Modern Operating Systems / Edition 2

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    Overview

    The widely anticipated revision of this worldwide best-seller incorporates the latest developments in operating systems technologies.  The Third Edition includes up-to-date materials on relevant operating systems such as Linux, Windows, and embedded real-time and multimedia systems. Includes new and updated coverage of multimedia operating systems, multiprocessors, virtual machines, and antivirus software. Covers internal workings of Windows Vista (Ch. 11); unique even for current publications. Provides information on current research based Tanenbaum’s experiences as an operating systems researcher. A useful reference for programmers.

    An up-to-date overview of operating systems presented by world-renowned computer scientist and author, Andrew Tanenbaum. This is the first guide to provide balanced coverage between centralized and distributed operating systems. Part I covers processes, memory management, file systems, I/O systems, and deadlocks in single operating system environments. Part II covers communication, synchronization process execution, and file systems in a distributed operating system environment. Includes case studies on UNIX, MACH, AMOEBA, and DOS operating systems.

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    Product Details

    • ISBN-13: 9780130313584
    • Publisher: Prentice Hall
    • Publication date: 2/21/2001
    • Series: GOAL Series
    • Edition description: Older Edition
    • Edition number: 2
    • Pages: 976
    • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 9.32 (h) x 1.57 (d)

    Meet the Author

    Andrew S. Tanenbaum has an S.B. degree from M.LT. and a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. He is currently a Professor of Computer Science at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where he is head of the Computer Systems Department. He is also the Dean of the Advanced School for Computing and Imaging, an interuniversity graduate school doing research on advanced parallel, distributed, and imaging systems. Nevertheless, he is trying very hard to avoid turning into a bureaucrat.

    In the past, he has done research on compilers, operating systems, networking, and local-area distributed systems. His current research focuses primarily on the design of wide-area distributed systems that scale to a billion users. This research is being done together with Dr. Maarten van Steen. Together, all his research projects have led to over 90 refereed papers in journals and conference proceedings and five books.

    Prof. Tanenbaum has also produced a considerable volume of software. He was the principal architect of the Amsterdam Compiler Kit, a widely-used toolkit for writing portable compilers, as well as of MINIX, a small UNIX clone intended for use in student programming labs. Together with his Ph.D. students and programmers, he helped design the Amoeba distributed operating system, a high-performance microkernel-based distributed operating system. The MINIX and Amoeba systems are now available for free via the Internet.

    His Ph.D. students have gone on to greater glory after getting their degrees. He is very proud of them. In this respect he resembles a mother hen.

    Prof. Tanenbaum is a Fellow of the ACM, a Fellow of the IEEE,a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, winner of the 1994 ACM Karl V Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award, and winner of the 1997 ACM/SIGCSE Award for Outstanding Contributions to Computer Science Education. He is also listed in Who's Who in the World.

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    Read an Excerpt

    PREFACE:

    PREFACE

    The world has changed a great deal since the first edition of this book appeared in 1992. Computer networks and distributed systems of all kinds have become very common. Small children now roam the Internet, where previously only computer professionals went. As a consequence, this book has changed a great deal, too.

    The most obvious change is that the first edition was about half on single-processor operating systems and half on distributed systems. I chose that format in 1991 because few universities then had courses on distributed systems and whatever students learned about distributed systems had to be put into the operating systems course, for which this book was intended. Now most universities have a separate course on distributed systems, so it is not necessary to try to combine the two subjects into one course and one book. This book is intended for a first course on operating systems, and as such focuses mostly on traditional single-processor systems.

    I have coauthored two other books on operating systems. This leads to two possible course sequences.

    Practically-oriented sequence:

    1. Operating Systems Design and Implementation by Tanenbaum and Woodhull
    2. Distributed Systems by Tanenbaum and Van Steen

    Traditional sequence:

    1. Modern Operating Systems by Tanenbaum
    2. Distributed Systems by Tanenbaum and Van Steen

    The former sequence uses MINIX and the students are expected to experiment with MINIX in an accompanying laboratory supplementing the first course. The latter sequence does not use MINIX. Instead, some small simulators are availablethat can be used for student exercises during a first course using this book. These simulators can be found starting on the author's Web page: cs.vu.nl/~ast/ by clicking on Software and supplementary material for my books.

    In addition to the major change of switching the emphasis to single-processor operating systems in this book, other major changes include the addition of entire chapters on computer security, multimedia operating systems, and Windows 2000, all important and timely topics. In addition, a new and unique chapter on operating system design has been added.

    Another new feature is that many chapters now have a section on research about the topic of the chapter. This is intended to introduce the reader to modern work in processes, memory management, and so on. These sections have numerous references to the current research literature for the interested reader. In addition, Chapter 13 has many introductory and tutorial references.

    Finally, numerous topics have been added to this book or heavily revised. These topics include: graphical user interfaces, multiprocessor operating systems, power management for laptops, trusted systems, viruses, network terminals, CDROM file systems, mutexes, RAID, soft timers, stable storage, fair-share scheduling, and new paging algorithms. Many new problems have been added and old ones updated. The total number of problems now exceeds 450. A solutions manual is available to professors using this book in a course. They can obtain a copy from their local Prentice Hall representative. In addition, over 250 new references to the current literature have been added to bring the book up to date.

    Despite the removal of more than 400 pages of old material, the book has increased in size due to the large amount of new material added. While the book is still suitable for a one-semester or two-quarter course, it is probably too long for a one-quarter or one-trimester course at most universities. For this reason, the book has been designed in a modular way. Any course on operating systems should cover chapters 1 through 6. This is basic material that every student show know.

    If additional time is available, additional chapters can be covered. Each of them assumes the reader has finished chapters 1 through 6, but Chaps. 7 through 12 are each self contained, so any desired subset can be used and in any order, depending on the interests of the instructor. In the author's opinion, Chaps. 7 through 12 are much more interesting than the earlier ones. Instructors should tell their students that they have to eat their broccoli before they can have the double chocolate fudge cake dessert.

    I would like to thank the following people for their help in reviewing parts of the manuscript: Rida Bazzi, Riccardo Bettati, Felipe Cabrera, Richard Chapman, John Connely, John Dickinson, John Elliott, Deborah Frincke, Chandana Gamage, Robbert Geist, David Golds, Jim Griffioen, Gary Harkin, Frans Kaashoek, Mukkai Krishnamoorthy, Monica Lam, Jussi Leiwo, Herb Mayer, Kirk McKusick, Evi Nemeth, Bill Potvin, Prasant Shenoy, Thomas Skinner, Xian-He Sun, William Terry, Robbert Van Renesse, and Maarten van Steen. Jamie Hanrahan, Mark Russinovich, and Dave Solomon were enormously knowledgeable about Windows 2000 and very helpful. Special thanks go to A1 Woodhull for valuable reviews and thinking of many new end-of-chapter problems.

    My students were also helpful with comments and feedback, especially Staas de Jong, Jan de Vos, Niels Drost, David Fokkema, Auke Folkerts, Peter Groenewegen, Wilco Ibes, Stefan Jansen, Jeroen Ketema, Joeri Minder, Irwin Oppenheim, Stef Post, Umar Rehman, Daniel Rijkhof, Maarten Sander, Maurits van der Schee, Rik van der Stoel, Mark van Drill, Dennis van Veen, and Thomas Zeeman.

    Barbara and Marvin are still wonderful, as usual, each in a unique way. Finally, last but not least, I would like to thank Suzanne for her love and patience, not to mention all the druiven and kersen, which have replaced the sinasappelsap in recent times.

    Andrew S. Tanenbaum

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    Table of Contents

    1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?

    1.1.1 The Operating System as an Extended Machine

    1.1.2 The Operating System as a Resource Manager

    1.2 HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

    1.2.1 The First Generation

    1.2.2 The Second Generation

    1.2.3 The Third Generation

    1.2.4 The Fourth Generation

    1.3 COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW

    1.3.1 Processors

    1.3.2 Memory

    1.3.3 Disks

    1.3.4 Tapes

    1.3.5 I/O Devices

    1.3.6 Buses

    1.3.7 Booting the Computer

    1.4 THE OPERATING SYSTEM ZOO

    1.4.1 Mainframe Operating Systems

    1.4.2 Server Operating Systems

    1.4.3 Multiprocessor Operating Systems

    1.4.4 Personal Computer Operating Systems

    1.4.5 Handheld Computer Operating Systems

    1.4.6 Embedded Operating Systems.

    1.4.7 Sensor Node Operating Systems

    1.4.8 Real-Time Operating Systems

    1.4.9 Smart Card Operating Systems

    1.5 OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS

    1.5.1 Processes

    1.5.2 Address Spaces

    1.5.3 Files

    1.5.4 Input/Output

    1.5.5 Protection

    1.5.6 The Shell

    1.5.7 Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny

    1.6 SYSTEM CALLS

    1.6.1 System Calls for Process Management

    1.6.2 System Calls for File Management

    1.6.3 System Calls for Directory Management

    1.6.4 Miscellaneous System Calls

    1.6.5 The Windows Win32 API

    1.7 OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    1.7.1 Monolithic Systems

    1.7.2 Layered Systems

    1.7.3 Microkernels

    1.7.4 Client-Server Model

    1.7.5 Virtual Machines

    1.7.6Exokernels

    1.8 THE WORLD ACCORDING TO C

    1.8.1 The C Language

    1.8.2 Header Files

    1.8.3 Large Programming Projects

    1.8.4 The Model of Run Time

    1.9 RESEARCH ON OPERATING SYSTEMS

    1.10 OUTLINE OF THE REST OF THIS BOOK

    1.11 METRIC UNITS

    1.12 SUMMARY

    2 PROCESSES AND THREADS

    2.1 PROCESSES

    2.1.1 The Process Model

    2.1.2 Process Creation

    2.1.3 Process Termination

    2.1.4 Process Hierarchies

    2.1.5 Process States

    2.1.6 Implementation of Processes

    2.1.7 Modeling Multiprogramming

    2.2 THREADS

    2.2.1 Thread Usage

    2.2.2 The Classical Thread Model

    2.2.3 POSIX Threads

    2.2.4 Implementing Threads in User Space

    2.2.5 Implementing Threads in the Kernel

    2.2.6 Hybrid Implementations

    2.2.7 Scheduler Activations

    2.2.8 Pop-Up Threads

    2.2.9 Making Single-Threaded Code Multithreaded

    2.3 INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION

    2.3.1 Race Conditions

    2.3.2 Critical Regions

    2.3.3 Mutual Exclusion with Busy Waiting

    2.3.4 Sleep and Wakeup

    2.3.5 Semaphores

    2.3.6 Mutexes

    2.3.7 Monitors

    2.3.8 Message Passing

    2.3.9 Barriers

    2.4 SCHEDULING

    2.4.1 Introduction to Scheduling

    2.4.2 Scheduling in Batch Systems

    2.4.3 Scheduling in Interactive Systems

    2.4.4 Scheduling in Real-Time Systems

    2.4.5 Policy versus Mechanism

    2.4.6 Thread Scheduling

    2.5 CLASSICAL IPC PROBLEMS

    2.5.1 The Dining Philosophers Problem

    2.5.2 The Readers and Writers Problem

    2.6 RESEARCH ON PROCESSES AND THREADS

    2.7 SUMMARY

    3 MEMORY MANAGEMENT

    3.1 NO MEMORY ABSTRACTION

    3.2 A MEMORY ABSTRACTION: ADDRESS SPACES

    3.2.1 The Notion of an Address Space

    3.2.2 Swapping

    3.2.3 Managing Free Memory

    3.3 VIRTUAL MEMORY

    3.3.1 Paging

    3.3.2 Page Tables

    3.3.3 Speeding Up Paging

    3.3.4 Page Tables for Large Memories

    3.4 PAGE LACEMENT ALGORITHMS

    3.4.1 The Optimal Page Replacement Algorithm

    3.4.2 The Not Recently Used Page Replacement Algorithm

    3.4.3 The First-In, First-Out

    3.4.4 The Second Chance Page Replacement Algorithm

    3.4.5 The Clock Page Replacement Algorithm

    3.4.6 The Least Recently Used

    3.4.7 Simulating LRU in Software

    3.4.8 The Working Set Page Replacement Algorithm

    3.4.9 The WSClock Page Replacement Algorithm

    3.4.10 Summary of Page Replacement Algorithms

    3.5 DESIGN ISSUES FOR PAGING SYSTEMS

    3.5.1 Local versus Global Allocation Policies

    3.5.2 Load Control

    3.5.3 Page Size

    3.5.4 Separate Instruction and Data Spaces

    3.5.5 Shared Pages

    3.5.6 Shared Libraries

    3.5.7 Mapped Files

    3.5.8 Cleaning Policy

    3.5.9 Virtual Memory Interface

    3.6 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

    3.6.1 Operating System Involvement with Paging

    3.6.2 Page Fault Handling

    3.6.3 Instruction Backup

    3.6.4 Locking Pages in Memory

    3.6.5 Backing Store

    3.6.6 Separation of Policy and Mechanism

    3.7 SEGMENTATION

    3.7.1 Implementation of Pure Segmentation

    3.7.2 Segmentation with Paging: MULTICS

    3.7.3 Segmentation with Paging: The Intel Pentium

    3.8 RESEARCH ON MEMORY MANAGEMENT

    3.9 SUMMARY

    4 FILE SYSTEMS

    4.1 FILES

    4.1.1 File Naming

    4.1.2 File Structure

    4.1.3 File Types

    4.1.4 File Access

    4.1.5 File Attributes

    4.1.6 File Operations

    4.1.7 An Example Program Using File System Calls

    4.2 DIRECTORIES

    4.2.1 Single-Level Directory Systems

    4.2.2 Hierarchical Directory Systems

    4.2.3 Path Names

    4.2.4 Directory Operations

    4.3 FILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

    4.3.1 File System Layout

    4.3.2 Implementing Files

    4.3.3 Implementing Directories

    4.3.4 Shared Files

    4.3.5 Log-Structured File Systems

    4.3.6 Journaling File Systems

    4.3.7 Virtual File Systems

    4.4 FILE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

    4.4.1 Disk Space Management

    4.4.2 File System Backups

    4.4.3 File System Consistency

    4.4.4 File System Performance

    4.4.5 Defragmenting Disks

    4.5 EXAMPLE FILE SYSTEMS

    4.5.1 CD-ROM File Systems

    4.5.2 The MS-DOS File System

    4.5.3 The UNIX V7 File System

    4.6 RESEARCH ON FILE SYSTEMS

    4.7 SUMMARY

    5 INPUT/OUTPUT

    5.1 PRINCIPLES OF I/O HARDWARE

    5.1.1 I/O Devices

    5.1.2 Device Controllers

    5.1.3 Memory-Mapped I/O

    5.1.4 Direct Memory Access

    5.1.5 Interrupts Revisited

    5.2 PRINCIPLES OF I/O SOFTWARE

    5.2.1 Goals of the I/O Software

    5.2.2 Programmed I/O

    5.2.3 Interrupt-Driven I/O

    5.2.4 I/O Using DMA

    5.3 I/O SOFTWARE LAYERS

    5.3.1 Interrupt Handlers

    5.3.2 Device Drivers

    5.3.3 Device-Independent I/O Software

    5.3.4 User-Space I/O Software

    5.4 DISKS

    5.4.1 Disk Hardware

    5.4.2 Disk Formatting

    5.4.3 Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms

    5.4.4 Error Handling

    5.4.5 Stable Storage

    5.5 CLOCKS

    5.5.1 Clock Hardware

    5.5.2 Clock Software

    5.5.3 Soft Timers

    5.6 USER INTERFACES: KEYBOARD, MOUSE, MONITOR

    5.6.1 Input Software

    5.6.2 Output Software

    5.7 THIN CLIENTS

    5.8 POWER MANAGEMENT

    5.8.1 Hardware Issues

    5.8.2 Operating System Issues:

    5.8.3 Application Program Issues

    5.9 RESEARCH ON INPUT/OUTPUT

    5.10 SUMMARY

    6 DEADLOCKS

    6.1 RESOURCES

    6.1.1 Preemptable and Nonpreemptable Resources

    6.1.2 Resource Acquisition

    6.2 INTRODUCTION TO DEADLOCKS

    6.2.1 Conditions for Resource Deadlocks

    6.2.2 Deadlock Modeling

    6.3 THE OSTRICH ALGORITHM

    6.4 DEADLOCK DETECTION AND RECOVERY

    6.4.1 Deadlock Detection with One Resource of Each Type

    6.4.2 Deadlock Detection with Multiple Resources of Each Type

    6.4.3 Recovery from Deadlock

    6.5 DEADLOCK AVOIDANCE

    6.5.1 Resource Trajectories

    6.5.2 Safe and Unsafe States

    6.5.3 The Banker’s Algorithm for a Single Resource

    6.5.4 The Banker’s Algorithm for Multiple Resources

    6.6 DEADLOCK PREVENTION

    6.6.1 Attacking the Mutual Exclusion Condition

    6.6.2 Attacking the Hold and Wait Condition

    6.6.3 Attacking the No Preemption Condition

    6.6.4 Attacking the Circular Wait Condition

    6.7 OTHER ISSUES

    6.7.1 Two-Phase Locking

    6.7.2 Communication Deadlocks

    6.7.3 Livelock

    6.7.4 Starvation

    6.8 RESEARCH ON DEADLOCKS

    6.9 SUMMARY

    7 MULTIMEDIA OPERATING SYSTEMS

    7.1 INTRODUCTION TO MULTIMEDIA

    7.2 MULTIMEDIA FILES

    7.2.1 Video Encoding

    7.2.2 Audio Encoding

    7.3 VIDEO COMPRESSION

    7.3.1 The JPEG Standard

    7.3.2 The MPEG Standard

    7.4 AUDIO COMPRESSION

    7.5 MULTIMEDIA PROCESS SCHEDULING

    7.5.1 Scheduling Homogeneous Processes

    7.5.2 General Real-Time Scheduling

    7.5.3 Rate Monotonic Scheduling

    7.5.4 Earliest Deadline First Scheduling

    7.6 MULTIMEDIA FILE SYSTEM PARADIGMS

    7.6.1 VCR Control Functions

    7.6.2 Near Video on Demand

    7.6.3 Near Video on Demand with VCR Functions

    7.7 FILE PLACEMENT

    7.7.1 Placing a File on a Single Disk

    7.7.2 Two Alternative File Organization Strategies

    7.7.3 Placing Files for Near Video on Demand

    7.7.4 Placing Multiple Files on a Single Disk

    7.7.5 Placing Files on Multiple Disks

    7.8 CACHING

    7.8.1 Block Caching

    7.8.2 File Caching

    7.9 DISK SCHEDULING FOR MULTIMEDIA

    7.9.1 Static Disk Scheduling

    7.9.2 Dynamic Disk Scheduling

    7.10 RESEARCH ON MULTIMEDIA

    7.11 SUMMARY

    8 MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SYSTEMS

    8.1 MULTIPROCESSORS

    8.1.1 Multiprocessor Hardware

    8.1.2 Multiprocessor Operating System Types

    8.1.3 Multiprocessor Synchronization

    8.1.4 Multiprocessor Scheduling

    8.2 MULTICOMPUTERS

    8.2.1 Multicomputer Hardware

    8.2.2 Low-Level Communication Software

    8.2.3 User-Level Communication Software

    8.2.4 Remote Procedure Call

    8.2.5 Distributed Shared Memory

    8.2.6 Multicomputer Scheduling

    8.2.7 Load Balancing

    8.3 VIRTUALIZATION

    8.3.1 Requirements for Virtualization

    8.3.2 Type 1 Hypervisors

    8.3.3 Type 2 Hypervisors

    8.3.4 Paravirtualization

    8.3.5 Memory Virtualization

    8.3.6 I/O Virtualization

    8.3.7 Virtual Appliances

    8.3.8 Virtual Machines on Multicore CPUs

    8.3.9 Licensing Issues

    8.4 DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

    8.4.1 Network Hardware

    8.4.2 Network Services and Protocols

    8.4.3 Document-Based Middleware

    8.4.4 File System-Based Middleware

    8.4.5 Object-Based Middleware

    8.4.6 Coordination-Based Middleware

    8.5 RESEARCH ON MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SYSTEMS

    8.6 SUMMARY

    9 SECURITY

    9.1 THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT

    9.1.1 Threats

    9.1.2 Intruders

    9.1.3 Accidental Data Loss

    9.2 BASICS OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

    9.2.1 Secret-Key Cryptography

    9.2.2 Public-Key Cryptography

    9.2.3 One-Way Functions

    9.2.4 Digital Signatures

    9.2.5 Trusted Platform Module

    9.3 PROTECTION MECHANISMS

    9.3.1 Protection Domains

    9.3.2 Access Control Lists

    9.3.3 Capabilities

    9.3.4 Trusted systems

    9.3.5 Trusted Computing Base

    9.3.6 Formal Models of Secure Systems

    9.3.7 Multilevel Security

    9.3.8 Covert Channels

    9.4 AUTHENTICATION

    9.4.1 Authentication Using Passwords

    9.4.2 Authentication Using a Physical Object

    9.4.3 Authentication Using Biometrics

    9.5 INSIDER ATTACKS

    9.5.1 Logic Bombs

    9.5.2 Trap Doors

    9.5.3 Login Spoofing

    9.6 EXPLOITING CODE BUGS

    9.6.1 Buffer Overflow Attacks

    9.6.2 Format String Attacks

    9.6.3 Return to libc Attacks

    9.6.4 Integer Overflow Attacks

    9.6.5 Code Injection Attacks

    9.6.6 Privilege Escalation Attacks

    9.7 MALWARE

    9.7.1 Trojan Horses

    9.7.2 Viruses

    9.7.3 Worms

    9.7.4 Spyware

    9.7.5 Rootkits

    9.8 DEFENSES

    9.8.1 Firewalls

    9.8.2 Antivirus and Anti-Antivirus Techniques

    9.8.3 Code Signing

    9.8.4 Jailing

    9.8.5 Model-Based Intrusion Detection

    9.8.6 Encapsulating Mobile Code

    9.8.7 Java Security

    9.9 RESEARCH ON SECURITY

    9.10 SUMMARY

    10 CASE STUDY 1: LINUX

    10.1 HISTORY OF UNIX AND LINUX

    10.1.1 UNICS

    10.1.2 PDP-11 UNIX

    10.1.3 Portable UNIX

    10.1.4 Berkeley UNIX

    10.1.5 Standard UNIX

    10.1.6 MINIX

    10.1.7 Linux

    10.2 OVERVIEW OF LINUX

    10.2.1 Linux Goals

    10.2.2 Interfaces to Linux

    10.2.3 The Shell

    10.2.4 Linux Utility Programs

    10.2.5 Kernel Structure

    10.3 PROCESSES IN LINUX

    10.3.1 Fundamental Concepts

    10.3.2 Process Management System Calls in Linux

    10.3.3 Implementation of Processes and Threads in Linux

    10.3.4 Scheduling in Linux

    10.3.5 Booting Linux

    10.4 MEMORY MANAGEMENT IN LINUX

    10.4.1 Fundamental Concepts

    10.4.2 Memory Management System Calls in Linux

    10.4.3 Implementation of Memory Management in Linux

    10.4.4 Paging in Linux

    10.5 INPUT/OUTPUT IN LINUX

    10.5.1 Fundamental Concepts

    10.5.2 Networking

    10.5.3 Input/Output System Calls in Linux

    10.5.4 Implementation of Input/Output in Linux

    10.5.5 Modules in Linux

    10.6 THE LINUX FILE SYSTEM

    10.6.1 Fundamental Concepts

    10.6.2 File System Calls in Linux

    10.6.3 Implementation of the Linux File System

    10.6.4 NFS: The Network File System

    10.7 SECURITY IN LINUX

    10.7.1 Fundamental Concepts

    10.7.2 Security System Calls in Linux

    10.7.3 Implementation of Security in Linux

    10.8 SUMMARY

    11 CASE STUDY 2: WINDOWS VISTA

    11.1 HISTORY OF WINDOWS VISTA

    11.1.1 1980s: MS-DOS

    11.1.2 1990s: MS-DOS-based Windows

    11.1.3 2000s: NT-based Windows

    11.1.4 Windows Vista

    11.2 PROGRAMMING WINDOWS VISTA

    11.2.1 The Native NT Application Programming Interface

    11.2.2 The Win32 Application Programming Interface

    11.2.3 The Windows Registry

    11.3 SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    11.3.1 Operating System Structure

    11.3.2 Booting Windows Vista

    11.3.3 Implementation of the Object Manager

    11.3.4 Subsystems, DLLs, and User-mode Services

    11.4 PROCESSES AND THREADS IN WINDOWS VISTA

    11.4.1 Fundamental Concepts

    11.4.2 Job, Process, Thread and Fiber Management API Calls

    11.4.3 Implementation of Processes and Threads

    11.5 MEMORY MANAGEMENT

    11.5.1 Fundamental Concepts

    11.5.2 Memory Management System Calls

    11.5.3 Implementation of Memory Management

    11.6 CACHING IN WINDOWS VISTA

    11.7 INPUT/OUTPUT IN WINDOWS VISTA

    11.7.1 Fundamental Concepts

    11.7.2 Input/Output API Calls

    11.7.3 Implementation of I/O

    11.8 THE WINDOWS NT FILE SYSTEM

    11.8.1 Fundamental Concepts

    11.8.2 Implementation of the NT File System

    11.9 SECURITY IN WINDOWS VISTA

    11.9.1 Fundamental Concepts

    11.9.2 Security API Calls

    11.9.3 Implementation of Security

    11.10 SUMMARY

    12 CASE STUDY 3: SYMBIAN OS

    12.1 THE HISTORY OF SYMBIAN OS

    12.1.1 Symbian OS Roots: Psion and EPOC

    12.1.2 Symbian OS Version 6

    12.1.3 Symbian OS Version 7

    12.1.4 Symbian OS Today

    12.2 AN OVERVIEW OF SYMBIAN OS

    12.2.1 Object Orientation

    12.2.2 Microkernel Design

    12.2.3 The Symbian OS Nanokernel

    12.2.4 Client/Server Resource Access

    12.2.5 Features of a Larger Operating System

    12.2.6 Communication and Multimedia

    12.3 PROCESSES AND THREADS IN SYMBIAN OS

    12.3.1 Threads and Nanothreads

    12.3.2 Processes

    12.3.3 Active Objects

    12.3.4 Interprocess Communication

    12.4 MEMORY MANAGEMENT

    12.4.1 Systems with No Virtual Memory

    12.4.2 How Symbian OS Addresses Memory

    12.5 INPUT AND OUTPUT

    12.5.1 Device Drivers

    12.5.2 Kernel Extensions

    12.5.3 Direct Memory Access

    12.5.4 Special Case: Storage Media

    12.5.5 Blocking I/O

    12.5.6 Removable Media

    12.6 STORAGE SYSTEMS

    12.6.1 File systems for Mobile Devices

    12.6.2 Symbian OS File systems

    12.6.3 File system Security and Protection

    12.7 SECURITY IN SYMBIAN OS

    12.8 COMMUNICATION IN SYMBIAN OS

    12.8.1 Basic Infrastructure

    12.8.2 A Closer Look at the Infrastructure

    12.9 SUMMARY

    13 OPERATING SYSTEMS DESIGN

    13.1 THE NATURE OF THE DESIGN PROBLEM

    13.1.1 Goals

    13.1.2 Why is it Hard to Design an Operating System?

    13.2 INTERFACE DESIGN

    13.2.1 Guiding Principles

    13.2.2 Paradigms

    13.2.3 The System Call Interface

    13.3 IMPLEMENTATION

    13.3.1 System Structure

    13.3.2 Mechanism versus Policy

    13.3.3 Orthogonality

    13.3.4 Naming

    13.3.5 Binding Time

    13.3.6 Static versus Dynamic Structures

    13.3.7 Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Implementation

    13.3.8 Useful Techniques

    13.4 PERFORMANCE

    13.4.1 Why Are Operating Systems Slow?

    13.4.2 What Should Be Optimized?

    13.4.3 Space-Time Trade-offs

    13.4.4 Caching

    13.4.5 Hints

    13.4.6 Exploiting Locality

    13.4.7 Optimize the Common Case

    13.5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    13.5.1 The Mythical Man Month

    13.5.2 Team Structure

    13.5.3 The Role of Experience

    13.5.4 No Silver Bullet

    13.6 TRENDS IN OPERATING SYSTEM DESIGN

    13.6.1 Virtualization

    13.6.2 Multicore Chips

    13.6.3 Large Address Space Operating Systems

    13.6.4 Networking

    13.6.5 Parallel and Distributed Systems

    13.6.6 Multimedia

    13.6.7 Battery-Powered Computers

    13.6.8 Embedded Systems

    13.6.9 Sensor Nodes

    13.7 SUMMARY

    14 READING LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

    14.1 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING

    14.1.1 Introduction and General Works

    14.1.2 Processes and Threads

    14.1.3 Memory Management

    14.1.4 Input/Output

    14.1.5 File Systems

    14.1.6 eadlocks

    14.1.7 Multimedia Operating Systems

    14.1.8 Multiple Processor Systems

    14.1.9 ecurity

    14.1.10 Linux

    14.1.11 Windows Vista

    14.1.12 The Symbian OS

    14.1.13 Design Principles

    14.2 ALPHABETICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

    INDEX

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    Preface

    PREFACE:

    PREFACE

    The world has changed a great deal since the first edition of this book appeared in 1992. Computer networks and distributed systems of all kinds have become very common. Small children now roam the Internet, where previously only computer professionals went. As a consequence, this book has changed a great deal, too.

    The most obvious change is that the first edition was about half on single-processor operating systems and half on distributed systems. I chose that format in 1991 because few universities then had courses on distributed systems and whatever students learned about distributed systems had to be put into the operating systems course, for which this book was intended. Now most universities have a separate course on distributed systems, so it is not necessary to try to combine the two subjects into one course and one book. This book is intended for a first course on operating systems, and as such focuses mostly on traditional single-processor systems.

    I have coauthored two other books on operating systems. This leads to two possible course sequences.

    Practically-oriented sequence:

    1. Operating Systems Design and Implementation by Tanenbaum and Woodhull
    2. Distributed Systems by Tanenbaum and Van Steen

    Traditional sequence:

    1. Modern Operating Systems by Tanenbaum
    2. Distributed Systems by Tanenbaum and Van Steen

    The former sequence uses MINIX and the students are expected to experiment with MINIX in an accompanying laboratory supplementing the first course. The latter sequence does not use MINIX. Instead, some small simulators areavailablethat can be used for student exercises during a first course using this book. These simulators can be found starting on the author's Web page: cs.vu.nl/~ast/ by clicking on Software and supplementary material for my books.

    In addition to the major change of switching the emphasis to single-processor operating systems in this book, other major changes include the addition of entire chapters on computer security, multimedia operating systems, and Windows 2000, all important and timely topics. In addition, a new and unique chapter on operating system design has been added.

    Another new feature is that many chapters now have a section on research about the topic of the chapter. This is intended to introduce the reader to modern work in processes, memory management, and so on. These sections have numerous references to the current research literature for the interested reader. In addition, Chapter 13 has many introductory and tutorial references.

    Finally, numerous topics have been added to this book or heavily revised. These topics include: graphical user interfaces, multiprocessor operating systems, power management for laptops, trusted systems, viruses, network terminals, CDROM file systems, mutexes, RAID, soft timers, stable storage, fair-share scheduling, and new paging algorithms. Many new problems have been added and old ones updated. The total number of problems now exceeds 450. A solutions manual is available to professors using this book in a course. They can obtain a copy from their local Prentice Hall representative. In addition, over 250 new references to the current literature have been added to bring the book up to date.

    Despite the removal of more than 400 pages of old material, the book has increased in size due to the large amount of new material added. While the book is still suitable for a one-semester or two-quarter course, it is probably too long for a one-quarter or one-trimester course at most universities. For this reason, the book has been designed in a modular way. Any course on operating systems should cover chapters 1 through 6. This is basic material that every student show know.

    If additional time is available, additional chapters can be covered. Each of them assumes the reader has finished chapters 1 through 6, but Chaps. 7 through 12 are each self contained, so any desired subset can be used and in any order, depending on the interests of the instructor. In the author's opinion, Chaps. 7 through 12 are much more interesting than the earlier ones. Instructors should tell their students that they have to eat their broccoli before they can have the double chocolate fudge cake dessert.

    I would like to thank the following people for their help in reviewing parts of the manuscript: Rida Bazzi, Riccardo Bettati, Felipe Cabrera, Richard Chapman, John Connely, John Dickinson, John Elliott, Deborah Frincke, Chandana Gamage, Robbert Geist, David Golds, Jim Griffioen, Gary Harkin, Frans Kaashoek, Mukkai Krishnamoorthy, Monica Lam, Jussi Leiwo, Herb Mayer, Kirk McKusick, Evi Nemeth, Bill Potvin, Prasant Shenoy, Thomas Skinner, Xian-He Sun, William Terry, Robbert Van Renesse, and Maarten van Steen. Jamie Hanrahan, Mark Russinovich, and Dave Solomon were enormously knowledgeable about Windows 2000 and very helpful. Special thanks go to A1 Woodhull for valuable reviews and thinking of many new end-of-chapter problems.

    My students were also helpful with comments and feedback, especially Staas de Jong, Jan de Vos, Niels Drost, David Fokkema, Auke Folkerts, Peter Groenewegen, Wilco Ibes, Stefan Jansen, Jeroen Ketema, Joeri Minder, Irwin Oppenheim, Stef Post, Umar Rehman, Daniel Rijkhof, Maarten Sander, Maurits van der Schee, Rik van der Stoel, Mark van Drill, Dennis van Veen, and Thomas Zeeman.

    Barbara and Marvin are still wonderful, as usual, each in a unique way. Finally, last but not least, I would like to thank Suzanne for her love and patience, not to mention all the druiven and kersen, which have replaced the sinasappelsap in recent times.

    Andrew S. Tanenbaum

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