Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Fundamentals and Current Status

Overview

This first-ever monograph on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) gives a comprehensive presentation of recent developments in MBE, as applied to crystallization of thin films and device structures of different semiconductor materials. MBE is a high-vacuum technology characterized by relatively low growth temperature, ability to cease or initiate growth abruptly, smoothing of grown surfaces and interfaces on an atomic scale, and the unique facility for in situ analysis of the structural parameters of the growing film. ...

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Overview

This first-ever monograph on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) gives a comprehensive presentation of recent developments in MBE, as applied to crystallization of thin films and device structures of different semiconductor materials. MBE is a high-vacuum technology characterized by relatively low growth temperature, ability to cease or initiate growth abruptly, smoothing of grown surfaces and interfaces on an atomic scale, and the unique facility for in situ analysis of the structural parameters of the growing film. The excellent exploitation parameters of such MBE-produced devices as quantum-well lasers, high electron mobility transistors, and superlattice avalanche photodiodes have caused this technology to be intensively developed. The main text of the book is divided into three parts. The first presents and discusses the more important problems concerning MBE equipment. The second discusses the physico-chemical aspects of the crystallization processes of different materials (mainly semiconductors) and device structures. The third part describes the characterization methods which link the physical properties of the grown film or structures with the technological parameters of the crystallization procedure. Latest achievements in the field are emphasized, such as solid source MBE, including silicon MBE, gas source MBE, especially metalorganic MBE, phase-locked epitaxy and atomic-layer epitaxy, photoassisted molecular layer epitaxy and migration enhanced epitaxy.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642971006
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 1/19/2012
  • Series: Springer Series in Materials Science , #7
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 382
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

I Background Information.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1 Thin Film Growth from Beams in a High Vacuum Environment.- 1.1.1 Vacuum Conditions for MBE.- 1.1.2 Basic Physical Processes in the MBE Vacuum Chamber.- 1.2 Evolution of the MBE Technique.- 1.2.1 The Early Stages of MBE.- 1.2.2 MBE in the 1980s.- 1.3 Modifications of the MBE Technique.- 1.3.1 Gas Source MBE.- 1.3.2 Phase-Locked Epitaxy.- 1.3.3 Atomic Layer Epitaxy.- 1.3.4 FIBI-MBE Processing Technology.- 1.3.5 A Classification Scheme for the MBE Techniques.- II Technological Equipment.- 2. Sources of Atomic and Molecular Beams.- 2.1 The Effusion Process and the Ideal Effusion Cell.- 2.1.1 Langmuir and Knudsen Modes of Evaporation.- 2.1.2 The Cosine Law of Effusion.- 2.2 Effusion from Real Effusion Cells.- 2.2.1 The Near-Ideal Cylindrical Effusion Cell.- 2.2.2 The Cylindrical Channel Effusion Cell.- 2.2.3 Hot-Wall Beam Cylindrical Source.- 2.2.4 The Conical Effusion Cell.- 2.3 Effusion Cells Used in CPS MBE Systems.- 2.3.1 Conventional Effusion Cells.- 2.3.2 Dissociation (Cracker) Effusion Cells.- 2.3.3 Electron Beam and Laser Radiation Heated Sources.- 2.4 Beam Sources Used in GS MBE Systems.- 2.4.1 Arsine and Phosphine Gas Source Crackers.- 2.4.2 Gas Sources Used in MO MBE.- 3. High Vacuum Growth and Processing Systems.- 3.1 Building Blocks of Modular MBE Systems.- 3.1.1 The Cassette Entry Stage.- 3.1.2 The Interstage Substrate Transfer System.- 3.1.3 The Preparation and Analysis Stages.- 3.1.4 The MBE Deposition Chamber.- 3.1.5 Beam Sources.- 3.1.6 Monitoring and Analytical Facilities.- 3.2 Multiple-Growth and Multiple-Process Facilities in MBE Systems.- 3.2.1 The Hot-Wall Beam Epitaxy Growth System.- 3.2.2 Focused Ion Beam Technology.- III Characterization Methods.- 4. In-Growth Characterization Techniques.- 4.1 RHEED.- 4.1.1 Fundamentals of Electron Diffraction.- 4.1.2 Origin of RHEED Features.- 4.1.3 RHEED Data from Reconstructed Semiconductor Surfaces.- 4.1.4 RHEED Rocking Curves.- 4.1.5 RHEED Intensity Oscillations.- 4.2 Ellipsometry.- 4.2.1 Fundamentals of Ellipsometry.- 4.2.2 Ellipsometric Systems Used for In-Growth Analysis in MBE.- 5. Postgrowth Characterization Methods.- 5.1 Survey of Postgrowth Characterization Methods.- 5.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy.- 5.2.1 Chemical Composition of Solid Surfaces.- 5.2.2 Sputter Depth Profiling.- 5.3 X-Ray Diffraction.- 5.3.1 Diffraction Under Nonideal Conditions.- 5.3.2 High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction.- 5.3.3 X-Ray Diffraction at Multilayers and Superlattices.- 5.4 Photoluminescence.- 5.4.1 Photoluminescence in Binary Compounds.- 5.4.2 Photoluminescence in Ternary and Quaternary Compounds.- 5.4.3 Photoluminescence of Quantum Well Structures and Superlattices.- 5.5 Electrical Characterization.- 5.5.1 Determination of Carrier Concentration and Mobility.- 5.5.2 Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy.- 5.6 Sophisticated Characterization Methods.- 5.6.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy.- 5.6.2 Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling.- IV MBE Growth Processes.- 6. Fundamentals of the MBE Growth Process.- 6.1 General View of the MBE Growth Process.- 6.1.1 Equilibrium States in MBE.- 6.1.2 The Transition Layer Concept.- 6.2 Relations Between Substrate and Epilayer.- 6.2.1 Critical Thickness for the Formation of Misfit Dislocations.- 6.2.2 Role of the Crystallographic Orientation of the Substrate.- 6.2.3 Role of the Substrate Surface Reconstruction.- 6.3 The Near-Surface Transition Layer.- 6.3.1 Physical and Chemical Adsorption.- 6.3.2 Spatial Arrangement of the Near-Surface Transition Layer.- 6.4 Growth Interruption and Pulsed Beam Deposition.- 6.4.1 Recovery Effect During Growth Interruption.- 6.4.2 Growth of Superlattice Structures by Phase-Locked Epitaxy.- 6.4.3 UHV Atomic Layer Epitaxy.- 6.4.4 Migration Enhanced Epitaxy.- 6.4.5 Molecular Layer Epitaxy.- 6.5 Doping During MBE Processes.- 6.5.1 Unintentional Doping.- 6.5.2 Thermodynamics of Doping by Co-deposition.- 6.5.3 Delta-Function-Like Doping Profiles.- 6.5.4 In-Growth Doping with Ionized Beams.- 7. Material-Related Growth Characteristics in MBE.- 7.1 Si and IV-IV Heterostructures.- 7.1.1 Si Substrate Preparation Procedures.- 7.1.2 Homoepitaxy of Si Films.- 7.1.3 Heteroepitaxy of Ge and Sn on Si Substrates.- 7.1.4 GexSi1-x/Si Heterostructures and Superlattices.- 7.1.5 Devices Grown by Si MBE.- 7.2 GaAs- and As-Containing Compounds.- 7.2.1 Preparation of the GaAs(100) Substrate Surface.- 7.2.2 Growth of GaAs on GaAs(100) Substrates.- 7.2.3 Growth of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Heterostructures.- 7.2.4 Growth of GaAs on Si Substrates.- 7.2.5 Device Structures Grown by GaAs MBE.- 7.3 Narrow-Gap II-VI Compounds Containing Hg.- 7.3.1 Substrates for MBE of Hg Compounds.- 7.3.2 Hg-Compound Heterostructures Grown by MBE.- 7.3.3 Device Structures.- V Conclusion.- 8. Outlook.- 8.1 Miscellaneous Material Systems Grown by MBE.- 8.2 MBE-Related Growth Techniques.- 8.3 Development Trends of the MBE Technique.- References.

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