10.2.2 Continuous Loss of Symmetry.- 10.3 Energy Calculations.- 10.3.1 Approximate Estimation of Mixing Energy.- 10.3.2 Possibility of Calculating Phase Diagrams.- 10.4 Unit-Cell Dimensions of Solid Solutions.- 10.4.1 Lattice Loosening.- 10.4.2 Interblock Solubility.- 11. Ordering in Organic Solid Solutions.- 11.1 One-Component Crystals with Orientational Disorder.- 11.1.1 Disorder with Increase in Crystal Symmetry.- 11.1.2 Disorder with No Increase in Crystal Symmetry.- 11.2 Orientational Disorder in Binary Systems.- 11.2.1 Disorder Due to Admixture Molecules.- 11.2.2 Lattices with Crystallographically Inequivalent Positions.- 12. Structures of Organic Solid Solutions.- 12.1 Diphenyl-2,2?-Dipyridyl [12.2,3].- 12.2 Para-Dibromobenzene — Para-Chloronitrobenzene [12.4].- 12.3 Acenaphthene ——-Nitronaphthalene [12.8].- 12.4 Naphthalene — Coumarine [12.11].- 12.5 Dicarboxylic Acids [12.21,22].- 12.6 Naphthalene and Its— Derivatives [10.14,16,11.25].- 12.7 Solid Solutions of Optically Active Substances or Enantiomers.- 12.7.1 Carvoxime.- 12.7.2 Carvoximebenzene [12.34].- 12.8 Durene-Para-Dibromobenzene [12.36].- 12.8.1 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis.- 12.8.2 Substitution Energy Computation.- 12.8.3 Probability Calculations of Different Guest Molecule Orientations.- 12.8.4 Calculation for Oriented Short-Range Order Correlation.- 12.9 Tolane Diphenylmercury [12.391.- 12.9.1 Diphenylmercury Phase.- 12.9.2 Tolane Phase.- 12.9.3 Diffuse X-Ray Scattering Studies.- 13. Complexes.- 13.1 Quasi-Valence Bonds Between Molecules of the Components.- 13.2 Complexes of Aromatic and Nitro Compounds.- 13.3 Packing Complexes.- 13.3.1 Hydroquinone-Based Clathrates.- 13.3.2 Clathrate Hydrates.- 13.3.3 Urea and Thiourea Complexes.- 13.3.4 Inclusion of Molecules into Intramolecular Cavities: Tri-o-Thymotide and Cyclodextrin Complexes.- 13.3.5 Inclusion of Molecules into Intermolecular Voids.- 13.3.6 Non-Inclusion Complexes.- 13.4 Layered Complexes.- 14. Polymers.- 14.1 The Structure of Polymeric Materials.- 14.1.1 A Polymer Molecule.- 14.1.2 Packing of Polymer Molecules.- 14.2 The Structure of Polymer Blends.- 14.2.1 Both Polymers are Amorphous.- 14.2.2 One Component Crystallizes.- 14.2.3 Both Components Crystallize.- 14.2.4 Some Remarks on the Technology of Polymer Blends.- 14.3 Block Copolymers.- 14.3.1 Packing of Molecules.- a) Layered Structures.- b) Hexagonal Structures.- c) Cubic Structure.- d) Segment Copolymers.- 14.3.2 Deformation of Block Copolymers.- 14.4 Solid Solutions.- 14.4.1 Solid Solutions of a Polymer in a Monomer.- 14.4.2 Limited Solubility of Low-Molecular-Weight Substances in a Solid Polymer.- 14.5 Deformation of an Eutectic Mixture.- 14.6 Crystalline Complexes of a Polymer and a Low-Molecular-Weight Compound.- 15. Biopolymers.- 15.1 Proteins.- 15.1.1 Globular Proteins.- 15.1.2 Protein Crystals.- 15.2 Systems Based on DNA Molecules.- 15.2.1 DNA Crystals.- 15.2.2 Chromosomes.- 15.2.3 Viruses.- References.
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