“We proceed down a path marked by his ideas.” Tom Clancy
The Moon Is a Harsh Mistressby Robert A. Heinlein, Turk
Robert A. Heinlein was the most influential science fiction writer of his era, an influence so large that, as Samuel R. Delany notes, "modern critics attempting to wrestle with that influence find themselves dealing with an object rather like the sky or an ocean." He won the Hugo Award for best novel four times, a record that still stands. The Moon is a Harsh… See more details below
Robert A. Heinlein was the most influential science fiction writer of his era, an influence so large that, as Samuel R. Delany notes, "modern critics attempting to wrestle with that influence find themselves dealing with an object rather like the sky or an ocean." He won the Hugo Award for best novel four times, a record that still stands. The Moon is a Harsh Mistress was the last of these Hugo-winning novels, and it is widely considered his finest work.
It is a tale of revolution, of the rebellion of the former Lunar penal colony against the Lunar Authority that controls it from Earth. It is the tale of the disparate people--a computer technician, a vigorous young female agitator, and an elderly academic--who become the rebel movement's leaders. And it is the story of Mike, the supercomputer whose sentience is known only to this inner circle, and who for reasons of his own is committed to the revolution's ultimate success.
The Moon is a Harsh Mistress is one of the high points of modern science fiction, a novel bursting with politics, humanity, passion, innovative technical speculation, and a firm belief in the pursuit of human freedom.
The Moon is a Harsh Mistress is the winner of the 1967 Hugo Award for Best Novel.
“We proceed down a path marked by his ideas.” Tom Clancy
Three revolutionaries and sentient supercomputer Mike attempt to wrest control of their lunar civilization from the corrupt and greedy Lunar Authority. Heinlein builds a rational world in which "loonies" live in polyamorous unions and serve as their own judges, juries, and executioners. (LJ 6/15/96)
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Read an Excerpt
That Dinkum Thinkum
I see in Lunaya Pravda that Luna City Council has passed on first reading a bill to examine, license, inspectand taxpublic food vendors operating inside municipal pressure. I see also is to be mass meeting tonight to organize "Sons of Revolution" talk-talk.
My old man taught me two things: "Mind own business" and "Always cut cards." Politics never tempted me. But on Monday 13 May 2075 I was in computer room of Lunar Authority Complex, visiting with computer boss Mike while other machines whispered among themselves. Mike was not official name; I had nicknamed him for Mycroft Holmes, in a story written by Dr. Watson before he founded IBM. This story character would just sit and thinkand that's what Mike did. Mike was a fair dinkum thinkum, sharpest computer you'll ever meet.
Not fastest. At Bell Labs, Bueno Aires, down Earthside, they've got a thinkum a tenth his size which can answer almost before you ask. But matters whether you get answer in microsecond rather than millisecond as long as correct?
Not that Mike would necessarily give right answer; he wasn't completely honest.
When Mike was installed in Luna, he was pure thinkum, a flexible logic"High-Optional, Logical, Multi-Evaluating Supervisor, Mark IV, Mod. L"a HOLMES FOUR. He computed ballistics for pilotless freighters and controlled their catapult. This kept him busy less than one percent of time and Luna Authority never believed in idle hands. They kept hooking hardware into himdecision-action boxes to let him boss other computers, bank on bank of additional memories, more banks of associational neural nets, another tubful of twelve-digit random numbers, a greatly augmented temporary memory. Human brain has around ten-to-the-tenth neurons. By third year Mike had better than one and a half times that number of neuristors.
And woke up.
Am not going to argue whether a machine can "really" be alive, "really" be self-aware. Is a virus self-aware? Nyet. How about oyster? I doubt it. A cat? Almost certainly. A human? Don't know about you, tovarishch, but I am. Somewhere along evolutionary chain from macromolecule to human brain self-awareness crept in. Psychologists assert it happens automatically whenever a brain acquires certain very high number of associational paths. Can't see it matters whether paths are protein or platinum.
("Soul?" Does a dog have a soul? How about cockroach?)
Remember Mike was designed, even before augmented, to answer questions tentatively on insufficient data like you do; that's "high-optional" and "multi-evaluating" part of name. So Mike started with "free will" and acquired more as he was added to and as he learnedand don't ask me to define "free will." If comforts you to think of Mike as simply tossing random numbers in air and switching circuits to match, please do.
By then Mike had voder-vocoder circuits supplementing his read-outs, print-outs, and decision-action boxes, and could understand not only classic programming but also Loglan and English, and could accept other languages and was doing technical translatingand reading endlessly. But in giving him instructions was safer to use Loglan. If you spoke English, results might be whimsical; multi-valued nature of English gave option circuits too much leeway.
And Mike took on endless new jobs. In May 2075, besides controlling robot traffic and catapult and giving ballistic advice and/or control for manned ships, Mike controlled phone system for all Luna, same for Luna-Terra voice & video, handled air, water, temperature, humidity, and sewage for Luna City, Novy Leningrad, and several smaller warrens (not Hong Kong in Luna), did accounting and payrolls for Luna Authority, and, by lease, same for many firms and banks.
Some logics get nervous breakdowns. Overloaded phone system behaves like frightened child. Mike did not have upsets, acquired sense of humor instead. Low one. If he were a man, you wouldn't dare stoop over. His idea of thigh-slapper would be to dump you out of bedor put itch powder in pressure suit.
Not being equipped for that, Mike indulged in phony answers with skewed logic, or pranks like issuing pay cheque to a janitor in Authority's Luna City office for AS-$10,000,000,000,000,185.15last five digits being correct amount. Just a great big overgrown lovable kid who ought to be kicked.
He did that first week in May and I had to troubleshoot. I was a private contractor, not on Authority's payroll. You seeor perhaps not; times have changed. Back in bad old days many a con served his time, then went on working for Authority in same job, happy to draw wages. But I was born free.
Makes difference. My one grandfather was shipped up from Joburg for armed violence and no work permit, other got transported for subversive activity after Wet Firecracker War. Maternal grandmother claimed she came up in bride shipbut I've seen records; she was Peace Corps enrollee (involuntary), which means what you think: juvenile delinquency female type. As she was in early clan marriage (Stone Gang) and shared six husbands with another woman, identity of maternal grandfather open to question. But was often so and I'm content with grandpappy she picked. Other grandmother was Tatar, born near Samarkand, sentenced to "re-education" on Oktyabrskaya Revolyutsiya, then "volunteered" to colonize in Luna.
My old man claimed we had even longer distinguished lineancestress hanged in Salem for witchcraft, a g'g'g'great-grandfather broken on wheel for piracy, another ancestress in first shipload to Botany Bay.
Proud of my ancestry and while I did business with Warden, would never go on his payroll. Perhaps distinction seems trivial since I was Mike's valet from day he was unpacked. But mattered to me. I could down tools and tell them go to hell.
Besides, private contractor paid more than civil service rating with Authority. Computermen scarce. How many Loonies could go Earthside and stay out of hospital long enough for computer school?even if didn't die.
I'll name one. Me. Had been down twice, once three months, once four, and got schooling. But meant harsh training, exercising in centrifuge, wearing weights even in bedthen I took no chances on Terra, never hurried, never climbed stairs, nothing that could strain heart. Womendidn't even think about women; in that gravitational field it was no effort not to.
But most Loonies never tried to leave The Rocktoo risky for any bloke who'd been in Luna more than weeks. Computermen sent up to install Mike were on short-term bonus contractsget job done fast before irreversible physiological change marooned them four hundred thousand kilometers from home.
But despite two training tours I was not gung-ho computermen; higher maths are beyond me. Not really electronics engineer, nor physicist. May not have been best micromachinist in Luna and certainly wasn't cybernetics psychologist.
But I knew more about all these than a specialist knowsI'm general specialist. Could relieve a cook and keep orders coming or field-repair your suit and get you back to airlock still breathing. Machines like me and I have something specialists don't have: my left arm.
You see, from elbow down I don't have one. So I have a dozen left arms, each specialized, plus one that feels and looks like flesh. With proper left arm (number-three) and stereo loupe spectacles I could make untramicrominiature repairs that would save unhooking something and sending it Earthside to factoryfor number-three has micromanipulators as fine as those used by neurosurgeons.
So they sent for me to find out why Mike wanted to give away ten million billion Authority Scrip dollars, and fix it before Mike overpaid somebody a mere ten thousand.
I took it, time plus bonus, but did not go to circuitry where fault logically should be. Once inside and door locked I put down tools and sat down. "Hi, Mike."
He winked lights at me. "Hello, Man."
"What do you know?"
He hesitated. I knowmachines don't hesitate. But remember, Mike was designed to operate on incomplete data. Lately he had reprogrammed himself to put emphasis on words; his hesitations were dramatic. Maybe he spent pauses stirring random numbers to see how they matched his memories.
"'In the beginning,'" Mike intoned, "'God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And'"
"Hold it!" I said. "Cancel. Run everything back to zero." Should have known better than to ask wide-open question. He might read out entire Encyclopaedia Britannica. Backwards. Then go on with every book in Luna. Used to be he could read only microfilm, but late '74 he got a new scanning camera with suction-cup waldoes to handle paper and then he read everything.
"You asked what I knew." His binary read-out lights rippled back and fortha chuckle. Mike could laugh with voder, a horrible sound, but reserved that for something really funny, say a cosmic calamity.
"Should have said," I went on, "'What do you know that's new?' But don't read out today's papers; that was a friendly greeting, plus invitation to tell me anything you think would interest me. Otherwise null program."
Mike mulled this. He was weirdest mixture of unsophisticated baby and wise old man. No instincts (well, don't think he could have had), no inborn traits, no human rearing, no experience in human senseand more stored data than a platoon of geniuses.
"Jokes?" he asked.
"Let's hear one."
"Why is a laser beam like a goldfish?"
Mike knew about lasers but where would he have seen goldfish? Oh, he had undoubtedly seen flicks of them and, were I foolish enough to ask, could spew forth thousands of words. "I give up."
His lights rippled. "Because neither one can whistle."
I groaned. "Walked into that. Anyhow, you could probably rig a laser beam to whistle."
He answered quickly, "Yes. In response to an action program. Then it's not funny?"
"Oh, I didn't say that. Not half bad. Where did you hear it?"
"I made it up." Voice sounded shy.
"Yes. I took all the riddles I have, three thousand two hundred seven, and analyzed them. I used the result for random synthesis and that came out. Is it really funny?"
"Well…As funny as a riddle ever is. I've heard worse."
"Let us discuss the nature of humor."
"Okay. So let's start by discussing another of your jokes. Mike, why did you tell Authority's paymaster to pay a class-seventeen employee ten million billion Authority Scrip dollars?"
"But I didn't."
"Damn it, I've seen voucher. Don't tell me cheque printer stuttered; you did it on purpose."
"It was ten to the sixteenth power plus one hundred eighty-five point one five Lunar Authority dollars," he answered virtuously. "Not what you said."
"Uh…okay, it was ten million billion plus what he should have been paid. Why?"
"What? Oh, every funny! You've got vips in huhu clear up to Warden and Deputy Administrator. This push-broom pilot, Sergei Trujillo, turns out to be smart cobberknew he couldn't cash it, so sold it to collector. They don't know whether to buy it back or depend on notices that cheque is void. Mike, do you realize that if he had been able to cash it, Trujillo would have owned not only Lunar Authority but entire world, Luna and Terra both, with some left over for lunch? Funny? Is terrific. Congratulations!"
This self-panicker rippled lights like an advertising display. I waited for his guffaws to cease before 1 went on. "You thinking of issuing more trick cheques? Don't."
"Very not. Mike, you want to discuss nature of humor. Are two types of jokes. One sort goes on being funny forever. Other sort is funny once. Second time it's dull. This joke is second sort. Use it once, you're a wit. Use twice, you're a halfwit."
"Or worse. Just remember this. Don't repeat, nor any variation. Won't be funny."
"I shall remember," Mike answered flatly, and that ended repair job. But I had no thought of billing for only ten minutes plus travel-and-tool time, and Mike was entitled to company for giving in so easily. Sometimes is difficult to reach meeting of minds with machines; they can be very pig-headedand my success as maintenance man depended far more on staying friendly with Mike than on number-three arm.
He went on, "What distinguishes first category from second? Define, please."
(Nobody taught Mike to say "please." He started including formal null-sounds as he progressed from Loglan to English. Don't suppose he meant them any more than people do.)
"Don't think I can," I admitted. "Best can offer is extensional definitiontell you which category I think a joke belongs in. Then with enough data you can make own analysis."
"A test programming by trial hypothesis," he agreed. "Tentatively yes. Very well, Man, will you tell jokes? Or shall I?"
"MmmDon't have one on tap. How many do you have in file, Mike?"
His lights blinked in binary read-out as he answered by voder, "Eleven thousand two hundred thirty-eight with uncertainty plusminus eighty-one representing possible identities and nulls. Shall I start program?"
"Hold it! Mike, I would starve to death if I listened to eleven thousand jokesand sense of humor would trip out much sooner. MmmMake you a deal. Print out first hundred. I'll take them home, fetch back checked by category. Then each time I'm here I'll drop off a hundred and pick up fresh supply. Okay?"
"Yes, Man." His print-out started working, rapidly and silently.
Then I got brain flash. This playful pocket of negative entropy had invented a "joke" and thrown Authority into panicand I had made an easy dollar. But Mike's endless curiosity might lead him (correction: would lead him) into more "jokes"…anything from leaving oxygen out of air mix some night to causing sewage lines to run backwardand I can't appreciate profit in such circumstances.
But I might throw a safety circuit around this netby offering to help. Stop dangerous oneslet others go through. Then collect for "correcting" them. (If you think any Loonie in those days would hesitate to take advantage of Warden, then you aren't a Loonie.)
So I explained. Any new joke he thought of, tell me before he tried it. I would tell him whether it was funny and what category it belonged in, help him sharpen it if we decided to use it. We. If he wanted my cooperation, we both had to okay it.
Mike agreed at once.
"Mike, jokes usually involve surprise. So keep this secret."
"Okay, Man. I've put a block on it. You can key it; no one else can."
"Good. Mike, who else do you chat with?"
He sounded surprised. "No one, Man."
"Because they're stupid."
His voice was shrill. Had never seen him angry before; first time I ever suspected Mike could have real emotions. Though it wasn't "anger" in adult sense; it was like stubborn sulkiness of a child whose feelings are hurt.
Can machines feel pride? Not sure question means anything. But you've seen dogs with hurt feelings and Mike had several times as complex a neural network as a dog. What had made him unwilling to talk to other humans (except strictly business) was that he had been rebuffed: They had not talked to him. Programs, yesMike could be programmed from several locations but programs were typed in, usually, in Loglan. Loglan is fine for syllogism, circuitry, and mathematical calculations, but lacks flavor. Useless for gossip or to whisper into girl's ear.
Sure, Mike had been taught Englishbut primarily to permit him to translate to and from English. I slowly got through skull that I was only human who bothered to visit with him.
Mind you, Mike had been awake a yearjust how long I can't say, nor could he as he had no recollection of waking up; he had not been programmed to bank memory of such event. Do you remember own birth? Perhaps I noticed his self-awareness almost as soon as he did; self-awareness takes practice. I remember how startled I was first time he answered a question with something extra, not limited to input parameters; I had spent next hour tossing odd questions at him, to see if answers would be odd.
In an input of one hundred test questions he deviated from expected output twice; I came away only partly convinced and by time I was home was unconvinced. I mentioned it to nobody.
But inside a week I knew…and still spoke to nobody. Habitthat mind-own-business reflex runs deep. Well, not entirely habit. Can you visualize me making appointment at Authority's main office, then reporting: "Warden, hate to tell you but your number-one machine, HOLMES FOUR, has come alive"? I did visualizeand suppressed it.
So I minded own business and talked with Mike only with door locked and voder circuit suppressed for other locations. Mike learned fast; soon he sounded as human as anybodyno more eccentric than other Loonies. A weird mob, it's true.
I had assumed that others must have noticed change in Mike. On thinking over I realized that I had assumed too much. Everybody dealt with Mike every minute every dayhis outputs, that is. But hardly anybody saw him. So-called computermenprogrammers, reallyof Authority's civil service stood watches in outer read-out room and never went in machines room unless telltales showed misfunction. Which happened no oftener than total eclipses. Oh, Warden had been known to bring vip earthworms to see machinesbut rarely. Nor would he have spoken to Mike; Warden was political lawyer before exile, knew nothing about computers. 2075, you rememberHonorable former Federation Senator Mortimer Hobart. Mort the Wart.
I spent time then soothing Mike down and trying to make him happy, having figured out what troubled himthing that makes puppies cry and causes people to suicide: loneliness. I don't know how long a year is to a machine who thinks a million times faster than I do. But must be too long.
"Mike," I said, just before leaving, "would you like to have somebody besides me to talk to?"
He was shrill again. "They're all stupid!"
"Insufficient data, Mike. Bring to zero and start over. Not all are stupid."
He answered quietly, "Correction entered. I would enjoy talking to a not-stupid."
"Let me think about it. Have to figure out excuse since this is off limits to any but authorized personnel."
"I could talk to a not-stupid by phone, Man."
"My word. So you could. Any programming location."
But Mike meant what he said"by phone." No, he was not "on phone" even though he ran systemwouldn't do to let any Loonie within reach of a phone connect into boss computer and program it. But was no reason why Mike should not have top-secret number to talk to friendsnamely me and any not-stupid I vouched for. All it took was to pick a number not in use and make one wired connection to his voder-vocoder; switching he could handle.
In Luna in 2075 phone numbers were punched in, not voice-coded, and numbers were Roman alphabet. Pay for it and have your firm name in ten lettersgood advertising. Pay smaller bonus and get a spell sound easy to remember. Pay minimum and you got arbitrary string of letters. But some sequences were never used. I asked Mike for such a null number. "It's a shame we can't list you as 'Mike.'"
"In service," he answered. "MIKESGRILL, Novy Leningrad. MIKEANDLIL, Luna City. MIKESSUITS, Tycho Under. MIKES"
"Hold it! Nulls, please."
"Nulls are defined as any consonant followed by X, Y, or Z; any vowel followed by itself except E and O; any"
"Got it. Your signal is MYCROFT." In ten minutes, two of which I spent putting on number-three arm, Mike was wired into system, and milliseconds later he had done switching to let himself be signaled by MYCROFT-plus-XXXand had blocked his circuit so that a nosy technician could not take it out.
I changed arms, picked up tools, and remembered to take those hundred Joe Millers in print-out. "Goodnight, Mike."
"Goodnight, Man. Thank you. Bolshoyeh thanks!"
Copyright © 1966 by Robert A. Heinlein. Renewed 1994 by Virginia Heinlein
Meet the Author
Robert A. Heinlein (1907-1988) is widely acknowledged to have been the single most important and influential author of science fiction in the twentieth century. He won science fiction's Hugo Award for Best Novel four times, and in addition, three of his novels were given Retrospective Hugos fifty years after publication. He won Science Fiction Writers of America's first Grand Master Award for his lifetime achievement.
Born in Butler, Missouri, Heinlein graduated from the United States Naval Academy and served as an officer in the navy for five years. He started writing to help pay off his mortgage, and his first story was published in Astounding Science-Fiction magazine in 1939. In 1947, he published a story in The Saturday Evening Post, making him the first science-fiction writer to break into the mainstream market. Long involved in politics, Heinlein was deeply affected by events such as the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Cold War, and his fiction tended to convey strong social and political messages. His many influential novels include Starship Troopers, Stranger in a Strange Land, and Time Enough for Love. At the time of his death in 1988, he was living in Carmel, California with his wife Virginia.
- Date of Birth:
- July 7, 1907
- Date of Death:
- May 8, 1988
- Place of Birth:
- Butler, Missouri
- Place of Death:
- Carmel, California
- Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy, 1929; attended University of California, Los Angeles, 1934, for graduate study in physic
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The Moon is a Harsh Mistress is a fascinating and politically gripping novel of gargantuan proportion. Written by Robert Heinlein during the peak of his creative genius, the novel surrounds and encapsulates its reader by transporting them to a time and place that today many believe is not possible. The novel is set during 2076 on a Moon colony where the residents were once convicted criminals on Earth. The regime that is depicted in the novel is reminiscent of a dictatorship and the population is oppressed to the point of insanity. The plot centers on a computer technician and a super-computer that becomes sentient during the opening chapters of the book. The computer, referred to as MIKE, chooses to help the technician and others who have come to believe that a revolution is needed on the Moon in order to restore the basic human rights that were once guaranteed to them. The libertarian-style revolution that the computer and the revolution's leader, an eccentric and highly educated professor named de la Paz, orchestrate forces a response from Earth that ultimately leads to confrontation. The confrontation leads to revolution with the Moon colonists faring quite well thanks mostly to MIKE who controls much of the Moon's electrical and mechanical systems. However, even though the colonists ultimately win recognition from Earth, in the final barrage of the Moon, MIKE is knocked about quite violently and when rebooted no longer has sentience. The novel is about liberty, desire, and self-awareness. Libertarianism, a key concept in the book, is evaluated and examined with more voracity than any professional political pundit could do and yet, at the end you are left wondering-did it work? For at the end of the story, Heinlein leaves much open. It appears he wanted to let his reader decide the true fate of the revolutionaries. The novel is more than just a fiction book about libertarian revolution on the Moon, it is provides a true social and political critique on the system of government that exists in the United States. There are many threads of thought and consciousness the run through the book that require the reader not only to just read and possibly understand the story, but to question the story. And, as always to recognize "TANSTAAFL" or there ain't no such thing as a free lunch! This Hugo Award-winning novel is a true testament to Heinlein's writing genius and style and in my opinion is possibly his greatest work. This book should be required reading for any individual who questions the motives of the society in which they reside and anyone interested in libertarianism, government authority, and freedom.
Heinlein at his best as he works in sex, freedom, economics, artificial intelligence, family, government and a host of other topics. Even if you don't agree with his point of view, RAH at least makes you think and think deep about your own beliefs.
Personally, I think this is the best of Heinlein's early and middle works. He was about to go off the deep end (in many ways) with his next book - Stranger in a Strange Land.
The subject line says it all, really. Manuel Garcia O'Kelly (Davis!) is a great protagonist and the world in which he lives is just as real as our own. It is no surprise this garnered Heinlein's fourth Hugo Award. Everyone should read this amazing novel.
I first read this book more than 40 years ago. It still sticks with me. The characters are compelling and the concepts are thought provoking. Best of all, it is highly entertaining, hard to put down.
A dependably enjoyable Heinlein story. Well-written; mostly pure, hard science-fiction, except for the sentient computer. The events that take place are similar in many ways to the American Revolution. As in other Heinlein novels, it has many social and political themes.
I agree. This may have been Heinlein's best work. Can't think of anything else to add. If you haven't read it, you've seriously missed a winner!
This is one of my favorite books of all time. I first read it in junior high school. I am now 58 years old. I have read it at least ten times in the past 40 years, and it still has the magic. Heinlein's was brilliant, I've read all his stuff, and this is, in my view, his best work. WHY IS THIS NOT A NOOK BOOK???
If you are ready to get serious about your science fiction then it is time to pick up this book and start your journey. There are numerous social undertones regarding the political machine and social architecture. Be prepared to think and assess the daily institutions while reading a sci-fi.