Modeling Indoor Air Pollution

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Overview

Emission of pollutants and their accumulation due to poor ventilation and air exchange are serious problems currently under investigation by many researchers. Of particular concern are issues involving air quality within buildings. Toxic fumes and airborne diseases are known to produce undesirable odors, eye and nose irritations, sickness, and occasionally death. Other products such as tobacco smoke and carbon monoxide can also have serious health effects on people exposed to a poorly ventilated environment; studies indicate that indirect or passive smoking can also lead to lung cancer.

Design for prevention or remediation of indoor air pollution requires expertise in optimizing geometrical configurations; knowledge of HVAC systems, perceived or expected contaminants and source locations; and economics. Much of the design concept involves ways in which to optimize the benefits or balance the advantages and disadvantages of various configurations and equipment. The fact that a room or building will conceivably become contaminated is generally an accepted fact - to what extent indoor air pollution will become critical is not really known until it happens.

A series of numerical models that run in MATLAB are described in the text and placed on the Web. These models include the finite difference method, finite volume method, finite element method, the boundary element method, particle-in-cell, meshless methods, and lagrangian particle transport. In addition, all example problems can be run using COMSOL, a commercial finite-element-based computer code with a great deal of flexibility and application. By accessing AutoCad ICES or DWG file structures, COMSOL permits a building floorplan to be captured and the interior walls discretized into elements.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848163249
  • Publisher: Imperial College Press
  • Publication date: 4/28/2009
  • Pages: 360
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements vii

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 What is Indoor Air Pollution 2

1.2 Ventilation Systems 2

1.3 Exposure Risks 3

1.4 Numerical Modeling of Indoor Air Flow 5

1.5 Comments 7

2 Fluid Flow Fundamentals 9

2.1 Conservation Equations 9

2.2 Ideal Fluids 11

2.2.1 Conformal mapping 16

2.2.2 Schwarz-Christoffel transform 19

2.2.3 Numerical mapping 23

2.2.4 Superposition for stream functions 24

2.3 Turbulence 26

2.4 Species Transport 30

2.5 Comments 32

3 Contaminant Sources 33

3.1 Types of Contaminants 33

3.2 Units 35

3.3 Materials 36

3.4 Typical Operations 38

3.5 The Diffusion Equation 39

3.6 Diffusion in Air 41

3.7 Evaporation of Droplets 43

3.8 Resuspension of Particulate 46

3.9 Coagulation of Particulate 48

3.10 Comments 49

4 Assessment Criteria 51

4.1 Exposure 51

4.2 Economics 54

4.3 Comments 56

5 Simple Modeling Techniques 57

5.1 Analytical Tools 57

5.2 Advection Model 65

5.3 Box Model 67

5.4 Comments 75

6 Dynamics of Particles, Gases and Vapors 77

6.1 Drag, Shape, and Size of Particles 77

6.2 Particle Motion 80

6.2.1 Deposition of particulate with aerodynamic diameters > 1 m by settling 84

6.2.2 Particle motion in electrostatic field 86

6.2.3 Particle motion induced by temperature gradients 87

6.2.4 Thermophoretic motion for gases and particles with diameter less than the molecular mean free path 87

6.2.5 Thermophoretic transport for particles with diameter greater than the molecular mean free path 87

6.3 Particle Flow in Inlets and Flanges 88

6.4 Comments 91

7 Numerical Modeling - Conventional Techniques 93

7.1 Finite Difference Method 94

7.1.1 Explicit 97

7.1.2 Implicit97

7.1.3 Upwinding 98

7.2 Finite Volume Method 104

7.2.1 FDM 109

7.2.2 FVM 109

7.3 The Finite Element Method 112

7.3.1 One-dimensional elements 115

7.3.1.1 Linear element 115

7.3.1.2 Quadratic and higher order elements 116

7.3.2 Two-dimensional elements 122

7.3.2.1 Triangular elements 122

7.3.2.2 Quadrilateral elements 124

7.3.2.3 Isoparametric elements 125

7.3.3 Three-dimensional elements 128

7.3.4 Quadrature 130

7.3.5 Time dependence 132

7.3.6 Petrov-Galerkin method 133

7.3.7 Mesh generation 135

7.3.8 Bandwidth 140

7.3.9 Adaptation 141

7.3.9.1 Element subdivision 145

7.4 Further CFD Examples 150

7.5 Model Verification and Validation 153

7.6 Comments 156

8 Numerical Modeling - Advanced Techniques 159

8.1 Boundary Element Method 160

8.2 Lagrangian Particle Technique 171

8.3 Particle-in-cell 175

8.4 Meshless Method 182

8.4.1 Application of meshless methods 187

8.4.1.1 Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) techniques including Kernel Particle Methods (RKPM), and general kernel reproduction methods (GKR) 187

8.4.1.2 Meshless Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) methods including moving least squares (MLS), point interpolation methods (PIM), and hp-clouds 188

8.4.1.3 Local radial point interpolation methods (LRPIM) using finite difference representations 189

8.4.1.4 Radial basis functions (RBFs) 189

8.4.2 Example cases - Heat Transfer 196

8.4.2.1 Heat transfer in a 2-D plate 196

8.4.2.2 Singular point in a 2-D domain 197

8.4.2.3 Heat transfer within an irregular domain 199

8.4.2.4 Natural Convection 201

8.5 Molecular Modeling 208

8.6 Boundary Conditions for Mass Transport Analysis 212

8.7 Comments 215

9 Turbulence Modeling 217

9.1 Brief History of Turbulence Formulation 217

9.2 Physical Model 221

9.2.1 Turbulent flow 222

9.2.2 Two-equation turbulence closure models 224

9.2.2.1 Two-equation k-e 225

9.2.2.2 Two-equation k-w 226

9.2.3 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) 227

9.2.4 Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) 229

9.2.5 Turbulent transport of energy or enthalpy 230

9.2.6 Derivation of enthalpy transport 231

9.2.7 Turbulent energy transport 236

9.2.8 Turbulent transport species 237

9.2.9 Coupled fluid-thermal flow 237

9.3 Numerical Modeling 239

9.3.1 Projection algorithm 240

9.3.2 Finite volume approach 243

9.3.3 Finite element approach 245

9.3.3.1 Weak forms of the governing equations 246

9.3.3.2 Matrix equations 250

9.3.3.3 Time advancement of the explicit/implicit matrix equations 252

9.3.3.4 Mass lumping 253

9.3.3.5 General numerical solution 254

9.4 Stability and Time Dependent Solution 255

9.5 Boundary Conditions 256

9.5.1 Boundary conditions for velocity under decomposition 257

9.5.1.1 Viscous boundary condition for velocity 258

9.5.2 Boundary conditions for pressure and velocity correction 258

9.5.3 Boundary conditions for turbulent kinetic energy and specific dissipation rate 259

9.5.4 Boundary conditions for thermal and species transport 262

9.5.5 Thermal and species flux calculation in the presence of Dirichlet boundaries 263

9.6 Validation of Turbulence Models 264

9.7 Comments 274

10 Homeland Security Issues 277

10.1 Introduction 277

10.2 Potential Hazards 278

10.2.1 Prevention and protection 283

10.3 A Simple Model 286

10.4 Other Indoor Air Quality Models 296

10.4.1 CONTAM 2.4 (NIST) 296

10.4.2 I-BEAM (EPA) 298

10.4.3 COMIS-MIAQ (APTG-LBNL) 299

10.4.4 FLOVENT (Flomerics, Inc.) 300

10.5 Comments 301

Appendix A Diffusion Coefficients in Gas 303

Appendix B 2-D Office Simulations: COMSOL and ANSWER Software 309

Bibliography 323

Index 341

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