The Montessori Method

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Overview

The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori immediately captivated social reformers and educators around the world. First published in Italian in 1909, The Montessori Method has been translated into twenty languages, including the 1912 English translation. Its ideas were new and innovative compared to the traditional Lancasterian method in which large groups of children recited the teachers' words, word for word in unison. Instead of the teacher being the center of the classroom and the students being listeners and...
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The Montessori Method (Barnes & Noble Digital Library)

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Overview

The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori immediately captivated social reformers and educators around the world. First published in Italian in 1909, The Montessori Method has been translated into twenty languages, including the 1912 English translation. Its ideas were new and innovative compared to the traditional Lancasterian method in which large groups of children recited the teachers' words, word for word in unison. Instead of the teacher being the center of the classroom and the students being listeners and observers, Maria Montessori believed in children learning at their own pace and in their own fashion. The book begins with a collection of Montessori's speeches and then moves onto her research in education. Early chapters show how she used scientific methodology of the era, anthropomorphic measurement, to substantiate physiological explanations for children's educational potentials. It depicts Montessori as a scientist using scientific inquiry to validate her ideas and methods as the beginning of pedagogical science.

About the Author
The Montessori Method was written when Maria Montessori (1870-1952) was thirty years old, but she had even earlier success. By graduating from the University of Rome Medical School in 1896, Montessori had broken the Italian educational and cultural barriers that kept women from attending medical schools. Using her scientific training as a physician and her intuition, she developed the Casa de Bambini in the San Lorenzo slums.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“[T]he family life educator will find it useful to read the book, especially in this edition with its able introduction by Professor Hunt.” —Rose M. Somerville, Journal of Marriage and the Family
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781499243093
  • Publisher: CreateSpace Publishing
  • Publication date: 4/24/2014
  • Pages: 158
  • Sales rank: 344,524
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.34 (d)

Meet the Author

Maria Montessori (1870–1952), the first Italian woman to obtain an MD, was one of the great pioneers in studying the intellectual development of the young child. Her many writings include The Absorbent Mind.

J. McV. Hunt (1906–1991) was a prominent educational psychologist and was the author of Personality and the Behavior Disorders.

Jaan Valsiner is professor of psychology at Aalborg University, Denmark. He is the founding editor of the journal Culture & Psychology, the author of several books, including The Guided Mind, and the series editor for Transaction's History and Theory of Psychology series.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments IV
Preface V
Introduction XIII
Chapter I A Critical Consideration of the New Pedagogy in its Relation to Modern Science
Influence of Modern Science upon Pedagogy 1
Italy's part in the development of Scientific Pedagogy 4
Difference between scientific technique and the scientific spirit 7
Direction of the preparation should be toward the spirit rather than toward the mechanism 9
The master to study man in the awakening of his intellectual life 12
Attitude of the teacher in the light of another example 13
The school must permit the free natural manifestations of the child if in the school Scientific Pedagogy is to be born 15
Stationary desks and chairs proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school 16
Conquest of liberty, what the school needs 19
What may happen to the spirit 20
Prizes and punishments, the bench of the soul 21
All human victories, all human progress, stand upon the inner force 24
Chapter II History of Methods
Necessity of establishing the method peculiar to Scientific Pedagogy 28
Origin of educational system in use in the "Children's Houses" 31
Practical application of the methods of Itard and Seguin in the Orthophrenic School at Rome 32
Origin of the methods for the education of deficients 33
Application of the methods in Germany and France 35
Seguin's first didactic material was spiritual 37
Methods for deficients applied to the education of normal children 42
Social and pedagogic importance of the "Children's Houses" 44
Chapter III Inaugural Address Delivered on the Occasion of the Opening of one of the "Children's Houses"
The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the "Children's Houses" 48
Evil of subletting the most cruel form of usury 50
The problem of life more profound than that of the intellectual elevation of the poor 52
Isolation of the masses of the poor, unknown to past centuries 53
Work of the Roman Association of Good Building and the moral importance of their reforms 56
The "Children's House" earned by the parents through their care of the building 60
Pedagogical organization of the "Children's House" 62
The "Children's House" the first step toward the socialisation of the house 65
The communised house in its relation to the home and to the spiritual evolution of women 66
Rules and regulations of the "Children's Houses" 70
Chapter IV Pedagogical Methods Used in the "Children's Houses"
Child psychology can be established only through the method of external observation 72
Anthropological consideration 73
Anthropological notes 77
Environment and schoolroom furnishings 80
Chapter V Discipline
Discipline through liberty 86
Independence 95
Abolition of prizes and external forms of punishment 101
Biological concept of liberty in pedagogy 104
Chapter VI How the Lesson Should be Given
Characteristics of the individual lessons 107
Method of observation the fundamental guide 108
Difference between the scientific and unscientific methods illustrated 109
First task of educators to stimulate life, leaving it then free to develop 115
Chapter VII Exercises of Practical Life
Suggested schedule for the "Children's Houses" 119
The child must be prepared for the forms of social life and his attention attracted to these forms 121
Cleanliness, order, poise, conversation 122
Chapter VIII Refection--The Child's Diet
Diet must be adapted to the child's physical nature 125
Foods and their preparation 126
Drinks 132
Distribution of meals 133
Chapter IX Muscular Education--Gymnastics
Generally accepted idea of gymnastics is inadequate 137
The special gymnastics necessary for little children 138
Other pieces of gymnastic apparatus 141
Free gymnastics 144
Educational gymnastics 144
Respiratory gymnastics, and labial, dental, and lingual gymnastics 147
Chapter X Nature in Education--Agricultural Labour: Culture of Plants and Animals
The savage of the Aveyron 149
Itard's educative drama repeated in the education of little children 153
Gardening and horticulture basis of a method for education of children 155
The child initiated into observation of the phenomena of life and into foresight by way of auto-education 156
Children are initiated into the virtue of patience and into confident expectation, and are inspired with a feeling for nature 159
The child follows the natural way of development of the human race 160
Chapter XI Manual Labour--The Potter's Art, and Building
Difference between manual labour and manual gymnastics 162
The School of Educative Art 163
Archaeological, historical, and artistic importance of the vase 164
Manufacture of diminutive bricks and construction of diminutive walls and houses 165
Chapter XII Education of the Senses
Aim of education to develop the energies 168
Difference in the reaction between deficient and normal children in the presentation of didactic material made up of graded stimuli 169
Education of the senses has as its aim the refinement of the differential perception of stimuli by means of repeated exercises 173
Three Periods of Seguin 177
Chapter XIII Education of the Senses and Illustrations of the Didactic Material: General Sensibility: The Tactile, Thermic, Baric and Stereognostic Senses
Education of the tactile, thermic and baric senses 185
Education of the stereognostic sense 188
Education of the senses of taste and smell 190
Education of the sense of vision 191
Exercises with the three series of cards 199
Education of the chromatic sense 200
Exercise for the discrimination of sounds 203
Musical education 206
Tests for acuteness of hearing 209
A lesson in silence 212
Chapter XIV General Notes on the Education of the Senses
Aim in education biological and social 215
Education of the senses makes men observers and prepares them directly for practical life 218
Chapter XV Intellectual Education
Sense exercises a species of auto-education 224
Importance of an exact nomenclature, and how to teach it 225
Spontaneous progress of the child the greatest triumph of Scientific Pedagogy 228
Games of the blind 231
Application of the visual sense to the observation of environment 232
Method of using didactic material: dimensions, form, design 233
Free plastic work 241
Geometric analysis of figures 243
Exercises in the chromatic sense 244
Chapter XVI Method for the Teaching of Reading and Writing
Spontaneous development of graphic language: Seguin and Itard 246
Necessity of a special education that shall fit man for objective observation and direct logical thought 252
Results of objective observation and logical thought 253
Not necessary to begin teaching writing with vertical strokes 257
Spontaneous drawing of normal children 258
Use of Froebel mats in teaching children sewing 260
Children should be taught how before they are made to execute a task 261
Two diverse forms of movement made in writing 262
Experiments with normal children 267
Origin of aphabets in present use 269
Chapter XVII Description of the Method and Didactic Material Used
Exercise tending to develop the muscular mechanism necessary in holding and using the instrument in writing 271
Didactic material for writing 271
Exercise tending to establish the visual-muscular image of the alphabetical signs, and to establish the muscular memory of the movements necessary to writing 275
Exercises for the composition of words 281
Reading, the interpretation of an idea from written signs 296
Games for the reading of words 299
Games for the reading of phrases 303
Point education has reached in the "Children's Houses" 307
Chapter XVIII Language in Childhood
Physiological importance of graphic language 310
Two periods in the development of language 312
Analysis of speech necessary 319
Defects of language due to education 322
Chapter XIX Teaching of Numeration: Introduction to Arithmetic
Numbers as represented by graphic signs 328
Exercises for the memory of numbers 330
Addition and subtraction from one to twenty: multiplication and division 332
Lessons on decimals: arithmetical calculations beyond ten 335
Chapter XX Sequence of Exercises
Sequence and grades in the presentation of material and in the exercises 338
First grade 338
Second grade 339
Third grade 342
Fourth grade 343
Fifth grade 345
Chapter XXI General Review of Discipline
Discipline better than in ordinary schools 346
First dawning of discipline comes through work 350
Orderly action is the true rest for muscles intended by nature for action 354
The exercise that develops life consists in the repetition, not in the mere grasp of the idea 358
Aim of repetition that the child shall refine his senses through the exercise of attention, of comparison, of judgment 360
Obedience is naturally sacrifice 363
Obedience develops will-power and the capacity to perform the act it becomes necessary to obey 367
Chapter XXII Conclusions and Impressions
The teacher has become the director of spontaneous work in the "Children's Houses" 371
The problems of religious education should be solved by positive pedagogy 372
Spiritual influence of the "Children's Houses" 376
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  • Posted January 10, 2011

    just thought id put this out there

    well i havent read this book yet, but i went to a montessori school and this method works.. im ahead of everyone in every class.. if ur trying to decide where to send ur kids, send them to montessori.... :)

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