A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichens as biomonitors of air pollution (bioindication, metal and radionuclide accumulation, biomarkers), and as monitors of environmental change (including global climate change and biodiversity loss) in a wide array of terrestrial habitats. Several methods for using lichens as biomonitors are described in a special section of the book.
1. Monitoring with Lichens - Monitoring Lichens; An Introduction; P.L. Nimis, et al. Section 1: Monitoring Lichens asIndicators of Pollution.2. Monitoring Lichens as Indicators of Pollution; An Introduction; P.L. Nimis, O.W. Purvis.3. Bioindication: Calibrated Scales and their Utility; D.L. Hawksworth.4. Bioindication: The I.A.P. Approach; R. Kricke, S. Loppi.5. Bioindication: The Community Approach; C. van Haluwyn, K.C.M. vanHerk.6. Accumulation of Inorganic Contaminants; R. Bargagli, I.Mikhailova.7. Lichens as Monitors of Radioelements; M.R.D. Seaward.8. Biomarkers of Pollution-Induced Oxidative Stress and Membrane Damage in Lichens; D. Cuny, et al.9. Key Issues in Designing Biomonitoring Programmes; Monitoring scenarios, sampling strategies and quality assurance; M. Ferretti, W. Erhardt. Section 2: MonitoringLichen Diversity and Ecosystem Function.10. Monitoring Lichen Diversity and Ecosystem Function; An Introduction; S. Will-Wolf, C.Scheidegger.11. Methods for Monitoring Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function; Monitoring scenarios, sampling strategies and data quality; S. Will-Wolf, et al.12. Monitoring Lichens for Conservation: Red Lists and Conservation Action Plans; C. Scheidegger, T. Goward.13. Lichen Monitoring and Climate Change; G. Insarov, B. Schroeter.14. Monitoring Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: Forests; S. Will-Wolf,et al.15. Monitoring Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: Grasslands, Deserts, and Steppe; R. Rosentreter, D.J. Eldridge.16. Monitoring Lichens on Monuments; A. Aptroot, P.W. James.17. Monitoring Maritime Habitats; A. Fletcher, R. Crump. Section 3: Methods for MonitoringLichens.18. Methods for Monitoring Lichens; An Introduction; P.A.Wolseley, D.J. Hill.19. Mapping Lichen Diversity as an Indicator of Environmental Quality; J. Asta, et al.20. Identifying Deviations from Naturality of Lichen Diversity for Bioindication Purposes; S. Loppi,et al.21. Epiphytes on Wayside Trees as an Indicator of Eutrophication in the Netherlands; K.C.M. van Herk.22. Using Lichens on Twigs to Assess Changes in Ambient Atmospheric Conditions; P.A.Wolseley.23. Guidelines for the Use of Epiphytic Lichens as Biomonitors of Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements; R. Bargagli,P.L. Nimis.24. Transplanted Lichens for Bioaccumulation Studies; I.Mikhailova.25. Sample Preparation of Lichens for Elemental Analysis; A.M. Rusu.26. Sulphur Isotopes in Lichens as Indicators of Sources; B. Spiro, et al.27. Estimation of Critical Levels of Air Pollution (Metals) on the Basis of Field Study of Epiphytic Lichen Communities; E. Vorobeichik, I. Mikhailova.28. Monitoring Physiological Change in Lichens: Total Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Degradation; K.Boonpragob.29. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements in the Field: Assessment of the Vitality of Large Numbers of Lichen Thalli; M.Jensen, R. Kricke.30. Measuring Bark pH; R. Kricke.31. A Photographic Quadrat Recording Method Employing Image Analysis of Lichens as an Indicator of Environmental Change; O.W. Purvis, et al.32. Site Assessment of Epiphytic Habitats Using Lichen Indices; F.Rose, S. Coppins.33. Indicator Species – Restricted Taxa Approach in Coniferous and Hardwood Forests of Northeastern America; S.B. Selva.34. Monitoring Regional Status and Trends in Forest Health with Lichen Communities: The United States Forest Service Approach; S.Will-Wolf.35. Biodiversity Assessment Tools – Lichens; C.Scheidegger, et al.36. Using Lichens and Bryophytes to Evaluate the Effects of Silvicultural Practices in Tasmanian Wet Eucalypt Forest; G. Kantvilas, S.J. Jarman.37. Using Corticolous Lichens of Tropical Forests to Assess Environmental Changes; P.A. Wolseley.38. Lichenometry; D. McCarthy.39. Transplanting Lichen Fragments for Provenance-Clone Tests; J.-C. Walser, C. Scheidegger.40. Assessing Changes in Density and Condition of Lichens for Species Recovery Programmes; P.A. Wolseley, P.W. James.41. Monitoring Red-Listed Lichens Using Permanent Plots; A. Aptroot, L. Sparrius.42. A Method for Detecting Large-Scale Environmental Change with Lichens; G.Insarov.