Modern China: Continuity and Change, 1644 to the Present / Edition 1

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Overview

Why another book on China? Four reasons: This book places a special emphasis on China’s culture, warfare, and immediate neighbors, while its organization provides structural convenience not found in other surveys of modern Chinese history.

First, this book uses a comparative approach to bridge the cultural divide separating Chinese history from Western readers trying to understand it. It compares the embedded assumptions, patterns of analysis, and primary values that distinguish these two great civilizations, not to suggest the superiority of either; but rather, to reach a Western audience, who may be unaware that many of their core assumptions and values are not shared by others. This is not an attempt to understand China in its own terms, but in comparison to the West so as to bridge the cultural divide.

Second, this book emphasizes the tragic role of warfare in Chinese history. Far more so than in most other countries, warfare has wracked Chinese society for the last two centuries: A cascade of internal rebellions, secession movements, and civil and foreign wars continued with only short interruptions from 1800 until the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. On a human level, it is incumbent on this and succeeding generations not to forget the holocaust that has been a hallmark of modern Chinese history.

Third, all too often the study of China has been done in semi-isolation from its neighbors. The authors of this book have spent years living not only in China and Taiwan, but also in Russia and Japan, and have visited South Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Modern Chinese history cannot be understood without a deep appreciation of the foreign influence that has bombarded China from all sides. Western texts generally give due attention to the Western European powers and to the United States. Some devote time to discussing the Japanese influence. None gives adequate attention to the activities of Russia. Most Western Sinologists do not read Russian, nor do most Chinese secondary sources emphasize Russia’s extensive influence because Russian diplomats from the 19th century onward consistently succeeded in promoting their country’s national interests at Chinese expense. On a human level, this is not a story many Chinese want to tell. On a national level, Sino-Russian relations are so central to China’s national security that the topic is generally classified. The authors learned about Russo-Chinese relations from years of research in the archives of Russia, China, Taiwan, Japan, and the United States reading materials covering Russo-Chinese diplomatic relations from the 18th through the 20th centuries.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Bruce A. Elleman is a Research Professor in the Maritime History Department, Center for Naval Warfare Studies, at the US Naval War College, and author of Diplomacy and Deception: The Secret History of Sino-Soviet Diplomatic Relations, 1917–1927 (Armonk NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997); Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795–1989 (London: Routledge, 2001, translated into Chinese); Japanese-American Civilian Prisoner Exchanges and Detention Camps, 1941–45 (London: Routledge, 2006); and Moscow and the Emergence of Communist Power in China, 1925-30: The Nanchang Uprising and the Birth of the Red Army (London: Routledge, 2009).

S.C.M.Paine is a Professor in the Strategy and Policy Department at the US Naval War College and author of Imperial Rivals: China, Russia and Their Disputed Frontiers (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996), winner of the Jelavich book prize, and The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Perceptions, Power and Primacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002); and co-editor with Bruce A. Elleman of Naval Blockades and Seapower: Strategies and Counter-strategies, 1805-2005 (London: Routledge, 2006), and Naval Coalition Warfare: From the Napoleonic War to Operation Iraqi Freedom (London: Routledge, 2008).

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Table of Contents

Contents

List of Maps

List of Features

List of Tables

Preface

Acknowledgments

Technical Note

About the Authors

Introduction A Cultural Framework for Understanding China

I. Top-down Characteristics: Confucianism, Militarism, Legalism, and Sinification

II. Radial Characteristics: Sinocentrism, Barbarian Management, and the Provincial System

III. Bottom-up Characteristics: Daoism, Buddhism, and Poetry

IV. Cyclical Elements: Yin and Yang, the Dynastic Cycle, and Historical Continuity

V. Retrospective Elements: Fate and the Sources of Knowledge

Conclusions

P ART I The Creation and Maturation of an Empire, 1644—1842 26

Chapter 1 The Creation of the Qing Dynasty

I. The Ming Dynasty

II. The Qing Conquest of Ming China: Nurgaci and His Successors

III. Grafting the Manchus onto Han China under the Shunzhi Emperor

IV. Territorial Consolidation under the Kangxi Emperor

V. Institutional Consolidation under the Yongzheng Emperor

Conclusions

Chapter 2 The Maximization of Empire under the Qianlong Emperor

I. The Conquest of the Zunghar Mongols

II. The Conquest of the Tarim Basin and Tibet

III. Qing Imperial Administration: The Tributary System

IV. Domestic Administration: Central and Local Government

V. The Economy of an Empire: Agriculture, Commerce, and Taxation

Conclusions

Chapter 3 Chinese Society at the Zenith of the Qing Dynasty

I. Manchu and Han Society

II. The Four Social Groups: Scholars, Peasants, Artisans, and Merchants

III. The Legal System

IV. Confucianism as an Ideology

V. Shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism as Instruments of Manchu Rule

Conclusions

Chapter 4 The Foundations of Knowledge

I. Fidelity to the Past

II. The Confucian Classics

III. Thinking by Historical Analogy

IV. Understanding the Natural World

V. The Examination System

Conclusions

Chapter 5 The Arrival of the West

I. Early Explorers

II. The Maritime Advance: Portugal, Spain, Holland, and England

III. The Continental Advance: Russia

IV. The Legal and Religious Sources of Cultural Conflict

V. The Technological Revolution

Conclusions

Chapter 6 Systemic Crisis and Dynastic Decline

I. Government Corruption and Manchu Decadence

II. Population Growth, Ethnic Tensions, and the Miao Revolt

III. The White Lotus Rebellion and the Eight Trigrams Revolt

IV. Imperial Overextension

V. Qing Attempts to Restore Governmental Efficacy

Conclusions

Chapter 7 Expanding Commercial Relations with the West

I. The Tea Trade and the Silver Inflow

II. The Opium Trade and the Silver Outflow

III. The British Rejection of Sinification

IV. Chinese Strategy and the First Opium War

V. The Treaty of Nanjing: Treaty Ports, Tariffs, and North—South Tensions

Conclusions

P ART II Dynastic Decline and Collapse, 1842—1911

Chapter 8 Civil War and Foreign Intervention

I. North—South Tensions and the Origins of the Taiping Rebellion

II. The Taiping Movement

III. The Taiping Capital in Nanjing

IV. The Arrow War

V. Manchu—Western Cooperation to Destroy the Taipings

Conclusions

Chapter 9 Quelling Domestic Rebellions

I. The Rise of the Empress Dowager Cixi

II. The Nian Rebellion (1851—68)

III. The Panthay Rebellion (1855—73)

IV. The Donggan Rebellion (1862—73)

V. The Muslim Rebellion in Xinjiang (1862—78)

Conclusions

Chapter 10 The Self-strengthening Movement and Central Government Reforms

I. Military Reform: Xiang and Huai Armies, Beiyang and Nanyang Navies

II. Financial Reform: The Imperial Maritime Customs

III. Foreign Policy Reform: The Zongli Yamen

IV. Educational Reform: China’s First Embassy and Western Learning

V. Governmental Restoration: Confucian Rectification

Conclusions

Chapter 11 Attacks on Chinese Sovereignty

I. The Burlingame Mission and the Alcock Convention

II. The Tianjin Massacre (1870) and the Margary Affair (1875)

III. Japan and Taiwan (1871—4)

IV. Russia and Xinjiang (1871—81)

V. France and Vietnam (1883—5)

Conclusions

Chapter 12 The First Sino-Japanese War

I. The Korean Crisis

II. The Hostilities

III. The Settlement

IV. The Triple Intervention

V. The Scramble for Concessions

Conclusions

Chapter 13 The Attempt to Expel the Foreigners: The Boxer Uprising

I. The Hundred Days’ Reform

II. The Origins of the Boxer Movement

III. The Boxer Uprising

IV. The Boxer Protocol and the Economic Impact of the Indemnities

V. The Aftermath: The Russo-Japanese War (1904—5)

Conclusions

Chapter 14 The 1911 Revolution

I. The Reform Program of the Empress Dowager Cixi

II. Han Revolutionaries: Sun Yat-sen’s Anti-Manchu Movement

III. The Rights Recovery Movement

IV. The New Army and the Wuchang Rebellion

V. The Collapse of the Qing Dynasty

Conclusions

P ART III The Republican Period, 1912—49

Chapter 15 The Founding of the Republic of China

I. The Republic under Yuan Shikai

II. Relations with Russia, Japan, and Britain

III. The Founding of the Nationalist Party

IV. North China Warlord Intrigues

V. The Republic of China Enters the First World War

Conclusions

Chapter 16 Versailles and Its Aftermath

I. Political Ferment and New Ideas

II. The Paris Peace Conference Examines the Shandong Question

III. The Shandong Controversy

IV. The Beijing Government’s Reaction to the Compromise

V. The Long-term Impact of the Treaty of Versailles

Conclusions

Chapter 17 New Intellectual Currents

I. The New Culture Movement

II. The May Fourth Movement

III. The Karakhan Manifesto and the Comintern

IV. The Founding of the Chinese Communist Party

V. The Civil Wars in North China

Conclusions

Chapter 18 The Nationalist-Communist United Front

I. South China Diplomacy: The Origins of the First United Front

II. The Reorganization of the Nationalist Party

III. North China Diplomacy: Beijing and Manchurian Warlords

IV. The Rise of Chiang Kai-shek and the Northern Expedition

V. The Beginning of the Nationalist-Communist Civil War

Conclusions

Chapter 19 The Nanjing Decade

I. Elimination of the Unequal Treaties with the Western Powers

II. The Russo-Japanese Rivalry Over Manchuria

III. The Military Side of Nation Building: Uprisings and Encirclement Campaigns

IV. The Civil Side of Nation Building: Nationalist and Communist Ideology

V. The Xi’an Incident and the Second United Front

Conclusions

Chapter 20 The Second Sino-Japanese War

I. Great Power Rivalries Over China

II. The Regional War and the Civil War

III. The Global War

IV. Soviet Efforts to Expand Their Sphere of Influence

V. Impact on the Chinese Population

Conclusions

Chapter 21 The Civil War: Nationalists versus Communists

I. Renewal of the Civil War

II. U.S. Diplomatic Intervention

III. Soviet Intervention

IV. The Nationalist Economic Implosion

V. The Communist Victory

Conclusions

P ART IV China and Taiwan in the Postwar Era

Chapter 22 The Communist Victory

I. The Formation of the People’s Republic of China

II. Land Reform and Agrarian Policies

III. The Nationalization of Industry and Commerce

IV. Diplomatic Isolation and the Sino-Soviet Alliance

V. Land Reform on Taiwan

Conclusions

Chapter 23 The Korean War

I. The Outbreak of the Korean War

II. The Chinese Decision to Intervene

III. The Soviet War Protraction Strategy

IV. War Termination

V. The Domestic Consequences of the War

Conclusions

Chapter 24 Mao’s Quest for World Leadership

I. The Hundred Flowers Campaign

II. The Great Leap Forward

III. The Great Famine (1959—61)

IV. The Sino-Soviet Split

V. The Sino-Indian War of 1962

Conclusions

Chapter 25 The Cultural Revolution

I. Mao’s Weakened Position

II. The Phases of the Cultural Revolution

III. The PLA and the Restoration of Order

IV. The 1969 Sino-Soviet Border Conflict

V. Sino-American Rapprochement

Conclusions

Chapter 26 The Deng Xiaoping Restoration

I. The Impending Succession, the Fall of Lin Biao, and the Death of Mao

II. The Rise to Power of Deng Xiaoping

III. The Taiwanese Economic Miracle

IV. Deng Xaoping’s Agricultural Reforms

V. Deng Xiaoping’s Industrial Reforms

Conclusions

Chapter 27 Tiananmen

I. The Dissolution of the Soviet Union

II. Tiananmen Demonstrations

III. The Beijing Massacre

IV. Governance without a Preeminent Leader

V. Rising Nationalism

Conclusions

Chapter 28 The Mandate of Heaven

I. Population and Prosperity

II. Environmental Challenges

III. Energy and Industrial Growth

IV. Democracy in Taiwan

V. The Two-China Problem

Conclusions

Conclusion China in Transition

I. Top-down Characteristics: Civil-Military-Ideological Underpinnings of Power

II. Radial Characteristics: Relations with the Outside

III. Bottom-up Characteristics: Education, Globalization, and Han Nationalism

IV. Cyclical Elements: The End of the Dynastic Cycle?

V. Retrospective Elements: Fatalism or Choice?

Final Words

Appendix A Geographical Names by Transliteration System

Appendix B Pinyin Wade—Giles Conversion Table

Teaching References

Credits

Name Index

Subject Index

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