Modelling with Transparent Soils: Visualizing Soil Structure Interaction and Multi Phase Flow, Non-Intrusively / Edition 1

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Overview

The fundamental premise of this monograph is that transparent synthetic materials with geotechnical properties similar to those of natural soils can be used to study 3D deformation and flow problems in natural soils. Transparent soils can be made by matching the refractive index of synthetic soil materials and the pore fluid. This monographs presents the geotechnical behaviour of several families of transparent soils that can be combined to meet model-test requirements, in terms of strength, deformation, or permeability.

"Modelling with Transparent Soils" demonstrates how an optical system consisting of a laser light, a CCD camera, a frame grabber, and a PC can be used to measure spatial deformations in transparent soil models non-intrusively. Transparent soil models are sliced optically using a laser light sheet. A distinctive speckle pattern is generated by the interaction of the laser light and transparent soil. A 2D deformation field is obtained from two speckle images by using an image processing technique named adaptive cross-correlation, which is an advanced form of the digital image cross-correlation (DIC) algorithm that utilizes both window sizing and window shifting methods. The monograph demonstrates that comparison of 2D deformation fields between transparent soil and natural soil showed that the results were comparable in almost every aspect. Three dimensional fields can be produced by combining multiple 2D fields in Matlab.

Multiphase flow and surfactant flushing tests were also simulated using a layered transparent soil systems and several contaminants. The developed technology allows for visualizing the contamination concentration and evaluating the performance of remediation technologies in bench scale model tests.

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Product Details

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Transparent Soils 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Available Transparent Soils 2

1.3 Objectives 3

1.4 Organization of this Book 3

References 3

2 Optical Techniques in Geotechnical Engineering 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Imaging Applications in Geotechnical Engineering 5

2.2.1 Soil Stress Measurements 6

2.2.2 Soil Deformation Measurements 6

2.2.2.1 Computerized Aggregate-Based Target Tracking 7

2.2.2.2 Computerized Grid-Based Target Tracking 7

2.2.2.3 Deformation Analysis using Advanced Techniques 8

2.2.2.4 Field Measurements 8

2.2.2.5 Centrifuge Experiments 8

2.2.3 Soil Fabric and Void Characterization 9

2.2.3.1 Study of Soil Fabric using Digital Photography 9

2.2.3.2 Soil Fabric Analysis using SEM 10

2.2.3.3 Recent Trends for Studying Soil Fabric 10

2.2.3.4 Geotextile Fabric 11

2.2.4 Soil Classification and Grain Size Distribution Analysis 11

2.2.5 Imaging Techniques in Geoenvironmental Studies 12

2.3 Example Applications of Imaging Techniques in Civil Engineering 12

2.3.1 Pavement Crack Measurement 12

2.3.2 Traffic Analysis and Control 13

2.3.3 Concrete Morphology and Micro-Cracks 13

2.4 Summary 13

References 14

3 Introduction to Light and Optics 19

3.1 Introduction 19

3.2 Nature of Light 19

3.3 Propagation of Light in a Matter 20

3.4 Refraction of Light 21

3.5 Reflection of Light 22

3.6 Light in a Granular Medium 22

3.7 Basic Definitions 23

3.7.1 Speckle Effect 23

3.7.2 Coherent Light 23

3.7.3 Polarized Light 23

3.7.4 Polarizers 24

3.7.5 Birefringence 24

References 25

4 Optical Measurement of Strain and Stress 27

4.1 Introduction 27

4.2 Target Tracking 28

4.2.1 Digital Image Correlation 28

4.3 Interferometry 29

4.3.1 Holographic Interferometry (HI) 30

4.3.1.1 Limitations of Holographic Interferometry 31

4.3.2 Speckle Interferometry 31

4.3.2.1 Speckle Photography 33

4.3.2.2 Speckle Correlation Interferometry 34

4.3.2.3 Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) 35

4.3.2.4 Limitation of Speckle Interferometry 35

4.3.2.5 Speckle Interferometry in Transparent Synthetic Soils 36

4.4 Photoelasticity 37

4.4.1 Theory 37

4.4.2 Photoelasticity of Transparent Synthetic Soils 39

4.5 Cross Tomography 41

4.5.1 Theory 41

4.5.2 Cross Tomography in Transparent Synthetic Soils 42

4.6 Summary 43

References 43

5 Geotechnical Properties of Transparent Silica Powders 45

5.1 Introduction 45

5.1.1 What is Amorphous Silica? 45

5.1.2 Use of Amorphous Silica in Experimental Modeling 46

5.2 Material Description 47

5.2.1 Physical Properties of Amorphous Silica 47

5.2.2 Matched Refractive Index Pore Fluids 48

5.3 Sample Preparation 49

5.4 Undrained Triaxial Tests 50

5.4.1 Normally Consolidated Behavior 52

5.4.2 Overconsolidated Behavior 57

5.5 Drained Triaxial Tests 61

5.6 Elastic Properties of Amorphous Silica 66

5.7 Consolidation Properties 67

5.7.1 Consolidation Indices 68

5.7.2 Consolidation Behavior 70

5.7.3 Settlement Components 71

5.7.4 Pore Pressure Dissipation 72

5.7.5 Compression Isochrones 77

5.7.6 Ko vs. Isotropic Consolidation 78

5.8 Permeability Properties 79

5.8.1 Permeability with Void Ratio 79

5.8.2 Permeability with Vertical Pressure 79

5.8.3 Permeability with Material Type 80

5.9 Conclusions 81

References 81

6 Geotechnical Properties of Silica Gels 85

6.1 Background 85

6.2 What is Silica Gel? 85

6.3 Basic Chemical Properties and Chemical Preparation 87

6.4 Physical Properties 88

6.4.1 Particle Structure 88

6.4.2 Specific Gravity and Unit Weight 88

6.4.3 Void Ratio 89

6.4.4 Particle Size Distribution and Uniformity 89

6.5 Static Geotechnical Properties of Silica Gel 90

6.5.1 Shear Strength 90

6.5.1.1 Triaxial Tests 90

6.5.1.2 Direct Shear Testing Results 96

6.5.2 Modulus of Elasticity 98

6.5.3 Compressibility 102

6.5.4 Hydraulic Conductivity 104

6.6 Dynamic Properties of Silica Gel 107

6.6.1 Testing Program and Sample Preparation 107

6.6.2 Shear Modulus of Silica Gel 109

6.6.3 Damping Ratio of Silica Gel 112

6.6.4 Comparison with Results of Sands and Gravels 113

6.7 Modeling Capabilities of Transparent Soils 113

6.8 Recommended Future Work 113

References 114

7 Geotechnical Properties of Aquabeads 117

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 What is Aquabeads? 118

7.3 Grain Size Distribution 120

7.4 Hydraulic Conductivity of Aquabeads 121

7.5 Compressibility of Aquabeads 123

7.5.1 Void Ratio 123

7.5.2 Consolidation Behavior 123

7.5.3 Consolidation Indices 124

7.6 Strength of Aquabeads 127

7.6.1 Yield Stress 127

7.6.2 Yield Stress Measurement 128

7.6.3 Yield Stress Calculation 128

7.6.4 Yield Strength of Aquabeads 129

7.6.5 Comparison to the Yield Stresses of Natural Soils 132

7.7 Conclusions 134

References 134

8 Digital Image Correlation 137

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Digital Imaging 137

8.2.1 Digital Image Format 137

8.2.2 Digital Image Resolution 139

8.2.3 Digital Image Compression 139

8.3 Motion Estimation Methods 139

8.3.1 The Fourier Method 140

8.3.2 The Differential Method 140

8.3.3 The Matching Method 141

8.4 Digital Image Correlation 142

8.4.1 Discrete Cross-Correlation 142

8.4.2 Zero-Meaned Normalized Cross-Correlation 143

8.4.3 Execution of Cross-Correlation Using FFT 144

8.4.4 How DIC Works 145

8.4.5 Sub-Pixel Resolution 149

8.5 DIC Error Analysis 149

8.5.1 Conventional DIC 149

8.5.2 Error Analysis 150

8.5.3 Particle Density 150

8.5.4 Interrogation Windows Size 151

8.6 Adaptive Cross-Correlation 151

8.6.1 Variable Window Size 152

8.6.2 Window Offset 152

8.6.3 ACC Procedure 152

8.7 Comparison between DIC and ACC 154

8.7.1 Verification of DIC and ACC Algorithms 154

8.7.2 Performance of DIC and ACC Algorithms for Physical Movements 159

8.8 Conclusions 162

References 163

9 Application of DIC for Measuring Deformations in Transparent Soils 165

9.1 Introduction and Motivation 165

9.2 Setup for DIC in Transparent Synthetic Soil Models 166

9.2.1 Transparent Soil Model 167

9.2.2 Laser Beam 168

9.2.3 Line Generator 168

9.2.4 Digital Camera 168

9.2.5 Correlation Algorithm 169

9.3 Calibration of DIC for Deformation Measurement in Transparent Soils 169

9.3.1 Calibration Methodology 169

9.3.2 Calibration Results 170

9.4 Other Errors 173

9.4.1 Reflection 173

9.4.2 Alignment Error 173

9.4.3 Focus Errors 174

9.4.4 Out-of-Plane and Rotational Movement Errors 174

9.5 Application of DIC in Modeling Soil Structure Interaction 174

9.5.1 DIC Analysis Results 174

9.5.2 Comparison with FEM 175

9.6 System Limitations 178

9.7 Conclusions 178

References 178

10 Validation of Measured 2D Deformations 181

10.1 Introduction 181

10.2 Test Program 182

10.2.1 Proposed Method 182

10.2.2 Set-Up 183

10.2.3 Test Program 183

10.3 Comparison under Dry Loose Condition 184

10.3.1 Failure Mode 184

10.3.2 Displacement Field 185

10.3.3 Maximum Horizontal Displacement 187

10.3.4 Settlement Distribution 189

10.3.5 Strain Field 190

10.3.6 Volume Strain 192

10.3.7 Vertical Strain 197

10.4 Comparison under Dry Dense Condition 198

10.4.1 Settlement Comparison 201

10.4.2 Maximum Horizontal Displacement 201

10.5 Comparison under Saturated Dense Condition 204

10.5.1 2D Deformation Measurement in Transparent Soil 204

10.5.2 Model Preparation 205

10.5.3 Displacement Field 205

10.5.4 Vertical Displacement 206

10.5.5 Maximum Horizontal Displacement 209

10.5.6 Maximum Shear Strain 212

10.6 Modeling Stratified Soils Using Transparent Surrogates 214

10.6.1 Modeling Loose "Sand" over Dense "Sand" 215

10.6.2 Modeling "Sand" over Soft "Clay" 217

10.7 Deformations Inside Transparent Synthetic Soil Models 220

10.7.1 Internal Deformations in Silica Gel Representing Sand 220

10.7.2 Internal Deformations in Amorphous Silica Powder Representing Clay 221

10.8 Conclusions and Recommendations 224

References 224

11 3D Deformation Measurement 227

11.1 Introduction 227

11.2 3D Measurements 227

11.2.1 Methodology 228

11.2.2 Test Setup 229

11.2.3 Digital Image Processing 231

11.2.4 Test Procedure 232

11.3 Displacement Field Analysis 226

11.4 Strain Field Analysis 241

11.5 Displacement and Strain Development 246

11.5.1 Displacement Field 246

11.5.2 Strain Field 247

11.6 Error Analysis 249

11.6.1 Result Analysis 249

11.6.2 Image Distortion Analysis 253

11.6.3 Speckle Stability over Time 254

11.6.4 Linear Stage Error 254

11.7 Conclusions and Recommendations 257

References 257

12 2D Flow in Transparent Synthetic Soils 259

12.1 Introduction 259

12.2 Flow Tests Using Silica Gel 260

12.2.1 Materials 260

12.2.2 Sample Preparation 261

12.2.3 Flow Equipment Setup 261

12.2.4 Optical Measurements 261

12.2.5 Calibration of Concentration 262

12.2.6 Chromatographic Separation 263

12.2.7 Image Analysis 265

12.2.8 Breakthrough Curve 269

12.2.9 Characterizing the Properties of Silica Gel 270

12.3 Flow Test Using Fused Silica 272

12.3.1 Transparency Degradation in Silica Gel 272

12.3.2 Fused Silica 273

12.3.3 Immiscible Flow Test 276

12.4 Flow Tests Using Aquabeads 277

12.4.1 Materials 277

12.4.2 Concentration Calibration 277

12.4.3 Packing of Aquabeads for 2D Flow Test 277

12.4.4 Flow System Setup and Effluent Collection 278

12.4.5 Optical System and Image Analysis 279

12.4.6 Miscible Flow Tests 279

12.4.7 Multi-phase Flow 282

12.4.8 Hydraulic Characteristics of Aquabeads 282

12.5 Modeling of 2D Surfactant Flushing Using Aquabeads 285

12.5.1 Phase Behavior Tests 286

12.5.2 Test Setup 287

12.5.3 Recovery of Mineral Oil 287

12.5.4 Recovery of Motor Oil 288

12.6 Conclusions 291

References 291

Epilogue 293

The Transparent Soil Story 293

Capabilities of Available Transparent Soils 295

Limitations of the Technology 295

Recommendations for Future Research 296

Potential Applications 297

References 298

Appendix: Camera Calibration using Neural Networks 299

A.1 Background 299

A.2 Neural Network 302

A.3 Neural Network Calibration Model 302

A.3.1 Calibration Algorithm Comparison 304

A.4 Angle Error Analysis 306

A.5 Application in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) 308

A.6 Summary 311

References 311

References 313

Index 327

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