Modern Trends in Islamic Theological Discourse in 20th Century Indonesia: A Critical Survey

Hardcover (Print)
Buy New
Buy New from
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $168.50
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 16%)
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (3) from $168.50   
  • New (2) from $168.50   
  • Used (1) from $282.79   


Aiming to trace the development of Islamic theological discourse in Indonesia from the early 1900s to the end of the 20th century, the author focusses on how modernist Muslims have constructed their theological thought throughout the century, which, in turn, reflects their religious understanding in response to the particular demands of their age. The theological thought constructed so far signifies a continuum of progress, developing from one stage to the next. Implicitly, this progress also indicates the improvement of Indonesian Muslims’ understanding of their own religion, which may suggest the betterment of their commitment to doctrinal beliefs and religious practices. Therefore, this study will also examine the ways in which Indonesian Islam noticeably grows more orthodox through these forms of religious commitment. Drawing upon an Indonesian term, the growth of orthodox Islam is known as the santri cultural expansion, which has been characterized by the vertical and horizontal mobility of devout Muslims in political, cultural and economic enterprises. A discussion of the theological thought underlying that santri cultural expansion is also included.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Saleh (State Institute of Islamic Studies, Indonesia) describes the development of Islamic theology over the course of a century in Indonesia. The heavy influence of Indonesian animism that was a large part of Indonesian Islam in the early part of the 20th century was swept away by the tides of political independence movements, the Westernization of the economy, and efforts by Islamic organizations to connect Indonesian theology to the greater Islamic world. Saleh explores the thinking of various Islamic theologians as evidenced in their writings and connects them to the wider historical forces interacting with Indonesian society. Originally presented as a PhD dissertation at McGill University. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
Read More Show Less

Product Details

Meet the Author

Fauzan Saleh Ph.D. (2000) in Islamic Studies, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, is al lecturer at the Graduate Studies, State Institute of Islamic Studies at Surabaya and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. He wrote a number of articles for journals and books edited by other scholars, including "Attempts to sustain orthodoxy: An Islamic theological discourse in contemporary Indonesia"
Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Notes on Transliteration
Introduction 1
Ch. I Islam in Indonesia Prior to the Advance of the Reform Movement 17
A General Considerations 17
B The Attitude toward "Purc" Islamic Religious Belief and Practice 24
C The Dutch Authorities and the Spread of Islam 29
D Retrospective 39
Ch. II Redefining Islamic Orthodoxy in the Indonesian Context 46
A Islamic Orthodoxy: An Overview 46
B Sunnism as Orthodox Islam 61
C Orthodox Islam in Indonesia: Attachment to Sunnism 67
D The Muhammadiyah and the Ahl al-Sunnah 75
E NU and Muhammadiyah: Some Mutual Criticisms 85
F The Ahl al-Sunnah: Another Perspective 91
G Islamic Orthodoxy in Indonesia: Santri versus Abangan 96
Ch. III Reconstructing a Theological Discourse: The Reformist Attempts to Sustain Orthodox Beliefs 105
A The Pillars of Belief in the Muhammadiyah 109
B K. H. Mas Mansoer: Purifying Muslims' Belief 120
C Persatuan Islam: The Fundamental Beliefs 136
D The Belief in al-Qada and al-Qadar. A New Development 154
E Social Dimension of Tawhid: A Further Development 175
Ch. IV The Current Islamic Theological Discourse: Mu'tazilism and Neo-Modernism 196
A Harun Nasution: Toward Islamic Rationalism 197
B Nurcholish Madjid: Cultural Islam 240
Conclusion 308
Bibliography 310
Index 333
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star


4 Star


3 Star


2 Star


1 Star


Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation


  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)