Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance and Leadership Success

Overview

"The authors offer a timely, important, and practical personal guidance system that anyone in the business world would do well to adopt. The world of business would be vastly improved if Moral Intelligence became required reading.”

Daniel Goleman, Author of Emotional Intelligence

“Lennick and Kiel are consulting masters who guide us the way they live–with moral intelligence. They prove that you don’t have to sacrifice your soul to lead productively.”

Richard J. Leider, ...

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Overview

"The authors offer a timely, important, and practical personal guidance system that anyone in the business world would do well to adopt. The world of business would be vastly improved if Moral Intelligence became required reading.”

Daniel Goleman, Author of Emotional Intelligence

“Lennick and Kiel are consulting masters who guide us the way they live–with moral intelligence. They prove that you don’t have to sacrifice your soul to lead productively.”

Richard J. Leider, Founder, The Inventure Group and bestselling Author of Repacking Your Bags and The Power of Purpose

“We live in an increasingly competitive and global world. Increasingly, ‘the end justifies the means.’ This often results in the loss of our moral compass. Lennick and Kiel show usthat the truly great business leaders never sacrifice moral integrity for financial goals and that maintaining the highest ethical standards is not only the ‘right’ thing to do, it produces the best companies and the best results.”

Paul Fribourg, CEO of Conti-Group Companies and Chairman, Lauder

Institute,Wharton Business School

Moral Intelligence demonstrates compellingly that doing what is right morally and doing what is right for your business are inseparable. Lennick and Kiel cite numerous business cases where the moral decision was also the smartest strategic decision. Importantly, they provide practical advice and exercises to help readers assess and strengthen their own moral competence and effectiveness as leaders. For CEOs and other decision makers, Moral Intelligence makes good business sense.”

Dick Harrington, CEO of The Thomson Corporation

“It should be obvious by now–our private enterprise system needs to revisit its role in our society. The questions are:What changes are in order and how can they be achieved? Moral Intelligence addresses these questions and provides tools to implement the answers.”

Irvine O. Hockaday, Jr., President/CEO–Hallmark Cards, Inc. (Ret.)

“Moral Intelligence is the foundation of moral authority, which alone enables formal authority to work–sustainable over time. This conscience-challenging book drills deep into both the science and the practical how-tos in building universal principle-centered values into our lives and cultures. A motivating and inspiring read!”

Dr. Stephen R. Covey, Author, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and The 8th Habit: From Effectiveness to Greatness

Moral Intelligence is excellent reading for new entrants to the business world as well as experienced managers. I found numerous examples that were right on point with actual events that I have experienced in over 40 years of managing. It was also helpful to have the topics presented in the context of current events that hold the readers’ interest. This book should be on the reading list of every student regardless of their career choice.”

Larry Pinnt, Chairman, Cascade Natural Gas

“At a time when capitalism faces questions of legitimacy brought on by poor leadership behaviors, this book provides a healthy way of thinking of the internal compass that can avoid corporate atrocities.”

Mike McGavick, CEO & Chairman of Safeco Corporation

“This book identifies the traits which identify value-oriented corporate leaders and provides a practical primer to a business person to identify and emulate these critical traits. It is essential reading for anyone who believes that this is the way the world is going.”

Mike Phillips, Chairman, Russell Investment Group

“In their new book, Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel bring to the business world a much needed moral guidance system. Given the worldwide erosion of trust in American business, the authors’ user-friendly tools and concepts arrive not a moment too soon.”

Keith Reinhard, Chairman, DDB Worldwide and President, Business for

Diplomatic Action

Visit: www.moralcompass.com

This new, paperback version contains a new Epilogue with updated information on many of the companies and case studies discussed in the original hardback version.

There is a powerful correlation between strong moral principles and business success. In this book, two globally respected leadership experts illuminate that connection, define the specific competencies that comprise “moral intelligence,” and show exactly how to promote it throughout your organization.

Drawing on extensive original research, Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel demonstrate how the best performing companies have leaders with a strong moral compass and the ability to follow it–even in a world that may reward bad behavior in the short run.

Lennick and Kiel identify and help you build the moral skills leaders need most, including integrity, responsibility, compassion, and forgiveness. They offer realistic guidance on being a moral leader in both large organizations and entrepreneurial ventures: guidance reflecting decades of experience coaching executives at the very highest levels.

Moral Intelligence also introduces the breakthrough Moral Competency Inventory (MCI): an indispensable metric to assess where you and your organization stand right now.

In recent years, companies have discovered the value of Emotional Intelligence (EI). But EI isn’t enough: only leaders with strong moral intelligence can build the trust and commitment that are the foundation of truly great businesses. Be one of those leaders, lead one of those companies, with Moral Intelligence.

Foreword xxi

Introduction xxix

PART ONE: MORAL INTELLIGENCE

Chapter 1: Good Business 3

Chapter 2: Born to Be Moral 19

Chapter 3: Your Moral Compass 37

Chapter 4: Staying True to Your Moral Compass 63

PART TWO: DEVELOPING MORAL SKILLS

Chapter 5: Integrity 79

Chapter 6: Responsibility 93

Chapter 7: Compassion and Forgiveness 105

Chapter 8: Emotions 115

PART THREE: MORAL LEADERSHIP

Chapter 9: The Moral Leader 141

Chapter 10: Leading Large Organizations 157

Chapter 11: Moral Intelligence for the Entrepreneur 185

Epilogue: Becoming a Global Moral Leader 207

Epilogue: Update on Moral Intelligence’s Cast of Characters 215

Appendix A: Strengthening Your Moral Skills 239

Appendix B: Moral Competency Inventory (MCI) 251

Appendix C: Scoring the MCI 259

Appendix D: Interpreting Your MCI Scores 265

Index 273

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Doug Lennick’s career as an executive, sales manager, and a developer of people is legendary. Today, in addition to his work as a founding member of the Lennick Aberman Group, Doug continues to work directly with Ken Chenault, CEO of American Express and Jim Cracchiolo, CEO of Ameriprise Financial, formerly American Express Financial Advisors. Although no longer full time, Doug retains the title of EVP at Ameriprise Financial. As a senior advisor to Ken and Jim, Doug’s focus is on workforce culture and performance. As a leader, a coach, and a mentor, Doug has taught thousands how to be successful in both their personal and professional lives.

In the early 1990s, Doug was one of two (the other being Jim Mitchell) senior managers at American Express responsible for championing, developing, and implementing the Emotional Competence training program that was recognized by the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations as a model program. Doug’s work and American Express’s Emotional Competence program were recognized in Daniel Goleman’s Working with Emotional Intelligence and in Tony Schwartz’ Fortune magazine article on the same topic. In The Power of Purpose, Richard Leider referred to Doug as the “spiritual leader” of the company.

Doug lives in Edina, Minnesota, with his wife, Beth Ann, and their youngest daughter, Joan. Doug’s son Alan is an actor and a financial advisor living in New York City with his wife Sari, and Doug’s oldest daughter, Mary, attends Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut.

lennickaberman.com

612-333-8791

dlennick@lennickaberman.com

One of the “founding fathers” of the field of executive coaching, Fred Kiel began challenging senior executives in the mid-1970s to improve their leadership skills. Trained as a Ph.D. counseling psychologist, he left the private practice world in the mid-1980s and has since devoted his fulltime career to the field now known as executive coaching. He serves as the coach to several CEOs. He is working on his next book, What CEOs Believe and How It Impacts the Bottom Line.

In 1987, he formed a partnership with Eric Rimmer in the UK and by 1991, he and Eric joined forces with Kathryn Williams to form KRW International, which has grown into a boutique of mostly Ph.D.-level coaches, internationally recognized for their expertise in the leadership demands of the C-Suite.

Fred lives on his organic farm in Southeastern Minnesota, in the midst of cold running trout streams and Amish farms, along with his wife, Sandy and youngest daughter, Freda. Sandy is the innkeeper for the Inn at Sacred Clay Farm–their country inn bed and breakfast with five luxury guest rooms and meeting space for small groups.

krwinternational.com

612-338-3020

kiel@krw-intl.com

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Read an Excerpt

ForewordForewordBuilding a Better Culture

There are few issues with more significant impact on life in and out of organizations today than that of moral action. Crusades and jihads are moral righteousness taken to harmful and even evil extents—hurting others and demanding homogeneity of beliefs. The moral righteousness involved in trying to fix, save, or punish others has led to some of the most horrible episodes in human existence. Beyond the tragic loss of life, there is the subjugation of the human spirit. There is the loss of dreams and possibilities—the loss of spirit. Ironically, this travesty of moral imperialism comes at the same time as people worldwide are voicing the need for more spirituality and religion.

Most of us know right from wrong. In hundreds of studies of the characteristics that differentiate outstanding from average leaders from their less effective counterparts (both average and poor performers), integrity has never appeared to distinguish high performers. Is this evidence of a morally bankrupt system? No. It is that the moments of "out-tegrity" are so egregious and shocking that we become preoccupied with them. In the process, we miss the many tests of our morality and humanity that we face each day. For example, deciding how to promote a product or service is enacted in the context of one's values and an organizational culture that encourages consistency with a set of shared beliefs and norms.

The essential challenge of moral intelligence is not knowing right from wrong, but doing versus knowing. There are people who are suffering from mental illness and a small percentage of the population that are psychopathsor sociopaths. All of these people may not "know" right from wrong. But most of us are not in that category. So why don't we act appropriately more often? Most of us do—most of the time. Of the hundreds of decisions we make each day, most of us consider what is "right," what will be better and help our community, organization, and fellow humans. But we don't always agree on what is right.Values and Operating Philosophy

This is where values and philosophy come into play. Our values are based on beliefs and determine our attitudes. A value typically includes an evaluation (i.e., good or bad designation) of an object or subject. Sets of values form proscriptions and prescriptions (i.e., statements of what not to do and what to do) that guide our daily life. Values also affect how we interpret and perceive things and events around us. But decades of research on values have shown little correlation to behavior.1

To understand people's actions, we have to look behind specific values to uncover how an individual determines value. This can be called a person's "operating philosophy." Research into typical operating philosophies has resulted in a test that allows us to measure a person's relative dominance among three different ways to determine the value of a act, a project, a decision, how to spend your time, and so forth.2 Our philosophy is the way we determine values.

For example, a consultant lists "family" as a dominant value, but still spends five days a week away from his wife and two children, traveling for his job. He says he's enacting his value by providing enough money for his family's needs. By contrast, a manufacturing manager who also lists "family" as his dominant value has turned down promotions so he can have dinner each night with his wife and children.

The difference between those two men might be in how aware they are of their true values, how aligned their actions are with those values, or in the way they interpret their values. Accordingly, they reveal deep differences in how each values people, organizations, and activities. Such differences may reflect disparate operating philosophies—the most common of which are pragmatic, intellectual, and humanistic.3 And although no one philosophy is "better" than another, each drives people's actions, thoughts, and feelings in distinctive ways.

The central theme of a pragmatic philosophy is a belief that usefulness determines the worth of an idea, effort, person, or organization.4 People with this philosophy often measure things to assess their value, and believe that they're largely responsible for the events of their lives. No surprise, then, that among the emotional intelligence competencies, pragmatics rank high in self-management. Unfortunately, their individualistic orientation often—but not always—pulls them into using an individual contribution approach to management.

The central theme of an intellectual philosophy5 is the desire to understand people, things, and the world by constructing an image of how they work, thereby providing them some emotional security in predicting the future. People with this philosophy rely on logic in making decisions, and assess the worth of something against an underlying "code" or set of guidelines that stress reason. People with this outlook rely heavily on cognitive competencies, sometimes to the exclusion of social competencies. You might hear someone with an intellectual philosophy say, for example: "If you have an elegant solution, others will believe it. No need to try to convince them about its merits." They can use a visionary leadership style, if the vision describes a well-reasoned future.

The central theme of a humanistic philosophy is that close, personal relationships give meaning to life6. People with this philosophy are committed to human values; family and close friends are seen as more important than other relationships. They assess the worth of an activity in terms of how it affects their close relations. Similarly, loyalty is valued over mastery of a job or skill. Where a pragmatist's philosophy might lead her to "sacrifice the few for the many," a humanistic leader would view each person's life as important, naturally cultivating the social awareness and relationship management competencies. Accordingly, they gravitate toward styles that emphasize interaction with others.

Each one of us believes in these three value orientations (i.e., pragmatic value, intellectual value, and human value). But most of us will prioritize three value orientations differently at different stages in our lives.

The point is that we have to be more aware both of our values and how we value—our philosophy. We need to be sensitive to those who have different values and different philosophies if we are to live together and make the world a better place. And we need to be sensitive to such differences if we are to have adaptive, resilient, and innovative organizations. Diversity brings us innovation, but only if we are open to it and respect it.

In this book, Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel define moral intelligence as, "the mental capacity to determine how universal human principles should be applied to our values, goals, and actions." They argue we are "hard wired" to be moral but often stray from the path. Within each of us are the values and basis for our moral compass. Each of us should pay attention to our moral compass often—more often than we do. Lennick and Kiel's exploration of this topic could not have come at a more important time.Cultural Relativism and Moral Horizons of Significance

We are exposed to the vast differences in the world on the Internet, television, movies, and newspapers. We see it in our organizations and schools. We see it walking down the street of most cities of the world. Is every culture and subgroup within it assured that its values and philosophy are "OK" with the rest of us? Maybe not.

In his 1991 book, The Ethics of Authenticity, McGill University Professor and prominent philosopher, Charles Taylor, claimed that cultural relativism and postmodernism both violated basic ethical standards.7 He claimed that cultural relativism ("everyone has their own morality based on their situation and culture") taken to its ultimate conclusion becomes moral anarchy. It breeds a form of egocentrism and selfishness. It suggests everyone is in their own world. Similar to the argument in Moral Intelligence, Taylor suggests that there are, among humans and society, "moral horizons of significance." These are the universals that Lennick and Kiel propose are so crucial to organizational success. We know it is wrong to kill another human. But we can be brought to that point by contingencies. Is it acceptable to kill someone to defend your family? To get food for yourself? To take their shirt or sneakers because you like them and cannot afford to buy them? Because they annoy you? Because they have insulted your faith? Taylor's concept is central to the application of the ideas in this book. How do we determine what exceptions to moral universals are justified and which show a lack of moral intelligence?

But this brings us back to whose values and philosophy are right or more right than the others? Without a high degree of moral intelligence, Lennick and Kiel illustrate in their book with marvelous and moving stories, we fall back into fighting to defend our own views as best—and imposing them on others.

In deconstructing the components of moral intelligence, Lennick and Kiel show us how four clusters of skills integrate to form this capability: integrity, responsibility, compassion and forgiveness, and emotions. They offer many ideas as to how we can use our moral intelligence to evoke moral intelligence in others. Their combined effect will be more effective organizations. Why? First, we will be proud of where we work and for what it stands. Therefore, we will feel more committed to the organization, its culture, and vision. Third, we will access and utilize more of our own talent (and that of others around us) because we are free from guilt and shame. And fourth, it is the right thing to do!Believing and Belonging

There is another crucial business impact from values, philosophy, and collective moral intelligence—they form the basis of our organizational vision, purpose, and culture. We want to believe in what we are doing. We want to feel that we are contributing and our work has some meaning. But looming labor pool demographics and skill shortages suggest that, as McKinsey and Company said, we are in a "war for talent."8 This will become a battle for the hearts and minds (and even the spirit) of people your organization wishes to attract, keep, and motivate. Over the course of the next decades, an organization's vision, sense of purpose, and culture will become even more significant recruitment differentiators to discerning job applicants.Moral Intelligence

In the following pages, you will be provoked into reflecting on your own beliefs and style of using them. You will be inspired by reading about effective executives with high moral intelligence. You will be ashamed and embarrassed reading about ineffective executives who do not seem to be able to spell moral intelligence, nonetheless, live it. The apparent simplicity of their argument and smoothness of their writing style should not be misunderstood. This material is deep and significant. The impact of moral intelligence is much more than the long-term success of your organization. It is the preservation of our civilization and species.

—-Richard E. Boyatzis January 31, 2005

  1. Michael Hechter. "Values research in the social and behavioral sciences." In Michael Hechter, Lynn Nadel, and Richard E. Michod, (eds.). The Origin of Values. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993.

  2. Gordon W. Allport, P.E.Vernon, and Garnder Lindzey, Study of Values. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960.; Chris Argyris and Don Schon, Theory in Practice Learning. San
    Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1982.; Clyde Kluckhohn. "Values and Value-Orientations in the Theory of Action." In
    Talcott Parson and E.A. Shils, eds. Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1951. pp. 388-433.; Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck. Variations in Value Orientations.
    Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson & Co, 1961.; Milton Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values. New
    York: Free Press, 1973.; Shalom H. Schwartz, "Universals in the Content
    and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries," Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, volume 25. NY:
    Academic Press, 1992. pp. 1-65.; Michael Hechter, "Values Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences," In
    Michael Hechter, Lynn Nadel, and Richard.E. Michod, eds. The Origin of Values. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993. pp. 1-28.

  3. "Assessing Your Operating Philosophy: The Philosophical Orientation Questionnaire" measures the relative dominance of each of these three for the person. Richard E. Boyatzis, Angela J. Murphy, and Jane V. Wheeler, "Philosophy
    as a Missing Link Between Values and Behavior," Psychological Reports, 86 (2000): pp. 47-64.

  4. The Pragmatic Operating Philosophy emerged from "pragmatism" (as reflected in the works of John Dewey, William James, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Richard Rorty, ), "consequentialism" (as reflected in the works of C.D. Johnson, and P. Pettit), "instrumentalism" (as reflected in the works of John Dewey), and "utilitarianism" (as
    reflected in the works of Jeremy Bentham, and John Stuart Mill). See the Boyatzis,
    Murphy, and Wheeler article cited earlier for the full references.

  5. The Intellectual Operating Philosophy emerged from "rationalism" (as
    reflected in the works of Rene Descartes, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Benedict
    de Spinoza), and the various philosophers claiming rationalism as their etiological
    root, such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Jurgen Habermas, as well as
    the philosophical structuralists (Claude Levi-Strauss and Jean Piaget), and
    postmodernists (Friedrich Nietzsche). See the Boyatzis, Murphy, and Wheeler
    article cited earlier for the full references.

  6. The Human Operating Philosophy emerged from "communitarianism" (W. F. Brundage), "hermeneutics" (Hans-Georg Gadamer), "humanism" (Francesco Petrarch and R.W. Sellars), and "collectivism" (R.
    Burlingame and W.H. Chamberlin).

  7. Charles Taylor. The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

  8. Elizabeth Chambers, Mark Foulon, Helen Hanfield-Jones, Steven Hankin, and Edward Michaels, III. The War for Talent. The Mckinsey Quarterly, #3, 1998.


© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xxi

Introduction xxix

PART ONE: MORAL INTELLIGENCE

Chapter 1: Good Business 3

Chapter 2: Born to Be Moral 19

Chapter 3: Your Moral Compass 37

Chapter 4: Staying True to Your Moral Compass 63

PART TWO: DEVELOPING MORAL SKILLS

Chapter 5: Integrity 79

Chapter 6: Responsibility 93

Chapter 7: Compassion and Forgiveness 105

Chapter 8: Emotions 115

PART THREE: MORAL LEADERSHIP

Chapter 9: The Moral Leader 141

Chapter 10: Leading Large Organizations 157

Chapter 11: Moral Intelligence for the Entrepreneur 185

Epilogue: Becoming a Global Moral Leader 207

Epilogue: Update on Moral Intelligence’s Cast of Characters 215

Appendix A: Strengthening Your Moral Skills 239

Appendix B: Moral Competency Inventory (MCI) 251

Appendix C: Scoring the MCI 259

Appendix D: Interpreting Your MCI Scores 265

Index 273

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Preface

Foreword

Building a Better Culture

There are few issues with more significant impact on life in and out of organizations today than that of moral action. Crusades and jihads are moral righteousness taken to harmful and even evil extents—hurting others and demanding homogeneity of beliefs. The moral righteousness involved in trying to fix, save, or punish others has led to some of the most horrible episodes in human existence. Beyond the tragic loss of life, there is the subjugation of the human spirit. There is the loss of dreams and possibilities—the loss of spirit. Ironically, this travesty of moral imperialism comes at the same time as people worldwide are voicing the need for more spirituality and religion.

Most of us know right from wrong. In hundreds of studies of the characteristics that differentiate outstanding from average leaders from their less effective counterparts (both average and poor performers), integrity has never appeared to distinguish high performers. Is this evidence of a morally bankrupt system? No. It is that the moments of "out-tegrity" are so egregious and shocking that we become preoccupied with them. In the process, we miss the many tests of our morality and humanity that we face each day. For example, deciding how to promote a product or service is enacted in the context of one's values and an organizational culture that encourages consistency with a set of shared beliefs and norms.

The essential challenge of moral intelligence is not knowing right from wrong, but doing versus knowing. There are people who are suffering from mental illness and a small percentage of the population that are psychopaths or sociopaths. All of these people may not "know" right from wrong. But most of us are not in that category. So why don't we act appropriately more often? Most of us do—most of the time. Of the hundreds of decisions we make each day, most of us consider what is "right," what will be better and help our community, organization, and fellow humans. But we don't always agree on what is right.

Values and Operating Philosophy

This is where values and philosophy come into play. Our values are based on beliefs and determine our attitudes. A value typically includes an evaluation (i.e., good or bad designation) of an object or subject. Sets of values form proscriptions and prescriptions (i.e., statements of what not to do and what to do) that guide our daily life. Values also affect how we interpret and perceive things and events around us. But decades of research on values have shown little correlation to behavior. 1

To understand people's actions, we have to look behind specific values to uncover how an individual determines value. This can be called a person's "operating philosophy." Research into typical operating philosophies has resulted in a test that allows us to measure a person's relative dominance among three different ways to determine the value of a act, a project, a decision, how to spend your time, and so forth. 2 Our philosophy is the way we determine values.

For example, a consultant lists "family" as a dominant value, but still spends five days a week away from his wife and two children, traveling for his job. He says he's enacting his value by providing enough money for his family's needs. By contrast, a manufacturing manager who also lists "family" as his dominant value has turned down promotions so he can have dinner each night with his wife and children.

The difference between those two men might be in how aware they are of their true values, how aligned their actions are with those values, or in the way they interpret their values. Accordingly, they reveal deep differences in how each values people, organizations, and activities. Such differences may reflect disparate operating philosophies—the most common of which are pragmatic, intellectual, and humanistic. 3 And although no one philosophy is "better" than another, each drives people's actions, thoughts, and feelings in distinctive ways.

The central theme of a pragmatic philosophy is a belief that usefulness determines the worth of an idea, effort, person, or organization. 4 People with this philosophy often measure things to assess their value, and believe that they're largely responsible for the events of their lives. No surprise, then, that among the emotional intelligence competencies, pragmatics rank high in self-management. Unfortunately, their individualistic orientation often—but not always—pulls them into using an individual contribution approach to management.

The central theme of an intellectual philosophy 5 is the desire to understand people, things, and the world by constructing an image of how they work, thereby providing them some emotional security in predicting the future. People with this philosophy rely on logic in making decisions, and assess the worth of something against an underlying "code" or set of guidelines that stress reason. People with this outlook rely heavily on cognitive competencies, sometimes to the exclusion of social competencies. You might hear someone with an intellectual philosophy say, for example: "If you have an elegant solution, others will believe it. No need to try to convince them about its merits." They can use a visionary leadership style, if the vision describes a well-reasoned future.

The central theme of a humanistic philosophy is that close, personal relationships give meaning to life 6 . People with this philosophy are committed to human values; family and close friends are seen as more important than other relationships. They assess the worth of an activity in terms of how it affects their close relations. Similarly, loyalty is valued over mastery of a job or skill. Where a pragmatist's philosophy might lead her to "sacrifice the few for the many," a humanistic leader would view each person's life as important, naturally cultivating the social awareness and relationship management competencies. Accordingly, they gravitate toward styles that emphasize interaction with others.

Each one of us believes in these three value orientations (i.e., pragmatic value, intellectual value, and human value). But most of us will prioritize three value orientations differently at different stages in our lives.

The point is that we have to be more aware both of our values and how we value—our philosophy. We need to be sensitive to those who have different values and different philosophies if we are to live together and make the world a better place. And we need to be sensitive to such differences if we are to have adaptive, resilient, and innovative organizations. Diversity brings us innovation, but only if we are open to it and respect it.

In this book, Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel define moral intelligence as, "the mental capacity to determine how universal human principles should be applied to our values, goals, and actions." They argue we are "hard wired" to be moral but often stray from the path. Within each of us are the values and basis for our moral compass. Each of us should pay attention to our moral compass often—more often than we do. Lennick and Kiel's exploration of this topic could not have come at a more important time.

Cultural Relativism and Moral Horizons of Significance

We are exposed to the vast differences in the world on the Internet, television, movies, and newspapers. We see it in our organizations and schools. We see it walking down the street of most cities of the world. Is every culture and subgroup within it assured that its values and philosophy are "OK" with the rest of us? Maybe not.

In his 1991 book, The Ethics of Authenticity, McGill University Professor and prominent philosopher, Charles Taylor, claimed that cultural relativism and postmodernism both violated basic ethical standards. 7 He claimed that cultural relativism ("everyone has their own morality based on their situation and culture") taken to its ultimate conclusion becomes moral anarchy. It breeds a form of egocentrism and selfishness. It suggests everyone is in their own world. Similar to the argument in Moral Intelligence, Taylor suggests that there are, among humans and society, "moral horizons of significance." These are the universals that Lennick and Kiel propose are so crucial to organizational success. We know it is wrong to kill another human. But we can be brought to that point by contingencies. Is it acceptable to kill someone to defend your family? To get food for yourself? To take their shirt or sneakers because you like them and cannot afford to buy them? Because they annoy you? Because they have insulted your faith? Taylor's concept is central to the application of the ideas in this book. How do we determine what exceptions to moral universals are justified and which show a lack of moral intelligence?

But this brings us back to whose values and philosophy are right or more right than the others? Without a high degree of moral intelligence, Lennick and Kiel illustrate in their book with marvelous and moving stories, we fall back into fighting to defend our own views as best—and imposing them on others.

In deconstructing the components of moral intelligence, Lennick and Kiel show us how four clusters of skills integrate to form this capability: integrity, responsibility, compassion and forgiveness, and emotions. They offer many ideas as to how we can use our moral intelligence to evoke moral intelligence in others. Their combined effect will be more effective organizations. Why? First, we will be proud of where we work and for what it stands. Therefore, we will feel more committed to the organization, its culture, and vision. Third, we will access and utilize more of our own talent (and that of others around us) because we are free from guilt and shame. And fourth, it is the right thing to do!

Believing and Belonging

There is another crucial business impact from values, philosophy, and collective moral intelligence—they form the basis of our organizational vision, purpose, and culture. We want to believe in what we are doing. We want to feel that we are contributing and our work has some meaning. But looming labor pool demographics and skill shortages suggest that, as McKinsey and Company said, we are in a "war for talent." 8 This will become a battle for the hearts and minds (and even the spirit) of people your organization wishes to attract, keep, and motivate. Over the course of the next decades, an organization's vision, sense of purpose, and culture will become even more significant recruitment differentiators to discerning job applicants.

Moral Intelligence

In the following pages, you will be provoked into reflecting on your own beliefs and style of using them. You will be inspired by reading about effective executives with high moral intelligence. You will be ashamed and embarrassed reading about ineffective executives who do not seem to be able to spell moral intelligence, nonetheless, live it. The apparent simplicity of their argument and smoothness of their writing style should not be misunderstood. This material is deep and significant. The impact of moral intelligence is much more than the long-term success of your organization. It is the preservation of our civilization and species.

—-Richard E. Boyatzis January 31, 2005


  1. Michael Hechter. "Values research in the social and behavioral sciences." In Michael Hechter, Lynn Nadel, and Richard E. Michod, (eds.). The Origin of Values. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993.
  2. Gordon W. Allport, P.E.Vernon, and Garnder Lindzey, Study of Values. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960.; Chris Argyris and Don Schon, Theory in Practice Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1982.; Clyde Kluckhohn. "Values and Value-Orientations in the Theory of Action." In Talcott Parson and E.A. Shils, eds. Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1951. pp. 388-433.; Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck. Variations in Value Orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson & Co, 1961.; Milton Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press, 1973.; Shalom H. Schwartz, "Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries," Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, volume 25. NY: Academic Press, 1992. pp. 1-65.; Michael Hechter, "Values Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences," In Michael Hechter, Lynn Nadel, and Richard.E. Michod, eds. The Origin of Values. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993. pp. 1-28.
  3. "Assessing Your Operating Philosophy: The Philosophical Orientation Questionnaire" measures the relative dominance of each of these three for the person. Richard E. Boyatzis, Angela J. Murphy, and Jane V. Wheeler, "Philosophy as a Missing Link Between Values and Behavior," Psychological Reports, 86 (2000): pp. 47-64.
  4. The Pragmatic Operating Philosophy emerged from "pragmatism" (as reflected in the works of John Dewey, William James, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Richard Rorty, ), "consequentialism" (as reflected in the works of C.D. Johnson, and P. Pettit), "instrumentalism" (as reflected in the works of John Dewey), and "utilitarianism" (as reflected in the works of Jeremy Bentham, and John Stuart Mill). See the Boyatzis, Murphy, and Wheeler article cited earlier for the full references.
  5. The Intellectual Operating Philosophy emerged from "rationalism" (as reflected in the works of Rene Descartes, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Benedict de Spinoza), and the various philosophers claiming rationalism as their etiological root, such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Jurgen Habermas, as well as the philosophical structuralists (Claude Levi-Strauss and Jean Piaget), and postmodernists (Friedrich Nietzsche). See the Boyatzis, Murphy, and Wheeler article cited earlier for the full references.
  6. The Human Operating Philosophy emerged from "communitarianism" (W. F. Brundage), "hermeneutics" (Hans-Georg Gadamer), "humanism" (Francesco Petrarch and R.W. Sellars), and "collectivism" (R. Burlingame and W.H. Chamberlin).
  7. Charles Taylor. The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
  8. Elizabeth Chambers, Mark Foulon, Helen Hanfield-Jones, Steven Hankin, and Edward Michaels, III. The War for Talent. The Mckinsey Quarterly, #3, 1998.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Introduction

Introduction

George Kline was a venture capitalist. For those who knew him in the business world, he seemed to be a person of high integrity and truly "Minnesota nice." But in 2003 George was sentenced to six and a half years in federal prison and fined $5.25 million for insider trading. His two sons were also convicted of felonies. News reports at the time recounted how trading stock tips over coffee breaks at the IDS Center in downtown Minneapolis had mushroomed into a massive deception that engulfed George, his sons and several business associates.

Contrast this to Craig Ueland's story. Craig is the CEO of the Russell Investment Group in Tacoma, Washington, a highly respected and admired international financial services company with over $100B in assets under management. It is owned by Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company in Milwaukee. Craig told us that when he was in college, it occurred to him that it would be useful for him to decide what principles and values he would honor as he entered his business career. He was an undergraduate at Stanford at the time and said he can still recall where he was walking on campus when he had this insight. Craig explained, "I decided that I would live by three principles. First, when faced with a major business decision, I would try to do what was best for society, next what was best for the business and finally, I would consider my own needs. Secondly, I decided that until I was thirty (later he changed this to age 35), when faced with a career decision, I would choose the opportunity that allowed me to learn the most and secondarily would consider themoney involved." Then Craig told us his third principle. "I vowed that I would take all my vacations!" This formula has obviously worked very well for Craig. He's at the peak of his career, is happily married and is a very engaged father for his two small children.

When George and Craig were both young college students, we imagine it would have been difficult to see any major differences between them – both from good homes, both very ambitious and both excited about moving into a business career. But Craig deliberately charted his life course in a way that George apparently neglected. One is now the CEO of a major global business and the other is participating in a government sponsored residential program – a federal prison camp!

In the middle nineties, well before the scandals of Enron and WorldCom and before the dot.com bubble burst, we had a conversation both authors vividly recall. Doug was then Executive Vice President of what?, for American Express Financial Advisors. Doug was well-known for developing a high performing sales force of financial advisors, and was an early champion of emotional intelligence skills training at American Express. Fred, a pioneer in the field of executive coaching, was a psychologist and co-founder of a leading executive development company, and then as now, actively engaged in helping senior executives improve their personal performance as leaders.

As we talked, we realized that we had some common ideas about the ingredients of high performance that we were both struggling to conceptualize. We agreed on the importance of emotional intelligence—the constellation of self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management skills that are now commonly regarded as critical to success in the workplace. 1 We discovered, though, that neither of us thought emotional intelligence was sufficient to assure consistent, long-term performance.

In the course of nearly thirty years we had collectively worked as business executives, entrepreneurs and leadership consultants to chief executives and senior leaders of Fortune 500 companies, large-privately held companies, and start-ups. We had each coached hundreds of leaders. The most successful of them all seemed to have something in common that went beyond insight, discipline, or interpersonal skill. We also spoke about noted public figures with masterful emotional intelligence skills who would sway like a reed in the wind when faced with morally loaded decisions. We hypothesized that there was something more basic than emotional intelligence skills-- a kind of moral compass--that seemed to us to be at the heart of long-lasting business success. We decided to label this "something more" moral intelligence.

Moral intelligence is "the mental capacity to determine how universal human principles should be applied to our values, goals and actions." In the simplest terms, moral intelligence is the ability to differentiate right from wrong as defined by the universal principles. Universal principles apply to all people, regardless of gender, ethnicity, religious belief or location on the globe.

Our shared notion that moral intelligence was key to effective leadership led us to wonder: How do leaders get to be moral—or not? Are people born that way? Does our human 'hardwiring' predispose us to be concerned for others? What accounts for the wide differences in moral behavior among leaders? Have we learned anything new about human nature over the past few decades that could help us understand the impact of moral sensibilities on leadership behavior? What do the fields of philosophy, social biology, developmental psychology, cultural anthropology and the neurosciences have to say about these questions?

Before progressing to further develop our hypothesis, we hired crackerjack researcher Orlo Otteson, to help us review the academic literature on the moral dimensions of human nature and experience. Orlo first reviewed 1800 article abstracts referencing moral leadership from the fields of business, religion, philosophy, anthropology, sociology and political science but found few in-depth moral leadership discussions. Most articles focused on a specific kind of leadership (business, political, religious), on a specific leadership problem, or on the general need for honest and upright leadership. He then surveyed nearly 400 books and articles on morality from the disciplines of philosophy, psychology, biology and neuroscience, distilling their insights as they applied to leadership and organizations.

Meanwhile we began to organize our observations of the many hundreds of leaders we had encountered in our work. As our conviction about the importance of moral intelligence grew, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 CEOs and 42 other senior executives to learn the precise ways that they deployed their moral intelligence to achieve important personal and business goals. We also discussed our ideas with many talented leaders and colleagues whose penetrating feedback helped us deepen and refine our approach to moral leadership.2

Scientific research supported our initial notions about the importance of moral intelligence for individuals, organizations, and societies. But it was our interviews and observations of leaders that taught us exactly how the best of them used their moral intelligence to overcome obstacles, consistently outperform their rivals, and quickly pick up the pieces when they occasionally missed the mark.

Analyzing their experiences, we have concluded that strong moral skills are not only an essential element of successful leadership, but a business advantage as well. Indeed, the most successful leaders in any company are likely to be trustworthy individuals who have a strong set of moral beliefs and the ability to put them into action. Furthermore, even in a world that occasionally rewards bad behavior, the fastest way to build a successful business is to hire those people with the highest moral and ethical skills you can find.

Business leaders have gotten a bad rap in the first years of this decade. Yes, of course, there are the "bad eggs" and they get a lot of press. But most business leaders are not like those in the newspapers. Consider, for example, a story we heard from Peter Georgescu, Chairman Emeritus of Young & Rubicam, who built a large advertising and marketing company and is widely known as an inspiring leader.

Back in the 1980's, Warner Lambert approached us because they wanted to diversify their consumer products by selling sunglasses. They already had a celebrity spokesperson lined up, and they wanted us to advise them on how to roll out the new product. They told us we were competing with five other agencies to produce the best campaign. After we did the research, our group concluded that Warner Lambert wasn't going to be able to get enough market share to make the new product line successful. We had a lot of debate about whether to present a campaign anyway, but finally, our group went to Warner Lambert and said, "We know this isn't what you want to hear, but we think the sunglasses line is a bad idea." We explained our reasoning. They looked a little surprised, said, "thank you," and that was the end of the meeting—we had no idea what they thought.

Then a few weeks later, Warner Lambert called us and said, "You know, we agree with your analysis. No other agency was smart enough or honest enough to tell us, but you did. We have decided not to launch the line. Because of your honesty, though, we are going to give you some other business with us, and you won't have to compete for it."

Of all the executives we have queried about their beliefs and values, not one has hinted that they are driven to get to the top at all costs, or that diddling with the books is a reasonable tactic for achieving results. Likewise, none have stated that their work is only about increasing shareholder value. True, we might have been hearing politically correct answers, but with only a little bit of further questioning, we discovered all the leaders we interviewed had a moral compass—a set of deeply-held beliefs and values—that drives their personal and professional lives. They revealed beliefs such as: being honest no matter what; standing up for what is right; being responsible and accountable for their actions; caring about the welfare of those who work for them; owning up to mistakes and failures. They told us vivid stories about how such beliefs played into the choices they made and the way they behaved. For some, it was the first time they had spoken out loud about their moral compass and its contribution to their business performance, because many of those we interviewed think they shouldn't wear their beliefs on their sleeves, and that discussions of moral values don't belong at work. We think work is exactly where moral values should be—and be discussed.

Why? All the leaders we interviewed recognized the importance of values to their business success. But the courageous ones who routinely communicate about their core beliefs and values – personal values as well as universal human principles they endorse – have discovered a great source of organizational energy. When a leader is explicit about what he or she believes and values, it becomes much easier for others to hold him or her accountable. Furthermore, it allows others who share those beliefs and values to say to themselves, "Hey, I agree with that. This is why I come to work, too! This is a place I can be myself and really be inspired to produce results." When a leader is explicit about what he or she believes and values, creates a vision, strategy and goals aligned with those values, and then behaves in alignment with all of that – followers respond with deep trust of their leader.

Four years into our research and experimentation with moral intelligence tools, the new century began and with it the corporate accounting scandals that dominated its headlines. We realized it was time to go public with our findings about the relationship between morality and business performance. While business practitioners were now defensively eager to discuss compliance-based ethics, no one we knew was focusing on the personal character, principles and moral skills that must be baked into every leader and every organization that wants to ensure long-term sustainable results.

The research which forms the basis of this book is largely observational and case-based.

Over the next several years, we plan to conduct quantitative research in partnership with academic and business institutions. We will be studying the relationship between leaders' moral intelligence and the long-term financial performance of their companies. But leaders who face today's urgent business challenges can't afford to wait for further research to confirm the importance of moral intelligence to their success. Countless leaders we have coached and trained in the last few years have told us that our methods for enhancing moral intelligence are making a difference in their own performance, helping them inspire higher performance in their workforces, and contributing to better financial results.

We offer this book as a roadmap for leaders to find and follow their moral compass. Although we believe that doing the right thing is right for its own sake, we are convinced that leaders who follow their moral compass will find that it is the right thing for their businesses as well. This book is not about telling you what is right or wrong. And it's not about helping you try to become a moral paragon. We are all imperfect, none more so than your authors. Though we all want to be our best, most ideal selves, we face daily obstacles and temptations that threaten our performance as leaders and our integrity as human beings. In this book we hope you will find the tools to become the best leader you can be. You—and your organization—deserve nothing less.

Leaders Interviewed

We are deeply indebted to the large group of leaders who contributed to our thinking and research. Our interview subjects were especially generous with their time and candid in their self-assessments.

Douglas Baker

CEO, Ecolab Inc.

Dan Brettler

CEO and Chairman, Car Toys, Inc.

Kenneth Chenault

CEO & Chairman, American Express Company

Stan Dardas

CEO & Chairman, Bremer Financial Group

Lynn Fantom

CEO ID Media

Paul Fribourg

CEO & Chairman, Conti-Group Companies

Peter Georgescu

Chairman Emeritus, Young & Rubicam

Harvey Golub

Chairman of the Board of Directors, Campbell's Soup Company, and Chairman and CEO (retired), American Express Company

Brian Hall

CEO, Thomson Legal & Regulatory Group

Don Hall, Jr.

CEO & Chairman, Hallmark Cards

Dick Harrington

CEO of The Thomson Corporation

David Hubers

CEO American Express Financial Advisors (retired)

Ken Kaess

CEO, DDB Worldwide

David Kenny

CEO & Chairman, Digitas, Inc.

Mike McGavick

CEO & Chairman, Safeco Insurance Company

Mark Oja

CEO ACTIVEAID

Larry Pinnt

Chairman, Cascade Natural Gas

Keith Reinhard

Chairman, DDB Worldwide

Spenser Segal

CEO ActiFi

Dale Sperling

CEO, Unico Real Estate Company

Jay Sleiter

CEO and Chairman, BWBR Architects

Jim Senegal

CEO & Chairman, Costco, Inc. (scheduled)

Mayo Shattuck

CEO & Chairman, Constellation Energy

Lynn Sontag

CEO MENTTIUM Corporation

Craig Ueland

CEO, The Russell Investment Group

Charlie Zelle

CEO & Chairman, Jefferson Bus Lines

Ed Zore

CEO & Chairman, Northwestern Mutual Ins. Group Christine

Steve Adler,

Senior Editor, Wall Street Journal

Jim Berrien

President, Forbes Magazine

Brenda Blake

VP International Payment Group, American Express

Walt Bradley

Financial Advisor, Thrivent Financial for Lutherans Sam Samuel Bronfman Former SVP of Seagrams, Inc.

George Brushaber

President, Bethel University

Kevin Carter

Director of Diversity, Safeco Insurance

Rick Clevett

VP HR, The Carlson Companies

Eric Drummond-Hay

Safeco Insurance

Dave Edwards

SVP International Information Management, American Express

Patrick Grace

Former SVP, The Grace Corporation

Jim Greenawalt

SVP Executive Development, Thomson Legal & Regulatory Group

Brian Heath

SVP & General Manager, American Express Financial Advisors

Lori Kaiser

SVP, Cray Computer Co.

M'Lynn Hoefer

SVP, MENTTIUM Corporation.

Mike Hughes

SVP of Underwriting, Safeco Insurance

Gary Kessler

SVP Human Resources Honda America

Diane Kozlak

Sales Executive, MENTTIUM 100 Group

Ken Krei

President, Wealth Management Group, M&I Bank

Karen Lane

Former Governor's Staff, State of Washington

Mike LaRocco

President Personal Lines, Safeco Insurance

Dale Lauer

President, Small Business Insurance, Safeco Ins.

Harvey Leuning

Associate Pastor, Gloria Dei Lutheran Church, St. Paul, MN

Ann Levinson

Deputy Director, Seattle Monorail Authority

Don MacPherson

Co-President of Modern Survey

Christine Mead

Chief Financial Officer, Safeco Insurance

Pam Moret

EVP of Products & Marketing, Thrivent Financial for Lutherans

Eric Morgan

SVP Lawson Software (Former)

Rowland Moriarity

Founding Director, Staples and Petsmart

Allie Mysliwy

SVP Human Resources, Safeco Insurance

Gary O'Hagen

President of Coaches Division, IMG

Carla Paulson

SVP of Human Resources, Bremer Financial Group Jim Porter SVP HR, The Carlson Companies

David Risher

Former SVP Amazon.com

Pat Roraback

VP, M&I Bank

Jim Ruddy

Chief Legal Officer, Safeco Insurance

herans

 

Joe Schiedt

VP, M&I Bank

John Schlifske

SVP Northwestern Mutual Insurance

Jim Thomsen

SVP Distribution, Thrivent Financial for Lut


Resource People

We greatly appreciate our many colleagues and mentors whose input has helped sharpen our thinking about the moral dimensions of leadership. They include:

Rick Aberman, Ph.D., psychologist, emotional intelligence expert and coauthor of Why Good Coaches Quit - And How You Can Stay in the Game

Jeffrey M. Baill, Attorney at Law, Yost and Baill LLP

Reuven Bar-On, Ph.D. , University of Texas Medical Branch, in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, where he directs research in emotional and social intelligence.

Richard Boyatzis, Ph.D., Professor and Chair of the Department of Organizational Behavior at the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University, and coauthor of Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence

Robert Caplan, Ph. D. Director, Beach Cities Health District, an organzation charged with promoting mental and physical wellness in three adjacent communities in Southern California.

Cary Cherniss, Ph.D., Director of the Rutgers University Organziational Psychology Program, professor of Applied Psychology and coauthor of The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace

Stephen Covey, Ph.D., author of The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People whose conversations with Doug in the early 1990's reinforced early versions of our alignment model

Robert Emmerling, PsyD, consultant and researcher specializing in the application of emotional intelligence concepts in the workplace.

Jim Garrison, president and cofounder (with Mikail Gorbalhev) of the State of the World Forum and author of America as Empire

Roy Geer, Ph.D., psychologist, consultant, and co-author (with Doug) of "How to Get What You Want and Remain True to Yourself"

Daniel Goleman, Ph.D. Codirector of the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations at Rutgers University, author of Emotional Intelligence, Working with Emotional Intelligence, and coauthor of Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence

Marilyn Gowing, Ph.D. Vice President for Public Sector Consulting and Services with the Washington office of AON Consulting.

Jennifer Hugstad-Vaa , Ph.D., professor, St. Mary's University Minnesota

Stuart Kantor, Ph.D. , co-founder and principal of Red Oak Consulting, an executive development firm..

Kathy Kram, Ph.D., professor of Organizational Behavior at the Boston University School of Management.

Richard Leider, founding partner of The Inventure Group and author of Repacking Your Bags, the Power of Purpose, and Life Skills

Jim Loehr, Ph.D., performance psychologist and coauthor of The Power of Full Engagement: Managing Energy, Not Time, Is the Key to High Performance and Personal Renewal and author of Stress for Success

Fred Luskin, Senior Fellow at the Stanford Center on Conflict and Negotiation cofounder of the  Stanford University Forgiveness Project and author of Forgive for Good

Rowland Moriarty, Ph.D., Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Cubex Corporation and former professor, Harvard Business School.

John Nicolay MBA, MBA instructor University of Minnesota

Richard Price, Ph.D. professor of Psychology and Business Administration at the University of Michigan and Senior Research Scientist at the Institute for Social Research

Tony Schwartz, coauthor of The Art of the Deal and The Power of Full Engagement: Managing Energy, Not Time, Is the Key to High Performance and Personal Renewal and

author of What Really Matters: Searching for Wisdom in America

Hersh Shefrin, Ph.D., professor of Finance at the Leavey School of Business, Santa Clara University and author of Beyond Greed and Fear

Lyle Spencer, Ph. D. President, Spencer Research and Technology, co-founder of Competency International, Cybertroncis Research Fellows, Director, Human Resource Technologies, author and independent

Jeff Stiefler, CEO Digital Insights

Kathryn Williams, Ph.D., co-founder and principal, KRW International

Redford Williams, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Professor of Medicine, and Director of the Behavioral Medicine Research Center at Duke University Medical Center.

Larry Wilson, founder of Wilson Learning and Pecos River Learning Center , author of The One Minute Sales Person, and Changing the Game: The New Way to Sell, and coauthor of Stop Selling, Start Partnering


Footnotes

1 These skills were highlighted in Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

2 List of those we interviewed and with whom we discussed book concepts appears at the end of the Introduction


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