The Mixed Methods Reader / Edition 1

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The Mixed Methods Reader provides a collection of key methodological writings in mixed methods research along with a collection of exemplar studies. This unique cross-disciplinary volume helps define the "literature" of mixed methods research. Selections are drawn from the international literature that has appeared across diverse research disciplines over the past 30 years.
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Editorial Reviews

Heather T. Zeng
"It premieres the most adept researchers in the field who have bravely and soundly followed mixed methodology approaches."
Gineida Morales-Guasch
"Excellent book for students gaining a masters or doctorial degree."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412951456
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 12/4/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 640
  • Sales rank: 152,458
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Vicki L. Plano Clark (Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln) is an assistant professor in the Quantitative and Mixed Methods Research Methodologies concentration of Educational Studies at the University of Cincinnati. Her teaching focuses on foundations of research methodologies and mixed methods research, including a two-semester mixed methods sequence and special topics courses. As a methodologist specializing in mixed methods research, her scholarship aims to delineate useful designs for conducting mixed methods research, examine procedural issues associated with these designs, and consider larger questions about the contexts for the adoption and use of mixed methods. She has also co-authored several books with John W. Creswell including Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (SAGE, 2007, 2011), The Mixed Methods Reader (SAGE, 2008), and Understanding Research: A Consumer’s Guide (Pearson Education, 2010, 2015). She was the founding Managing Editor for the Journal of Mixed Methods Research and currently serves as an Associate Editor. In 2011, she co-led the development of Best Practices for Mixed Methods in the Health Sciences for NIH's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. She is a founding co-editor of SAGE’s Mixed Methods Research Series.

As an applied research methodologist, Vicki also engages in research and evaluation projects on a wide array of topics such as the management of cancer pain, the identity development of STEM graduate students, the professional development of teachers of Chinese, and the effectiveness of school reform initiatives. Before joining the University of Cincinnati, she was the director of the Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research, a service and research unit that provides methodological support for proposal development and funded projects at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Originally trained in physics, she spent 12 years developing innovative curricular materials for introductory physics as the Physics Laboratory Manager at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

John W. Creswell is a Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He has authored numerous articles on mixed methods research, qualitative methodology, and general research design in 26 books (including new editions). He held the Clifton Institute Endowed Professor Chair for five years at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. For the last five years, Dr. Creswell served as a co-director at the Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He served as the founding Co-Editor for the SAGE journal, the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, and worked as an Adjunct Professor of Family Medicine at the University of Michigan. He also worked extensively as a consultant in the health services research area for the Veterans Administration. Dr. Creswell was a Senior Fulbright Scholar to South Africa in 2008 and to Thailand in 2012. In 2011 he served as a co-leader of a national working group at NIH developing “best practices” for mixed methods research in the health sciences. In spring 2013, Dr. Creswell was a Visiting Professor at Harvard’s School of Public Health. In 2014, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Recently, he has been elected President of the Mixed Methods International Research Association for 2014-2015. He has also assumed the role of the Director of the College of Education and Human Sciences Mixed Methods Training Academy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. His newest book, “A Concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research” was published by SAGE Publications in April 2014.

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Table of Contents

List of Editors' Introduction Figures     xiv
Introduction     xv
Purpose of the Reader     xvi
Audience     xvi
Organization     xvii
Acknowledgments     xviii
Methodological Selections     1
The Evolution of Mixed Methods Research     5
Selection: Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (1998)
Introduction to mixed method and mixed model studies in the social and behavioral sciences. In Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches (pp. 3-19). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage     5
Editors' Introduction     5
Discussion Questions and Applications     6
Related References That Extend the Topic     6
Selected Reading: Introduction to Mixed Method and Mixed Model Studies in the Social and Behavioral Sciences     7
Pragmatism as a Philosophical Foundation for Mixed Methods Research     27
Selection: Morgan, D. L. (2007). Paradigms lost and pragmatism regained: Methodological implications of combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 48-76     27
Editors' Introduction     27
Discussion Questions and Applications     28
Related References That Extend the Topic     28
Selected Reading: Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: MethodologicalImplications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods     29
The Transformative-Emancipatory Perspective as a Philosophical Foundation for Mixed Methods Research     66
Selection: Mertens, D. M. (2003). Mixed methods and the politics of human research: The transformative-emancipatory perspective. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 135-164). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage     66
Editors' Introduction     66
Discussion Questions and Applications     67
Related References That Extend the Topic     67
Selected Reading: Mixed Methods and the Politics of Human Research: The Transformative-Emancipatory Perspective     68
Triangulation as the First Mixed Methods Design     105
Selection: Jick, T. D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 602-611     105
Editors' Introduction     105
Discussion Questions and Applications     106
Related References That Extend the Topic     106
Selected Reading: Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action     107
Identifying the Purposes for Mixed Methods Designs     119
Selection: Greene, J. C., Caracelli, V. J., & Graham, W. F. (1989). Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(3), 255-274     119
Editors' Introduction     119
Discussion Questions and Applications     120
Related References That Extend the Topic     120
Selected Reading: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Mixed-Method Evaluation Designs     121
A Notation System for Mixed Methods Designs     149
Selection: Morse, J. M. (1991). Approaches to qualitative-quantitative methodological triangulation. Nursing Research, 40, 120-123     149
Editors' Introduction     149
Discussion Questions and Applications     150
Related References That Extend the Topic     150
Selected Reading: Approaches to Qualitative-Quantitative Methodological Triangulation     151
An Expanded Typology for Classifying Mixed Methods Research Into Designs     159
Selection: Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 209-240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage     159
Editors' Introduction     159
Discussion Questions and Applications     160
Related References That Extend the Topic     160
Selected Reading: Advanced Mixed Methods Research Designs     161
Different Sampling Techniques for Mixed Methods Studies     197
Selection: Teddlie, C., & Yu, F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 77-100     197
Editors' Introduction     197
Discussion Questions and Applications     198
Related References That Extend the Topic     198
Selected Reading: Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples     199
Data Analysis Strategies in Mixed Methods Research     229
Selection: Caracelli, V. J., & Greene, J. C. (1993). Data analysis strategies for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15(2), 195-207     229
Editors' Introduction     229
Discussion Questions and Applications     230
Related References That Extend the Topic     230
Selected Reading: Data Analysis Strategies for Mixed-Method Evaluation Designs     231
Expanding the Reasons for Conducting Mixed Methods Research     251
Selection: Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6(1), 97-113     251
Editors' Introduction     251
Discussion Questions and Applications     252
Related References That Extend the Topic     252
Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done?      253
Types of Legitimation (Validity) in Mixed Methods Research     271
Selection: Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Johnson, R. B. (2006). The validity issue in mised research. Research in the Schools, 13(1), 48-63     271
Editors' Introduction     271
Discussion Questions and Applications     272
Related References That Extend the Topic     272
Selected Reading: The Validity Issue in Mixed Research     273
Powerful Rhetorical Devices Used in Writing Mixed Methods Research     299
Selection: Sandelowski, M. (2003). Tables or tableaux? The challenges of writing and reaking mixed methods studies. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 321-350). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage     299
Editors' Introduction     299
Discussion Questions and Applications     300
Related References That Extend the Topic     300
Selected Reading: Tables or Tableaux? The Challenges of Writing and Reading Mixed Methods Studies     301
An Improved Role for Qualitative Research in Mixed Methods     337
Selection: Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 42-61     337
Editors' Introduction     337
Discussion Questions and Applications     338
Related References That Extend the Topic     338
Selected Reading: A Critique of Experimentalism     339
An Alternative to Reconciling the Different Realities of Qualitative and Quantitative Research     361
Selection: Sale, J. E., Lohfeld, L. H., & Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research Quality & Quantity, 36, 43-53     361
Editors' Introduction     361
Discussion Questions and Applications     362
Related References That Extend the Topic     362
Selected Reading: Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research     363
Exemplar Research Studies     375
Discussion Questions for Exemplar Research Studies     378
A Concurrent/Triangulation Mixed Methods Design With Merged Results     379
Selection: Luzzo, D. A. (1995). Gender differences in college students' career maturity and perceived barriers in career development. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73, 319-322     379
Editors' Introduction     379
Selected Reading: Gender Differences in College Students' CareerMaturity and Perceived Barriers in Career Development     381
A Concurrent/Triangulation Mixed Methods Design With Data Transformation     391
Selection: Idler, E. L., Hudson, S. V., & Leventhal, H. (1999). The meanings of self-ratings of health: A qualitative and quantitative approach. Research on Aging, 21(3), 458-476     391
Editors' Introduction     391
Selected Reading: The Meanings of Self-Ratings of Health: A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach     393
An Embedded Experimental Before-Intervention Mixed Methods Design     411
Selection: Donovan, J., Mills, N., Smith, M., Brindle, L., Jacoby, A., Peters, T., Frankel, S., Neal, D., & Hamdy, F. (2002). Improving design and conduct of randomized trials by embedding them in qualitative research: ProtecT (prostate testing for cancer and treatment) study. British Medical Journal, 325, 766-769     411
Editors' Introduction     411
Selected Reading: Improving Design and Conduct of Randomized Trials by Embedding them in Qualitative Research: ProtecT (Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment) Study     413
An Embedded Experimental During-Intervention Mixed Methods Design     426
Selection: Victor, C. R., Ross, F., & Axford, J. (2004). Capturing lay perspectives in a randomized control trial of a health promotion intervention for people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 10(1), 63-70|p426
Editors' Introduction     426
Selected Reading: Capturing Lay Perspectives in a Randomized Control Trial of a Health Promotion Intervention for People With Osteoarthritis of the Knee     429
An Embedded Experimental After-Intervention Mixed Methods Design      442
Selection: Messer, L., Steckler, A., & Dignan, M. (1999). Early detection of cervical cancer among Native American women: A qualitative supplement to a quantitative study. Health Education & Behavior, 8(26), 547-526     442
Editors' Introduction     442
Selected Reading: Early Detection of Cervical Cancer Among Native American Women: A Qualitative Supplement to a Quantitative Study     444
A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Design to Explain Findings     466
Selection: Way, N., Stauber, H. Y., Nakkula, M. J., & London, P. (1994). Depression and substance use in two divergent high school cultures: A quantitative and qualitative analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23(3), 331-357     466
Editors' Introduction     466
Selected Reading: Depression and Substance Use in Two Divergent High School Cultures: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis     469
A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Design With Participant Selection     497
Selection: Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., & Fox, K. R. (2005). Physical activity and mental well-being typologies in corporate employees: A mixed methods approach. Work & Stress, 19(1), 50-67     497
Editors' Introduction     497
Selected Reading: Physical Activity and Mental Well-Being Typologies in Corporate Employees: A Mixed Methods Approach     500
A Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design With Instrument Development      525
Selection: Milton, J., Watkins, K. E., Studdard, S. S., & Burch, M. (2003). The ever widening gyre: Factors affecting change in adult education graduate programs in the United States. Adult Education Quarterly, 54(1), 23-41     525
Editors' Introduction     525
Selected Reading: The Ever Widening Gyre: Factors Affecting Change in Adult Education Graduate Programs in the United States     527
A Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design to Generate and Test a Model     549
Selection: Richter, K. (1997). Child care choice in urban Thailand: Qualitative and quantitative evidence of the decision-making process. Journal of Family Issues, 18(2), 174-204     549
Editors' Introduction     549
Selected Reading: Child Care Choice in Urban Thailand: Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence of the Decision-Making Process     551
References Cited in the Editors' Introductions     583
Author Index     586
Subject Index     600
About the Editors     616
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